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Purpose of this presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to point out the main sources that are susceptible to cause 3G UL interference, as well as the best practices that can help finding and solving them. The UL RSSI counters are Ericsson performance indicators designed to identify cells that experience abnormal high or low interference levels. Site visits might still be required and could potentially provide additional important information The site design and parameter configurations play an important part in RSSI troubleshooting. Components that impact the UL RSSI are, for example: Indoor Distributed Antenna System (DAS) Ericsson Diplexer-Duplexer units (DDU) Receive Antenna Interface Tray (RX-AIT)

Enhanced Uplink (EUL) represents an important step towards mobile broadband services. Ensuring the UL interference is kept under control, will ensure no serious limitation exists over services performance in P5MD.

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What is UL RSSI? Received Signal Strength Indicator of the total wideband received power within the entire channel bandwidth

Note that RSSI does not distinguish between own, other, or any other unwanted internal or external interference

How is UL RSSI measured in the Ericsson system? The RSSI is measured every 100 ms. An average value is then calculated every second and stored as a PDF step range, [65] long (-110 to -65 dBm, with the resolutions 0.5 dBm and 5 dBm). Counter pmaverageRSSI, MO Class Carrier and incremented on the RBS level

## How high is the actual noise floor for an unloaded system?

The expected uplink interference level in an unloaded system is given by thermal noise (kTB = -174 dBm/Hz) plus the ASC Noise Figure of the Node B (~2 dB)
Thus the Receiver Noise Density = -174 + 2 = -172 dBm/Hz. The total effective noise = -172 + 10*log(3,840,000) = -106 dBm

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What impact will my traffic load have on the RSSI? If the system load (Mpole) is increased to 50%, a 3dB Noise rise can be expected
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## Noise rise [dB]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

This means we can expect a uplink interference level of -106 + 3 = -103 dBm

How does the system configurable parameters affect the RSSI? No TMA: ValueReported = ValueMeasured in RBS + ULAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable With TMA: ValueReported = ValueMeasured in RBS + ULAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable ULGainMO:ExternalTMA So if we assume a RBS without a TMA, and the ULAttenuation set to 3 dB, then we should investigate if the RSSI increase over -103 + 3 = -100 dBm

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100

What is new in P5MD?

RBS P5ED
New

RBS P5MD

New

RNC P5MD

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Selecting sites for troubleshooting
Investigate sites with reported RSSI values outside the normal* range: *The normal range depends on the market design and traffic load

Low RSSI This example site is considered deaf since all samples are below -110 dBm
Normal

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1. 2. No IP communication (unable to ftp xml from the site) Component failures: i. ii. Cable, connectors and/or diplexers Antenna

iii. TMA iv. RX-AIT v. 3. 4. Distributed antenna system (DAS) Incorrect parameter settings Incorrect installation

Sites that are not integrated or locked, wont show any counter values

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Case L1
TMA not powered

Notes The TMA power to this site was not enabled, causing a low RSSI. This was corrected on 6/19

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1. Internal Causes i. ii. RBS Internal Interference (Case H1) Faulty diplexers (Case H2, H3)

iii. Faulty Antenna/TMA (Case H4) iv. Incorrect parameter settings (Case H5) v. 2. Incorrect installation (Case H6, H7, H8, H9) vi. Traffic load (Case H10) External Causes i. ii. GSM Interference (Case H11) High sites (Case 12)

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Case H1
RBS Internal Interference

Notes In order to eliminate possible interference created internally to the RBS, the RF jumper ports can be connected to a spectrum analyzer or a dummy load If the RSSI values of the site returns to normal, it means interference is generated external to the RBS In case of the RBS3202, the set of connectors H1, H2 and H3 are related to Rx Diversity, while J1, J2 and J3 are the ones with Tx/Rx combined. In the case of the RBS3206, the lower cables are the ones with the Rx Diversity, while the upper ones are the Tx/Rx branch

RF Cable connection

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Case H2
Faulty Diplexers

SFL RSSI tracker during Rollout Notes A faulty diplexer can cause unwanted interference on the uplink. The SFL team found a specific RSS diplexer model that increased the uplink interference. Once these were replaced, the UL RSSI recovered

Before

Before

Before

After

After

Vs.

Vs.

Vs.

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After

Case H3
Faulty Diplexers

Notes The Tampa team found a bad diplexer on 6/9, and replaced it. The average RSSI remained within the normal range afterward

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Case H4
Faulty Antenna/TMA

Notes A TMA or an Antenna can also be a source of interference. TMAs are usually replaced, while Antennae dont typically fail.

TMA

Troubleshooting can commence using dummy loads and/or a spectrum analyzer to isolated the source of interference

RBS

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Case H5
Incorrect parameter settings

Notes When using a RX-AIT or/and a TMA, it is important to ensure the configurations are set correctly in the RBS Typically, the RX-AIT uplink gain is 10 dB for 1900 MHz and 20 dB for 850 MHz. The attenuator loss is typically 4 dB, unless it is a 850 MHz installation with a TMA, where the attenuation will be 15 dB

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Case H5
Incorrect parameter settings

6 dB

A Cluster in Charlotte got the ULAttenuator values fixed to include the 6 dB gain

6 dB

If a site reports 6 dB lower RSSI than other cells, it could be that that RX-AIT is down

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Case H5
Incorrect parameter settings
System configuration calculations
DlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_Loss + RXAIT_Losses_DL
TMA

TMA

## ULGainMO:ExternalTma = 12 dB (typical value)

DlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_Loss + RXAIT_Losses_DL + Jumper_loss

TMA

ULAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_Loss + RXAIT_Losses_UL + Jumper_loss ULGainMO:ExternalTma = RXAIT_Gain (need to define the TMA object)

DlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_loss
UlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_Loss DlAttenuationMO:ExternalTMA = TMA_Ins_Loss ULGainMO:ExternalTma = 12 dB (typical value) DlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_loss + Jumper_loss UlAttenuationMO:AntFeederCable = Feeder_Loss + Jumper_loss

TMA

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Case H6
Faulty installation

Notes During the design of the antenna sharing solution it was identified that the RX path to the UMTS receiver would require 15dB attenuation to prevent the receivers from being over powered. These attenuators were never installed for this example site. This resulted in the average RSSI of 88dBm on all affected sectors.

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Case H7
Faulty installation
Notes The Tampa team added the correct attenuator pads, and this moved the UL RSSI to the expected range

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Case H8
Faulty installation
Notes This Atlanta design called for an attenuator to be installed with the Distributed Antenna System (DAS). This was never completed, resulting in a high UL RSSI

GA6363 & GA6364 - Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport LGC Neutral Host
1900 MHz
Atrium
(+8 dBm) Tx Rx

T Gates
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Concourse A
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Concourse B
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Concourse C
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Concourse D
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Concourse E
(+5 dBm) Tx Rx

Tunnel
(+8 dBm) Tx Rx

2 to 1 Splitter

2 to 1 Splitter

2 to 1 Splitter

2 to 1 Splitter

## Attenuator 2 to 1 Splitter Attenuator Attenuator Attenuator

xx dB 2W
Attenuator Attenuator

xx dB 2W xx dB 2W
Attenuator Attenuator

xx dB 2W

Attenuator

xx dB 2W
Attenuator

Attenuator

Attenuator

Attenuator Specifications: Meca 650-30-1F4 30 dB, 50 W N-type connections Female N Male Female N Male

30 dB 50 W

30 dB 50 W

30 dB 50 W

xx dB 2W
Attenuator

Female N Male

xx dB 2W

30 dB 50 W

30 dB 50 W

30 dB 50 W

Attenuator

30 dB 50 W

Notes:
1) LGC will need to be on-site during commissioning to set proper levels 2) No Rx Diversity - the A branch is used for Tx & the B branch is used for Rx 3) DL TX Power is limited to the amount specified for each zone (+5 dBm). The second attenuator (xx dB) will need to be measured on site and ordered then in order to be exact. The second attenuator

F U

F U

F U

F U

F U

F U

R U

R U

R U

R U

R U

R U

GA6363
3206 x 1900 3 sectors (X, Y, Z) 1 RU per sector

GA6364
3206 x 1900 3 sectors (X, Y, Z) 1 RU per sector

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Case H9
Faulty installation
Notes This site example had cabling problems affecting GSM as well. The Tampa team corrected it, and this restored the UL RSSI

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Case H10
Impact of Traffic load on the UL Interference

Notes If the noise rise is higher than 3-4 dB while the load is less than 50-60%, then further investigation should be performed. Neighboring cells and external interference are examples that may cause the increase

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Case H11
GSM Interference
200kHz GSM spikes will impact the RTWP on UMTS

TelCel, a mexican operator, was using the same band as Cingulars UMTS network

Mexican border

High interference
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Case H11
GSM Interference (continue)
10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM
-101.82 -103.42

1:00 AM

2:00 AM

3:00 AM

4:00 AM

5:00 AM

6:00 AM

7:00 AM

8:00 AM

9:00 AM

1:00 PM

2:00 PM

3:00 PM

4:00 PM

5:00 PM

6:00 PM

7:00 PM

8:00 PM

-85.00 -87.00 -89.00 -91.00 -93.00 -95.00 -97.00 -99.00 -101.00 -103.00 -105.00
UL RSSI measured by sites experiencing GSM interference Ave. UL RSSI measured by sites with configuration issues Ave. Network UL RSSI
-101.57 -99.52 -99.23 -98.73 -99.33 -96.13 -97.13 -96.13

9:00 PM

Notes Narrow band GSM interference is easily identified by the fact that the reported UL RSSI follows a similar pattern to the GSM traffic profile

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Case H12
High sites

## Mount Soledad High site (2400ft)

Notes

High sites normally share the tower with multiple technologies. Unwanted coupling is always a risk if minimum separation between antennas are not maintained.
Containing this site is almost impossible due to its relative height. This sector was measuring UL RSSI at -97dBm while the surrounding sites were reporting the noise floor at -104dBm.

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Case H13
External interference

San Antonio
Notes More than 280 sectors were affected in San Antonio Ave. RSSI was generally acceptable, but the No. samples >= -90.5 to -90 dBm indicated that there was an external interferer present

1500 ft broadcast tower was identified as the cause for this network wide harmonic interferer
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