2.1 DENSITY
2.2 PRESSURE
2.3 PASCALS LAW
2.4 ARCHIMEDES
PRINCIPLE
mass, m is measured in kilograms (kg)
volume, V is measured in cubic metres (m
3
)
density, is measured in kilograms per cubic
metres (kg/m
3
)
m
V
What is
density?
) (
) (
,
v volume
m mass
density =
Is defined as:
s.g= Density of substance
Density of water, 1000kgm
3
the unit is : no unit (dimensionless)
Find the mass and weight of the air in a
classroom at 24C with 10.0m x 8.0 m floor and
ceiling 3.0 m high.
Solution: given density of air = 1.20kg/m
3
m
air
=
air
x V
classroom
= (1.20kg/m
3
)((10x8x3)m
3
)
=288kg
Hence, weight of air: w=mg
=(288kg)(9.8m/s
2
)
=2822.4N
Calculate the volume of a liquid of mass 45 kg and
density 900 kg/m
3
.
= m / V
becomes:
V = m /
= 45 kg 900 kg/m
3
volume of liquid = 0.05 m
3
When a small stone is immersed into the water
inside a measuring cylinder the level increases
from 20.0 to 27.5 ml. Calculate the density of the
stone in g/cm
3
if its mass is 60g.
Volume of stone = (27.5 20.0) ml
= 7.5 cm
3
= m / V
= 60g / 7.5cm
3
density of the stone = 8.0 g/cm
3
Calculate the density in g/cm
3
and kg/m
3
of a
metal cylinder of radius 2cm, height 3cm and
mass 400g.
Volume of a cylinder = x r
2
x h
= x (2cm)
2
x 3cm
= 3.142 x 4 x 3
= 37.7 cm
3
= m / V
= 400 g / 37.7 cm
3
metal density = 10.6 g/cm
3
= 10 600 kg/m
3
9
5. (II) A bottle has a mass of 35.00 g when empty and
98.44 g when filled with water. When filled with
another fluid, the mass is 88.78 g. What is the specific
gravity of this other fluid?
Solution: Take the ratio of the density of the fluid to that of
water, noting that the same volume is used for both
liquids.
( )
( )
fluid fluid fluid
fluid
water water
water
88.78 g 35.00 g
0.8477
98.44 g 35.00 g
m V
m
SJ
m V m
= = = = =
SG
fluid
density mass volume
240 g 40 cm
3
3000 kg/m
3
4500 kg
0.80 g/cm
3
80 cm
3
9 kg 0.003 m
3
6 g/cm
3
3 g/cm
3
1.5 m
3
64 g
Complete:
Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:
Density is equal to ______ divided by _________ and can be
measured in kilograms per ______ metres.
A density of _______kg/m
3
is the same as a density of 1 g/cm
3
.
This is the density of ________.
The ________ of a stone can be measured by immersing the
stone into water. The volume of water ________ by the stone is
equal to the volume of the stone. The volume of the water
displaced is found using a _________ cylinder.
displaced
cubic
1000
mass water
volume
WORD SELECTION:
density measuring
displace
d
cubic
1000
mass
water
volume
density
measuring
When in fluid (either in liquid or gas) is at
rest, it exerts a force perpendicular to any
surface in contact with it, such as a cointaner
wall or the surface of a body immersed in it.
Consider a small surface of area, A and a
normal force, Fn exerted by the fluid
perpecdicular to the surface:
Pressure, P at any point is defined as the
normal force per unit are: P=F/A
The SI unit: N/m
2
or Pascal, Pa
1 atm = 1.013 x 10
5
Pa or 15 lbs/in
2
*One atmosphere is the pressure exerted on us every day
by the earths atmosphere.
pressure = force
area
p = F
A
units:
force, F newtons (N)
area, A metres squared (m
2
)
pressure, p pascals (Pa)
14
The pressure is the same in every
direction in a fluid at a given depth.
Pressure varies with depth.
P = F = Ahg so P = gh
A A
15
A FLUID AT REST EXERTS
PRESSURE PERPENDICULAR TO
ANY SURFACE THAT IT CONTACTS.
THERE IS NO PARALLEL
COMPONENT THAT WOULD CAUSE
A FLUID AT REST TO FLOW.
16
9. (I) (a) Calculate the total force of the atmosphere
acting on the top of a table that measures
(b) What is the total force acting upward on the
underside of the table?
9. (a) The total force of the atmosphere on the table
will be the air pressure times the area of the table.
( )
( )( )
5 2 5
1.013 10 N m 1.6 m 2.9 m 4.7 10 N F PA = = =
(b) Since the atmospheric pressure is the same on the underside of the table (the
height difference is minimal), the upward force of air pressure is the same as the
downward force of air on the top of the table,
5
4.7 10 N
m. 2.9 m 6 . 1
The pressure P1 on the surface of the water is 1
atm, or 1.013 x 105 Pa. If we go down to a depth h
below the surface, the pressure becomes greater
by the product of the density of the water , the
acceleration due to gravity g, and the depth h.
Thus the pressure P2 at this depth is
h
h
h
p
2
p
2
p
2
p
1
p
1
p
1
gh p p + =
1 2
18
In this case, p2 is called the absolute pressure  the
total static pressure at a certain depth in a fluid, including
the pressure at the surface of the fluid
The difference in pressure between the surface and the
depth h is gauge pressure
gh p p =
1 2
Note that the pressure at any depth does not depend of the
shape of the container, only the pressure at some reference
level (like the surface) and the vertical distance below that
level.
h h h
p
2
p
2
p
2
p
1
p
1
p
1
14.(II) What are the total force and the absolute
pressure on the bottom of a swimming pool 22.0
m by 8.5 m whose uniform depth is 2.0 m? (b)
What will be the pressure against the side of the
pool near the bottom?
19
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
5 2 3 3 2
0
5 2
5 2 7
1.013 10 N m 1.00 10 kg m 9.80m s 2.0 m
1.21 10 N m
1.21 10 N m 22.0 m 8.5 m 2.3 10 N
P P gh
F PA
= + = +
=
= = =
20
(b) The pressure against the side of the pool, near
the bottom, will be the same as the pressure at the
bottom,
5 2
1.21 10 N m P =
21
Pascals Principle  if an external pressure is applied to a
confined fluid, the pressure at every point within the fluid
increases by that amount. Applications: hydraulic lift and
brakes
Pout = Pin
And since P = F/a
Fout = Fin
Aout Ain
Mechanical Advantage:
Fout = Aout
Fin Ain
22
2.4 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle
This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a
net force on the object because the pressures at
the top and bottom of it are different.
The buoyant force is
found to be the upward
force on the same volume
of water:
23
The net force on the object is then the difference
between the buoyant force and the gravitational
force.
24
If the objects density is less than that of water,
there will be an upward net force on it, and it will
rise until it is partially out of the water.
25
For a floating object, the fraction that is
submerged is given by the ratio of the objects
density to that of the fluid.
SINKING AND FLOATING OBJECTS
The reading of
spring balance is 2.7 N
The reading of
spring balance is 1.7 N
What is the reading of spring balance
if the wood is attached to it ?
ZERO
Buoyant force = weight the object floats and stationary
Buoyant force > weight the object moves up
Buoyant force < weight the object moves down
A floating object displaces its own weight of fluid
in which it floats.
warm fresh
water
cold fresh
water
warm sea
water
cold sea
water
THINK!!!!!
1. Why the depth of ship immersed in the water different?
Fresh water less dense than sea water and
warm water less dense than coldwater so
warm fresh water need to be displaced more
to keep the uptrust force equal with weight of
the boat so it still can float.
2. If the plasticine is formed into a ball, it will sink.
But when it is formed into a hull it will float. Why?

BECAUSE..
APPLICATIONS
Hot air balloon
1. rises upwards
(Upthrust > Weight of hot air (helium gas) +
weight of airship fabric + weight of gondola +
weight of passengers.)( balloon expand)
2..descends
(Upthrust < Weight of hot air (helium gas) +
weight of airship fabric + weight of gondola +
weight of passengers.)(balloon shrinks)
3. stationary
(Upthrust = Weight of hot air (helium gas) +
weight of airship fabric + weight of gondola +
weight of passengers.)( balloon size uncanged)
The density of sea water varies with location
and season. To ensure that a ship is loaded
within safe limits , the Plimsoll line marked
on the body of the ship acts as a guide.
PLIMSOLL LINE OF THE SHIP
If ballast tanks empty Upthrust > weight submarine rises to surface
If ballast tanks full Upthrust < weight submarine sinks to bottom
SUBMARINE
An hydrometer is an instrument
used to measure the density of a
liquid.
In a liquid of lesser density , the hydrometer is more submerged.
The hydrometer floats higher in a liquid of higher density.
lead shot to make it float upright
39
22. (I) A geologist finds that a Moon rock whose
mass is 9.28 kg has an apparent mass of 6.18 kg
when submerged in water. What is the density of the
rock?
22. The difference in the actual mass and the apparent mass is the
mass of the water displaced by the rock. The mass of the water
displaced is the volume of the rock times the density of water, and
the volume of the rock is the mass of the rock divided by its density.
Combining these relationships yields an expression for the density of
the rock.
( )
rock
actual apparent water rock water
rock
3 3 3 3
rock
rock water
9.28kg
1.00 10 kg m 2.99 10 kg m
9.28 kg 6.18 kg
m
m m m V
m
m
= A = =
= = =
A
40
24.(II) A crane lifts the 18,000kg steel hull of a ship out of
the water. Determine (a) the tension in the cranes cable
when the hull is submerged in the water, and (b) the
tension when the hull is completely out of the water.
24.(a) When the hull is submerged, both the buoyant force
and the tension force act upward on the hull, and so their
sum is equal to the weight of the hull. The buoyant force
is the weight of the water displaced.
( )( )
buoyant
hull water
buoyant hull water sub hull water hull
hull hull
3 3
4 2 5 5
3 3
1
1.00 10 kg m
1.8 10 kg 9.80m s 1 1.538 10 N 1.5 10 N
7.8 10 kg m
T F mg
m
T mg F m g V g m g g m g
+ =
= = = =
= = ~
 

\ .
 

\ .
41
24. (b)When the hull is completely out of the water,
the tension in the cranes cable must be equal to the
weight of the hull.
( )( )
4 2 5 5
1.8 10 kg 9.80m s 1.764 10 N 1.8 10 N T mg = = = ~
42
34.(III) A 5.25kg piece of wood
floats on water. What minimum mass of lead, hung from
the wood by a string, will cause it to sink?
34.For the combination to just barely sink, the total weight
of the wood and lead must be equal to the total buoyant
force on the wood and the lead.
( ) 0.50 SG =
weight buoyant wood Pb wood water Pb water
wood Pb water water
wood Pb water water Pb wood
wood Pb Pb wood
1 1
F F m g m g V g V g
m m
m m m m
= + = +
+ = + =
   
 
\ . \ .
( )
water
wood wood
Pb wood wood
water
Pb Pb
1
1
1 1
1
0.50
5.25kg 5.76kg
1
1
1
1 1
11.3
SG
m m m
SG
= = = =
   
 
 

\ . \ . \ .
     

 
\ .
\ . \ .