}
dx x f
a b
b
a
If f(x) = sin x and integrating for x between x = 0 and x =
2
t
gives
 
2
1
2
2
0
sin
0 2 /
1
}
dx x
t
t
=
 
2
1
2
0
) 2 cos 1 (
2
)
`
}
dx x
t
t
=
2
1
2
1
)
`
t
t
=
2
1
Mean power of a.c.
Mean power P
ac
= I
r
2
R = (I
0
/\2)
2
.R = 1/2 ( I
0
2
R ) = 1/2 P
0
That is, mean power is half the maximum power or peak power for an a.c. passing
through a resistive load.
V = V
0.
sin et I = I
0.
sin et
0 t
P
I
0
2
R P =( I
0
2
.sin
2
et).R
1/2 I
0
2
R
0 t
Example
A 1.5 kW heater is connected to the domestic supply which is quoted as 240
V. Calculate the peak current in the heater, and its resistance.
Solution
From P = V
rms
x I
rms
, I
rms
= 1500/240 = 6.3 A
Hence peak current I
0
is 6.3 x 1.414 = 8.8 A
and the resistance R = V
rms
/I
rms
= 240/6.3 = 38 ohms
Transformer principles
A transformer is a device used for steppingup (or down) an a.c. supply
voltage using the Mutual Induction Principle. Basically it consists of two coils
of wires, one called the primary and the other the secondary, of an
appropriate number of turns. These coils normally wind round a laminated
softiron core for better permeability of the magnetic field or flux linkage of
the two coils giving a higher flux.
When an alternating voltage V
p
is applied to the primary coil, it sets up a
fluctuating magnetic field which in turn induces a back e.m.f. E
p
. The current
I
p
in the primary coil is given by:
V
p
 E
p
= I
p
.R
p
( R
p
= primary coil resistance )
As u
p
= N
p

E
p
= du
p
/dt = N
p
d/dt
For an ideal transformer, R
p
~ 0 giving V
p
~ E
p
.
i.e. V
p
= N
p
d/dt
where N
p
is the number of turns in the primary coil and  the flux in the iron
core linking the coils.
cont..
At the secondary coil where it is connected to a load, the output voltage V
s
is
given by:
V
s
= E
s
 I
s
R
s
( R
s
= secondary coil resistance )
and E
s
is the mutually induced e.m.f. in the secondary coil.
E
s
= du
s
/dt = N
s
d/dt
Again, for an ideal transformer, R
s
~ 0 giving V
s
~ E
s
.
i.e. V
s
= N
s
d/dt
V
s
/V
p
= N
s
/N
p
cont..
The voltage V
p
applied to the primary, from the source current, is used
simply in overcoming the backe.m.f. E
p
., if we neglect the resistance of the
wire. Therefore, it is equal in magnitude to E
p
. (This is analogous to saying,
in mechanics, that action and reaction are equal and opposite.)
For an ideal transformer (i.e. 100% efficient), the power supply in the primary
coil will be fully transferred to the secondary output.
Hence: V
p
I
p
= V
s
I
s
or V
s
/V
p
= I
p
/I
s
Thus for an ideal transformer,
So the transformer steps voltage up or down according to its 'turnsratio'.
The voltage may be stepped up from 25,000 to 400,000 volts for high
tension transmission and stepped down from 240 V to 6 V for ringing bells.
s
p
p
s
p
s
I
I
N
N
V
V
= = =
primary in voltage Applied
secondary in e.m.f. Induced
Energy Losses and Efficiency in Transformer
There are 4 main losses:
(a)Heat is lost in coils (primary and secondary) due to resistance of the
windings. For transformers handling very high electrical power, the windings
are made of very thick wires to reduce power lost as heat. The windings are
insulated and immersed in oil for cooling purpose.
(b)The alternating flux  in the primary induces eddy current in the iron core that
causes heat loss.
(c) The magnetisation and demagnetisation of the iron core give rise to the
hysteresis loss and hence power loss.
(d)When the flux produced by the primary is not 100% linked to the secondary,
then the input electrical power will not be fully transferred to the secondary
output as flux leakage occurs. (does not pass through iron core).
Efficiency = (power in secondary/power in primary) x 100%
Electrical power transmission
When electricity is transmitted from a source, such as a power station to a
distant load, such as a factory or household, power is lost as Joule heating
I
2
R through the transmission cables where R is the total resistance of the
cables.
Suppose the electrical power generated P
gen
is to be delivered at a p.d. of V
by the supply lines of total resistance R. The current in the supply line will
be:
I = P
gen
/V
Hence, the power loss as heat will be given by:
P
loss
= I
2
R = (P
gen
/V)
2
R
The equation indicates that for lower power loss, V has to be high in value.
Hence for economic reasons, transmission must be at high V and low I state.
But a low I means a thicker and costlier cable while higher voltage will result
in higher insulation cost. The result is a solution taking cable resistance, the
voltage of transfer and insulation cost into consideration.
Example
(1) A power station generates a power of 200 MW at a potential difference of
400 kV. This input power is transmitted to a distant town through a pair of
overhead lines whose total resistance is 5.0 O.
(a) Calculate (i) the current in the wires (ii) the voltage between the terminals
at the far end of the lines.
(b) State, in each case, a reason why the designers of the transmission
system did not choose an input voltage of: (i) 240 V (ii) 2.0 MV.
(c) (i) Give one example of a situation where it is essential to route power
cables underground. (ii) State one disadvantage, other than high cost, of
laying power cables underground.
Solution
(a) (i) I = P/V = 200 x 10
6
/(400 X 10
3
) = 500 A
(ii) Voltage drop = IR = 500 x 5.0 = 2500 = 2.5 kV
Voltage between terminals at far end of lines = 400 2.5 = 397.5 kV
(b) (i) Current high, hence requires thick expensive cables.
(ii) Need tall pylons, wide cables spacing, costly insulation, possible
discharge in air.
(c) (i) Airfields; wide stretches of water.
(ii) Difficult to dissipate heat; insulation problems; risk of damage by
digger; difficulty of access if faults arise; biological effects of
electric/magnetic fields/radiation from currents near ground level.
Electrocution
Electrocution is actually due to the amount of current that flows through the
body.
The amount of current depends on the resistance offered by the person
between the wire and the earth.
A current of 0.1 A is able to cause death due to fibrillation (uncontrolled
contractions of the heart).
People touching live wires may get their hand stuck to the wire due to
contraction of the muscles. It is therefore current, not voltage, which is
dangerous.
Rectification
A.C. is important and useful in power generation and distribution since a.c.
can be stepped up for minimum powerloss transmission.
For electrical and electronic devices operating on d.c. sources only (e.g.
radio, television, computers etc.), rectification of the a.c. (i.e. to change it to
d.c.) is necessary through use of appropriate rectifiers (diodes)
Alternating current can be converted to direct current (i.e. rectified) by
making use of devices which conduct appreciable amounts of current in one
direction only. Such devices are called rectifiers and include thermionic
diodes, metal rectifiers and semiconductor diodes.
A rectifier is an electrical device which converts alternating current to
direct current, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers are used as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals.
Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury
arc valves, and other technologies.
cont..
A rectifier is said to be forwardbiased when it is
connected to a power supply in such a way that it
conducts. If connected the other way, the rectifier is
reversebiased. The currentvoltage curve of a
typical rectifier is shown below:
Current through rectifier
Lowresistance when
Forwardbiased
O PD across rectifier
Highresistance when reversebiased
Halfwave rectification by a single diode
The rectifier conducts only during the
half cycle which means that the output
across the load will consist of only the
positive halfcycles. Although the
output is pulsating, it is unidirectional,
i.e. direct current.
X
Alternating supply ~ Load
Y
Supply PD
O t
PD across
load
O t
Fullwave rectification
It is more satisfactory also to make use of
the negative halcycles as well and this can
be achieved by using an arrangement of 4
rectifiers (diodes) known as a bridge
rectifier.
When P is positive, diodes across PQ and
SR conduct; when R is positive, diodes
across RQ and SP conduct. In each case the
current through the load is in the same
direction from Q to S. The p.d. across the
load has the form shown below.
Thus, fullwave rectification allows the
load to draw current from the supply on
each half of each cycle and therefore the
power that can be utilized is double that
achieved with halfwave rectification.
P.D. across
load
O t
Smoothing by a single capacitor
The pulsating unidirectional rectified current output produced by both half
wave and fullwave rectifiers is still not a good approximation to the steady
direct current required for most electronic equipment
It can be made more steady (smoothed) by inserting a suitable capacitor in
parallel with the load or across the output terminals of the bridge circuit
The effect is to reduce the fluctuations in the unidirectional output
Generally a larger value of the capacitor will give better smoothing although the
more important factor is the resistorcapacitor timeconstant
X
Pulsating ~ Smoothing Load Current
Rectified p.d. capacitor
cont..
cont..
As the rectifier voltage increases, it charges the capacitor and also supplies current to
the load. At the end of the quarter cycle the capacitor is charged to its peak value V
m
of
the rectifier voltage. Following this the rectifier voltage starts to decrease as it enters
the next quarter cycle. This initiates the discharge of the capacitor through the load.
At points such as A the p.d. across the load has just reached its maximum value. If the
capacitor were not present, the p.d. would start to fall to zero along the broken curve.
However, as soon as the p.d. across the load starts to fall, it becomes less than that
across the capacitor and the capacitor starts to discharge through the load. Since the
charging process causes plate X to be positive, the discharge drives current through the
load in the same direction as it flowed during charging.
P.D. across Smoothed p.d.
load A Ripple
voltage
O time
Unsmoothed half wave rectified p.d.
P.D. across
Load A Smoothed p.d.
O time
Unsmoothed half wave rectified p.d.
A