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Material Properties Stress in Beams Transformed Sections Analysis by WSD Design by WSD

Structures II

Slide 2/23

Constituents of Concrete

Sand Aggregate Cement Water Fine aggregate (Sand) 1/4

~ 3/8 aggregate

Photos: CC:BY-SA Emadrazo (wikipedia) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 3/23

Constituents of Concrete

Sand Aggregate Water Cement Limestone Cement rock Clay Iron ore + (after firing and grinding) gypsum

Cement Types

Type 1 normal portland cement. Type 1 is a general use cement. Type 2 is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate, or when heat build-up is a concern. Type 3 high early strength. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods. Type 4 low heat portland cement. Used where the amount and rate of heat generation must be kept to a minimum. Type 5 Sulfate resistant portland cement. Used where water or soil is high in alkali. Types IA, IIA and IIIA are cements used to make air-entrained concrete.

Structures II

Slide 4/23

Workability

Measured by the inches of slump of a molded cone of fresh mix.

range 1 to 4 with vibration 2 to 6 without vibration

Water/Cement Ratio

range 0.4 to 0.7 for strength: higher is weaker for workability: higher is better

Cement Content

LBS per cubic yard range 400-800 dependent on aggregate increases cost

Photos: CC:BY-SA Tano (wikipedia) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 5/23

Reinforcing

Grade = Yield strength

Deformation Patterns

add to bond with concrete

Spacing

between bars

Bar diameter 1 5/4 x max agg.

between layers

1

coverage

3 against soil 1.5-2 exterior 3/4 interior

Reinforcement of Weidatalbrcke CC:BY-SA Strfix (wikipedia) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Structures II

Slide 6/23

Curing

Strength increases with age. The design strength is 28 days.

Structures II

Slide 7/23

Strength Measurement

Compressive strength

12x6 cylinder 28 day moist cure Ultimate (failure) strength

f c'

Tensile strength

' 12x6 cylinder f t 28 day moist cure Ultimate (failure) strength Split cylinder test Ca. 10% to 20% of fc

Structures II

Slide 8/23

Youngs Modulus

Depends on density and strength

Ec w 33 f

1.5 c

' c

Ec 57000 f

Examples fc 3000 psi 4000 psi 5000 psi

' c

Reinforcement must be placed to resist these tensile forces In beams continuous over supports, the stress reverses (negative moment). In such areas, tensile steel is on top.

Shear reinforcement is provided by vertical or sloping stirrups. Cover protects the steel. Adequate spacing allows consistent casting.

Structures II

Slide 10/23

Assumptions:

Plane sections remain plane Hookes Law applies Concrete tensile strength is neglected Concrete and steel are totally bonded

Concrete = 0.45fc Steel = 20 ksi for gr. 40 or gr. 50 = 24 ksi for gr. 60

Transformed Section

Steel is converted to equivalent concrete.

Es n Ec

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 11/23

Flexure Analysis

Procedure: 1. Assume the section is cracked to the N.A 2. Determine the modular ratio:

b Ac fc

_ xc

N.A.

Es n Ec

3. Transform the area of steel to equivalent concrete, nAs 4. Calculate the location of the N.A. using the balanced tension and compression to solve for x.

Ac xc At xt

5. Calculate the transformed Moment of Inertia. 6. Calculate a maximum moment based first on the allowable conc. stress and again on the allowable steel stress. 7. The lesser of the two moments will control.

University of Michigan, TCAUP

bx3 2 I tr nAs d x 3

Structures II

f c I tr Mc cc

cc x

f s I tr Ms nct

ct d x

Slide 12/23

1. Assume the section is cracked to the N.A. 2. Determine the transformation ratio, n 3. Transform the area of steel to equivalent concrete, nAs

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 13/23

cont.

4. Calculate the N.A. using the balanced tension and compression to solve for x. Acxc = Atxt

Structures II

Slide 14/23

cont.

Structures II

Slide 15/23

cont.

6. Calculate a maximum moment based first on the allowable concrete stress and again on the allowable steel stress. 7. The lesser of the two moments will control.

Structures II

Slide 16/23

Effect of r

The behavior of the beam at failure (mode of failure) is determined by the relative amount of steel present measured by r.

As r bd

r=0

No steel used. Brittle (sudden) failure.

r min

Just enough steel to prevent brittle failure

r < r balance

r balance = r max

Steel and concrete both stressed to allowable limit

r m ax rbalanced

r > r balance

Structures II

Slide 17/23

Calculate r balance

Procedure: 1. Draw stress diagram using allowable stresses fc and fs/n 2. Use similar triangles to find x and bar_xs 3. Find bar_xc = x/2 4. Use moments of areas on transformed section to solve for As. 5. Calculate r bal = As/bd

Structures II

Slide 18/23

Uses the internal force couple T & C to determine the moment Defines factors k and j that can be used to find depth of stress block and moment arm of couple Provides equations for analysis or design.

As r bd

Es n Ec

Structures II

Slide 19/23

Example : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Find r =As/bd Find k Calculate j Calculate either force T or C Calculate M using either T or C

Structures II

Slide 20/23

Flexure Design

Procedure: 1. Determine load conditions.

choose material grade, fc calculate n = Es/Ec estimate size, choose b and estimate d

1 b 2 2 d 3

determine loads (+ member DL) calculate moment

2. Choose a target steel ratio, . 3. Sketch the stress diagram with force couple. 4. Calculate d based on the required moment. 5. Calculate As. 6. Choose bar sizes and spacing. 7. Choose beam size and revise (back to step 1 with new b, d and ) . University of Michigan, TCAUP

Structures II

Slide 21/23

1. As a simplification the moment is given = 200 ft-k. d will be determined based on the moment.

n is found = 8.

Structures II

Slide 22/23

2. Steel ratio, As/bd is taken as balanced for this problem.

3. Using similar triangles, determine depth of reinforcement, D in relationship to depth of compression zone, x. Calculate the compression zone resultant, Rc in terms of x Rc = fcBx/2 4. Use the internal moment couple

cont.

M = Rc(D-x/3)

to solve for x and D.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Structures II

Slide 23/23

cont.

Area >= As c.g. = D must be symetric minimum spacing

Source: ACI-318-05 University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 24/23

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