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Arc welding

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ARC COLUMN CONDITION FOR MAX.UTILISATION OF POWER METAL INERT GAS WELDING (M.I.G) TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING (T.I.G) RESISTANCE WELDING STUD WELDING SOLDERING & BRAZING

INTRODUCTION
Welding is the process of joining two materials with or without application of heat, pressure or filler material.

ARC WELDING EQUIPMENTS


AC or DC machine Electrode Electrode holder Cables, cable connectors Cable lug Chipping hammer Earthlings clamps Wire brush Helmet Safety goggles Hand gloves Aprons, sleeves.

WELDING CLASSIFICATION
WELDING

FUSION WELDING
(WITHOUT PRESSURE)

NON-FUSION WELDING
(WITH PRESSURE)

ARC

GAS

THERMIT (CHEMICAL)

HEAT

COLD PRESSURE WELDING

A.C. D.C. TIG MIG SAW

Oxy- C2H2 Oxy-H2 Air-C2H2

BLACKSMITH FORGE

RESISTANCE WELDING

ELECTRODES FOR ARC WELDING

Basically electrodes are classified into

1. consumable electrode a. Bare electrode b. Coated electrode 2. Non-consumable electrode

Specification of electrode

% ELONGATION

STRENGTH OF ELECTRODE CURRENT CONDITIONS WELDING POSITION TYPE OF COATING

ARC COLUMN
The arc column is generated between an anode, which is the positive pole of D.C.power supply and the cathode. ELECTRICAL THEORY OF ARC COLUMN Approximately 1Kw-hr of electricity will create 3413 Btu, i.e.3.6MJ of heat will be liberated. Three areas of heat are liberated in the arc stream. Cathode area Plasma area Anode area Of the above anode area is the high heat area.

INITIATION OF ARC

TYPES OF WELDS

METAL INERT GAS WELDING

WORKING PRINCIPLE Metal inert gas welding or Gas metal-arc welding is a gas shielded metal-arc welding process, which uses the high heat of an electric arc between a continuously fed, consumable electrode wire and the material to be welded in the presence of an inert gas.
CURRENT RANGE: 100 to 400A

Welding wire

: citofil of diameter of 0.9 to 1.6mm

Block Diagram of MIG welding

Working Principle

MIG welding is done in combination of

For welding aluminium/copper, argon or argon-helium mixtures are used. For stainless steel, argon-oxygen or heliumargon gas mixtures are used. Titanium requires pure argon gas shielding. Copper-nickel and high-nickel alloys use argon-helium mixture.

ADVANTAGES OF MIG
No flux required. High welding speed. Increased corrosion resistance. Easily automated welding. Welds all metals including aluminium and stainless steel. High economy. Up to 25-30 mm plates can be welded in single pass.

TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING


WORKING PRINCIPLE This process uses the intense heat of an electric arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the material to be welded. The shielding is obtained from an inert gas such as helium or argon or a mixture of two. ELECTRODE: Tungsten FLUX : Argon or Helium ( Inert gas) The TIG process lends itself able to the fusion welding of aluminium and it's alloys, stainless-steel, magnesium alloys, nickel base alloys, copper base alloys, carbon steels. TIG welding can also be used for the combining of dissimilar metals, hard facing, and the surfacing of metals. But this process is not used, as often on plate over 6.4 mm thick, but it is easier than MIG welding for thin plates and small parts. In general, an AC power source is best for TIG welding non-ferrous alloys except deoxidized copper. For ferrous alloys the DC power with straight polarity is better.

ADVANTAGES OF TIG WELDING

It produces high quality welds in non-ferrous metals. Practically no weld cleaning is necessary. The arc and weld pool are clearly visible to the welder. Developed for most reactive materials.

DISADVANTAGES OF TIG WELDING

DISADVANTAGES

The flux needs preplanning of the same on the joint that is not always possible. The process is limited to welding in flat position and on metal more than 4.8 mm thick. Flux is subject to contamination that may cause weld porosity.

Coated electrodes serve several purposes


To facilitate the establishment and maintenance of the arc, coating of potassium compounds is provided. To protect the molten metal from the oxygen and nitrogen. To provide the formation of slag so as to protect the welding seam from rapid cooling. For this, rutile coating is provided. To provide a means of introducing alloying elements not contained in the core wire. Shielding gas protection, for this, cellulose coating will be applied.

MERITS

Because of high heat concentration, considerably higher welding speeds can be used. Because of high heat concentration and faster welding speeds distortion is much less. Welding is carried out without sparks, smoke, flash and spatter. Weld metal deposited possesses uniformity, good ductility, corrosion resistance and good impact strength.

SOLDERING
For soldering temperature should be either less than 427oC or less than melting point of metals to be joined, whichever is minimum. Air-acetylene is used as heat source for soldering earlier but now electrical resistance is used as heating source. Filler material: Lead + Tin Soft solder If percentage of tin increases weld ability and joint strength but cost is high. Lead + Tin + Silver Hard soldering By using this joint is much more but cost is very high. For space and aircraft industries it is used.

BRAZING
For Brazing, temperature should be either greater than 427oC or less than melting point of metals to be joined. FILLER MATERIAL: Copper + zinc Due to capillary action, molten metal pass through joint is known as Brazing. Due to gravity action, molten metal pass through joint is known as Braze welding.

WELDABILITY

Melting point of material. Thermal conductivity. Thermal expansion. Electrical resistance. Surface condition. Reactiveness with Oxygen.

MIG (Metal Inert Gas) or as it even is called GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) uses an aluminium alloy wire as a combined electrode and filler material. The filler metal is added continuously and welding without filler-material is therefore not possible. Since all welding parameters are controlled by the welding machine, the process is also called semiautomatic welding. The MIG-process uses a direct current power source, with the electrode positive (DC, EP). By using a positive electrode, the oxide layer is efficiently removed from the aluminium surface, which is essential for avoiding lack of fusion and oxide inclusions. The metal is transferred from the filler wire to the weld bead by magnetic forces as small droplets, spray transfer. This gives a deep penetration capability of the process and makes it possible to weld in all positions. It is important for the quality of the weld that the spray transfer is obtained. There are two different MIG-welding processes, conventional MIG and pulsed MIG: Conventional MIG uses a constant voltage DC power source. Since the spray transfer is limited to a certain range of arc current, the conventional MIG process has a lower limit of arc current (or heat input). This also limits the application of conventional MIG to weld material thicknesses above 4 mm. Below 6 mm it is recommended that backing is used to control the weld bead. Pulsed MIG uses a DC power source with superimposed periodic pulses of high current. During the low current level the arc is maintained without metal transfer. During the high current pulses the metal is transferred in the spray mode. In this way pulsed MIG is possible to operate with lower average current and heat input compared to conventional MIG. This makes it possible to weld thinner sections and weld much easily in difficult welding positions.

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