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Thai

Presentation
prepared by:
Cruz, Maria Cecilia
Tinawin, Michael
Andrew
Thailand
Thailand -Prathet Thai, meaning "land of the free"
-previously known as Siam
-21st most populous country
-one of the most devoutly Bhuddist countries in
the world
Bangkok - capital
- also called Krung Thep, meaning "city of
angels“
-Krung Thep was adapted from it’s original
name.(listed in guinness world book of records as tha
longest name of a place):

Krungthep Mahanakhon Bovorn Rattanakosin


Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokpop Noparatratchathani
Geography
Borders
• North- Laos and
Myanmar
• East- Laos and
Cambodia
• South- Gulf of Thailand
and Malaysia
• West- the Andaman Sea
and Myanmar.
Maritime boundaries
• Southeast- Vietnam in
the Gulf of Thailand
• Southwest- Indonesia
Climate
• Tropical – with temperatures ranging
from 28-35°C
• The area of Thailand north of Bangkok
has a climate determined by three
seasons whilst the southern peninsular
region of Thailand has only two.
National Symbols
National Flower: “Ratchaphruek“ (or
golden shower)
The color of flowers is shining yellow contrasting
great importance similarly to the color of our
national religion ‘Buddhism' and the color of
Monday when His Majesty King of Thailand
was born.
National Animal: “Chang Thai” (or Thai
elephant)
According to ancient royal Thai traditions, a
white elephant is a noble beast of special
importance, exemplifying a king's honor and
glory.
National Architecture: “Sala Thai” (or Thai-
style arbor)
Sala Thai reflects knowledge of Thai people. It
Materials
Sandstone- was used to form door parts,
lintels, and rectangular windows
Brick- (around 12th century)replaced
sandstone as the favoured mortar, bound
with vegetable glue, and then sheathed in
carved stone
Stucco- a sand, lime, and glue mixture
strengthened by a terra cotta armature, was
later used to cover the brick walls
Wood- was employed in temple
construction and craftsmen attained great
skill in carving decorative elements, in the
Materials
Porcelain fragments- influenced by
the Chinese, it can be seen in some
ornamental decorations

Materials such as glass mosaic


pieces highlighted gables and pillars, as
well as wooden and stucco figures, and
other decorative techniques utilized
lacquer, gilt, mother-of-pearl inlay,
gold leaf, and porcelain fragments to
obtain the desired effect of gleaming
Religious Influences
Buddhism
Hinduism
Islam
Judaism
Sikhism
Christianity
Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism reached Thailand
around the 6th century AD.
- (228 BC) Sohn Uttar Sthavira ( one
of the royal monks )to Ashoka the great
came to Thailand (Suvarnabhumi or
Suvannabhumi) with other monks and
sacred books.
- it was made the state religion only
with the establishment of the Thai
kingdom of Sukhothai in the thirteenth
century A.D.
- nearly 95% of Thailand's population is
Buddhism
• One of the major
influences on Thai
Buddhism is Hindu
beliefs received from
Cambodia, particularly
during the Sukhothai
period.
• Vedic Hinduism
played a strong role in
the early Thai
institution of kingship,
just as it did in
Cambodia, and Detail of the entrance gate of
exerted influence in Wat Phra That Lampang Luang,
the creation of laws showing the influence of
and order for Thai Cambodian's architectural style.
Hinduism
- Southeast Asia was frequented by
traders from eastern India, particularly
Magadha, as well as from the Tamil
kingdoms of South India.
-Numerous rituals derived from
Brahminism are preserved in rituals, such
as use of holy strings and pouring of
lustral water from conch shells.
- The city, Ayutthaya, is named after
Ayodhya, the birthplace of Rama.
Hinduism
• Hindu deities are
worshipped by many
Thais alongside
Buddhism, such as
the famous Erawan
shrine, and statues
of Ganesh, Indra,
and Shiva, as well
as numerous
symbols relating to The four-faced Brahma
(Phra Phrom) statue,
Hindu deities are Erawan Shrine
found, e.g., Garuda,
Islam
Islam is most
popular in
southern
Thailand, near
the border with
Malaysia,
where the vast
majority of the
country's
Matsayit Klang (Central Mosque), Patanni,
Muslims, Thailand
predominantly
Malay in origin,
Judaism
- Jewish community
life in Thailand dates
back to the 17th
century, first with
the arrival of a few
Baghdadi Jewish
families, although
the current
community is
comprised mainly of Chabad house,
Chiang Mai
Ashkenazi
descendants of
Sikhism
- Ladha Singh-
first Sikh to
migrate to
Thailand (1890)
-Sikhs began
migrating to the
Kingdom of
Thailand in the Guradwaras
early 1900s. By (Thailand)
the year 1911,
many Sikh
Christianity
-Christianity was
first introduced to
Thailand by European
missionaries in 1662,
with the establishment
of the Vicariate
Apostolic of Siam led
particularly
Portuguese and French
fathers.
-5 major Christian Samruan Church, Samruan
denominations: The Thailand
Roman Catholic
Church, The Southern
Baptists, The Seventh
Day Adventists, the
Church of Christ in
Historical and Political
Influences
five different historical periods where significant
changes can be seen in the various religious
architecture styles:
Khmer- (9th to 13th Century)
Sukhothai- (Mid 13th to 15th Centuries)
Ayutthaya- (Mid 14th to late 18th
Centuries)
Lanna- (Mid 13th to 19th Centuries)
Rattanakosin- (Late 18th Century to
present)
Khmer Influence
Dvaravati- Mon civilization that occupied the
central and western area of Thailand during
the 9th -11th century.
-shares the same common lineage as the
Khmers and settle in southern Burma latter
-include Nakhon Pathom, Khu Bua, Phong
Tuk , and Lawo (Lopburi)
-this was an Indianized culture, Theravada
Buddhism was remained the major religion in
this area
-by the 11th – 12th centuries, it’s influence
went all the way to the center of Thailand
-Khmer cultural influence was brought in
Khmer Influence
• The "Sanskrit" language
was entered in Mon-Thai
vocabulary during the
Khmer or Lopburi Period.
• The influence of this period
has affected many
provinces in the north-east
such as Kanchanaburi and
Lopburi. The Architecture
in "Angkor" was also
constructed according to
the Khmers style
• The Khmer built stone
temples in the northeast,
some of which have been
restored to their former
glory, those at Phimai and
Phanom Rung and further
Khmer Influence
Khmer
Architecture -
was totally dictated
by Hindu beliefs,
astrology and
subjugation to the
Gods and their God
Kings
- The role of
architecture was to
demonstrate these
beliefs for the
believers and
enforce by
Khmer Influence
-Architecture was
based on a system
where boundaries,
axes, and other
architectural
parameters have
measurement or size
based on their
physical extent and
internal divisions
[ that is subdivided
parts into logical parts
Phimai Temple, Isaan,
with each measurable Thailand
against the whole ]
but where additionally
these structures
Sukhothai Influence
Founded in 1238 by two Thai governors,
Khun Bang Klang Thao (Si Inthrathit) and
Khun Pha Muang who rebelled against the
Khmers; and gave independence to the
region.
Golden age of Thai culture
– gained independence in 1238 and quickly
expanded its boundary of influence
– boundary of Sukhothai stretched from
Lampang in the north to Vientiane, in present
day Laos and the south to the Malay Peninsula
Sukhothai influence
King Ramkhamhaeng-
 the most famous and
dynamic monarch
ever to rule the
Sukhothai kingdom
-Much of what we
know about Sukhothai
in the 13th century
derives from a 1292
stone inscription
King Ramkhamhaeng's famous
attributed to King stone inscription, for the first time
Ramkhamhaeng written in Thai, survived intact
-tells about King through the centuries, and was
discovered in Sukhothai by King
Ramkhamhaeng's Mongkut during his monkhood
Sukhothai influence
Wat Si Chum, Sukhothai – The Temple of the Bodhi
Tree
- the largest, the most puzzling and historically
important Buddhist temple from the Sukhothai period
- famous for the enormous stucco Buddha over 11
metres in width called Phra Achana (one who is
not frightened)
-In a book entitled Phra Ratchaphongsawadan
Krung Si Ayutthaya written in the late Ayutthaya
period, the temple is referred as a place where King
Naresuan and his troops assembled before the army
marched on Sawankhalok and from which the legend
of talking Buddha Image (Phra Achana) derives
Sukhothai Influence

The buddha image


covered in stucco and is
seated inside a square
brick Mandala building
with a tapering wall
structure which opens in
the center of the top.
Ayutthaya Influence
-Ayutthaya, the capital of the Thai Kingdom was
found by U-Thong King in 1350
-Ayutthaya as an island is formed by the gathering
of three rivers, the Chao Phraya, the Pasak, and the
Loburi and surrounded by rice terraces
-King U-Thong and his immediate successors
expanded Ayutthaya's territory, especially northward
towards Sukhothai and eastward towards the Khmer
capital of Angkor
-The greater size of government could not remain
the same as during the days of King Ramkhamhaeng
-The society during the Ayutthaya period was
strictly hierarchical. There were, roughly, three
classes of people, king at the top of scale. At the
bottom of social scale were commoners and the
slaves.
Ayutthaya Influence
Ayutthaya was a
society of builders
rather than sculptors.
• It was preoccupied
with building
monuments to
impress outsiders by
sheer imensity.
• it erected a major
portion of its 400 wats
in Ramathibodi's reign
and completed most
of its major
monuments in the first Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
150 years of its Historical Park
Ayutthaya Influence

Ayutthaya had three


palaces for its rulers:
• Wang Luan (Royal
Palace)- occupied by the
principal king, situated
on the northern rim of
the city
• Wang Na (Palace to the
Front) built for the
second or Vice-King,
situated on the
northeastern corner of
the city
• Wang Lang (Palace to
the Rear) later occupied
Lanna Influence
• -Lanna or Lannathai is the • -founded by King Mengri
given name of a (1259 - 1317) The town
prosperous self ruling was built in 1296 and
kingdom, once the power named Nopburi Sri
base of the whole of • Nakorn Ping Chiang Mai
• Northern Thailand as well which was later shortened
as parts of present day to Chiang Mai.
Burma (Myanmar) & Laos. • -most powerful period of
• -means "Land of a million this kingdoms history was
rice fields'. during the reign of King
• -Was a state in what is now Tilorokarat (1548-1580).
northern Thailand from • -began to wane by the end
13th to 18th century. of the 15th century-
• -emphasized in the • -Chiang Mai swayed
solidifying of religious and between Burmese and
cultural foundations. Central Thai control with
intermittent spells of self-
government;
Lanna Influence
• -Influenced by • This architectural style
chinese,indian and mon had its own distinctive
with mixture of characteristics which
harpunchai,chiang saen emphasizes on the
and sukhothai but enormous size of the
developed • shrines and relatively
• its own character. small sermon or
• -made use of wood but temple’s hall. Stupas
more of stones and were later built from mid
bricks. 14th century onwards
• - Lanna Architectural • since the entrance of
Style was found in the LankawongBuddhism
northern region of sect. The stupas were
Thailand while Chiang then built in Lanka style.
Mai being its center. • -Wats or temples were
the main structures built
Rattanakosin Influence
• It included vassal states of Cambodia, Laos, and
some Malay kingdoms. The kingdom was
• formation by Chakri Dynasty until 1932
• came into being when King Rama I ascended the
throne in 1782.
• King Rama I was determined to build a new capital
to revive the glory and splendorof old Ayutthaya.
• The new capital was located on the island of
Rattanakosin, protected by river to the west, series
of canals to the north, east and south.
• Economic activity in the Rattanakosin Era was
primarily, agriculture.
• Thai art, culture, philosophy, and literature was
created, developed and mainly influenced by
Buddhism and Hinduism religion.
Rattanakosin Influence
Architectures of this period are
divided into 4 groups:

Architectural style of the declining


period of Ayuthaya (lopburi
style and prang)
-Lopburi Architectural Style
were mostly constructed from
bricks and cut stones with
influences from both the
Mahayana Buddhism sect and
the Hinduism religion.
-This architectural style
flourished in Kampuchea and
later spread to Thailand.
Prang at Wat Arun
- A prang is a tall finger-like
spire, usually richly carved.
Rattanakosin Influence
-Architectures constructed --Thai architectures with
during the reign of King adaptation of western
Rama III had either one architectural style
of the two distinctive (subsequent to King Rama
characteristics (‘in’ or III’s reign) with prominent
‘out’). The ‘in’ type was western building style.
the
-one with traditional
gable ends decorating -Modified Thai architectural
the roof while the ‘out’ style (subsequent to King
type’s, the gable ends of Rama V’s reign) with
the roof were plainly characteristics of applied or
constructed with bricks modified architectural style
and stucco or of various nations,
-mortar without -and blent them together
traditional decorations of before applied with Thai
gable ends.
Rattanakosin Influence
Wat Phra Keow
• Wat Phra Keow, commonly
called the Temple of the
Emerald Buddha, was
constructed in 1782 to house
the Emerald Buddha, the most
revered possession of the
ruling Chakri dynasty. Just 60
cm tall, the Emerald Buddha
is an ancient statue believed
to have magical powers. It is
said that whoever possesses
the statue will rule the entire
kingdom. No one knows the
origin of the statue, but it first
surfaced in the 15th century
in the northern town of
Chiang Rai
• Unlike most monasteries,
there are no resident monks
Architectural Character
• Thai Architecture
– reflects the influences of the Buddhist
countries and of the various groups with which
it has mingle and associated for two millenia.
– At various stages down the years, the cultures
of Burma, China, Khmer, India and Sri Lanka,
can all be seen to have had an important and
distinctive influence on architecture in
Thailand.
– Most noticeable in Thai architecture are the
swooping multi-tiered rooflines, the distinctly
ornamental decorations, the stunning interior
murals, the vivid colors and the lovingly
Traditional Architecture
Thai House- the basic thai
house of the past, rarely
seen today, was simple
structure of bamboo and
thatch, raised off the ground
for protection against floods
and wild animals
-Most family life took
place on a veranda-like
platform outside the one or
two rooms that served as
sleeping quarters.
-this model evolved into
more complex structures of
wood, varying both in form
and decoration to suit
conditions in different
Traditional Architecture
Central Plains Houses
-Elevated on stout
round posts, it has steep
roofs with curved
bargeboards and
paneled walls leaning
slightly inward; the
various components are
prefabricated to enable
easy dismantling and
reassembly. The
simplest house consists
of a single unit with an
outside veranda, while
those accommodating
larger families might
have several separate
Traditional Architecture
Royal houses
-were similar in
design to those of
commoners except
that they were
generally closer to the
ground and had more
decorative features. Tamnak Daeng (The Red
House)
-Built by King Rama I as a
residence for one of his
queens, it was originally in
Ayutthaya style but acquired
more Rattanakosin elements
Traditional Architecture
Roof Gable (Ngao)
-A distinctive feature of the
Central Plains house is the
elegant curved decoration
at the ends of the peaked
bargeboards surrounding
the gables. 
-Known as ngao, it
evolved from Khmer
architecture and appears
in elaborate form on
religious buildings and
palaces. A Stylized version
can also be seen in
domestic houses. Roof Gable
Paneling (Ngao)
Paneled walls are a
relatively recent addition
to the Thai house
Traditional Architecture
Gate
-Houses belonging to
more prosperous
families usually have a
gate, often sheltered
by a Thai-style roof
that opens on to the
central platform.
-A jar of water is
placed at the bottom
of the steps so that
visitors and residents
can wash their feet
before coming inside
Traditional Architecture
The Sala
-An open-sided
pavilion
-familiar structure in
Thailand found in the
courtyards of temples
and along heavily
traveled routes.
-serves as a shelter,
giving shade from the hot
tropical sun and heavy
monsoon rain.
-It also is a ‘living
Traditional Architecture
The Northern
houses
-The northern Thai
houses differ
significantly from its
counterpart in the
Central Plains.
- The walls lean
outward, giving it a
sturdier look, and
windows are often
smaller.
- Kalae- V-shaped
decorative feature at
the ends of the roof
Traditional Architecture
Northern rice barn
-A rice barn is a
component of most
traditional compounds
in the northern region.
-Raised on pillars
and with a ladder for
access, it is a solid
structure with few
windows, used to store
grain
Religious Architecture
Regardless of historical
period, the most
important area of
religious architecture is
the Thai temple or wat.
The Thai wat is a group of
buildings each serving
various purposes and
usually set within a
walled enclosure.
In addition to being a place
where the lessons of
Buddha were taught, the
Thai wat was
traditionally a school,
hospital, community Wat Pho
center and even an
Religious Architecture
• follows a similar set of
design principles and the
same can normally be said
for the functions of the
various buildings within the
complex
• Architectural modifications
have been made and the
overall style of each of the
buildings may vary
considerably
• There is also a symbolic
significance to each and
every part of the Thai wat
complex. The capitals of
the columns, for example,
are shaped like lotus
buds or water lilies
Religious Architecture
The Bot
-All wats usually include an
ordination or assembly hall known
as the bot or sometimes known as
an ubosot. The bot is reserved for
monks to perform ceremonies,
meditate and sermonize. It faces
east and usually houses the main
Buddha image.

Bai Semas
-Surrounding the bot are bai Ubosot: Wat Benchamabophit,
semas. These are sacred boundary Bangkok
stones, used to demarcate the
sacred ground of the bot and to
keep away evil spirits. Normally
eight are used in total, but double
slab stones for royal wats. This is
Religious Architecture
The Chedi
-The Chedi is a solid
dome-shaped structure
where relics of Buddha
may be housed, such as
a bone fragment or hair,
or the ashes of a past
king. Some Thai wat
complexes are
specifically designed
and built around the
sacred Chedi.
The Vishnu
-At the top of a Chedi Chedi at Wat Kuu Kham,
may be a stylized Chiang Mai, Thailand
thunderbolt sign of the
Religious Architecture
The Wihan
-A second assembly hall,
similar to the bot but usually
larger, is the wilhan. Within a
complex, there may be
several wilhan and each may
have an eclectic mix of
architectural styles. The
wilhan is used by laypeople to
make their offering before a
large Buddha figure. Normally
there are no bai semas
surrounding the wihan.
Viharn at Wat Phrasat,
Chiang Mai, Thailand

The Prang
-A few wats have prangs,
which are towering phallic
spires as can be seen in the
Religious Architecture
The Chofa Chofa on
-The chofa is perhaps the the top of a
most recognizable roof of Wat
architectural detail in any wat.
Chofa means, ‘tassel of air’ Pangsank
and its shape is thought to Taii.
derive from a highly stylized
Garuda, a fierce bird featured
in Hindu mythology. The
Garuda is also a royal symbol
and can be seen on other
buildings denoting that they
operate ‘by royal
appointment’.
Mondopat
The Mondop Wat Arun
-The mondop is a square-
based structure topped with
either a cruciform roof or a
Religious Architecture
The Bodhi tree
-Most wats will also
include a Bodhi tree (Ficus
religiosa), also known as the
Sacred Figar Pipal tree. The
Buddha is thought to have
attained enlightment (Bodhi)
while neditating under a
Bodhi Tree at Boghi-Guy in
India.

The Cloister
-The cloisters or main wall Cloister at Wat Phra Kaew
will enclose the main area of
the wat complex (known as
the phutthawat). The cloisters
are sometimes painted with
decorative murals and also
may house a row of Buddha
Religious Architecture
The Sanghawat
-These are the
monks' living
quarters and
dormitories and are
usually in a separate
compound.

The Ho Rakangs
-These are bell
towers and are used
to toll the hour and Ho Rakang
summon the monks
Religious Architecture

The Minor Salas


-This hall acts as a
meeting place for
Pilgrims.

The Ho Trai
-This is the wat
library and houses Holy
Scriptures. A ho trai is a
rare feature of the wat
complex. In the Ho Trai at Wat Phra
countryside they are Singh, Chiang Mai
usually on a high base or
surrounded by water to
Royal Architecture
• Royal houses and mansions •The 'red house' at the
are typically a mixture of
Thai wat, traditional Thai National Museum in
house style and western Bangkok is a typical royal
architecture. house and a good
• Teak wood is the main example of Thai royal
structural material of such architecture.
buildings, giving them their •Royal wats can be
distinctive rich red color.
The doors and windows identified by the prefixes
usually have ornate of Rat, Raja or Racha in
pediments and frames, their names. There are
which are sometimes only 186 such wats under
decorated in gilt bronze.
royal patronage in the
• Like the Thai wat, the roof
of the royal building will whole of the country.
have a chofar and normally
the roof tiles are made of
The Grand Palace
• When Siam restored law
and order after the fall of
Ayutthaya the monarch
lived in Thonburi on the
west side of the river
• Rama I, on ascending the
throne, moved the centre
of administration to this
side of the Chao Phraya; This palace came to be
and, after erecting public known as the Grand
monuments such as Palace, in which the
earliest edifices
fortifications and contemporary with the
monasteries, built a palace foundation of Bangkok
to serve not only as his were the two groups of
residence but also his residences named the
Dusit Maha Prasat and the
offices--the various
The Grand Palace
The chapel Royal of
the Emerald Buddha
-Just north of the
Royal Residence of the
Maha Monthian from
which there is a
connecting gate lies The
Chapel Royal of The
Emerald Buddha.
-It consists of all the
architectural features of
the monastery without
however the residential
quarter, for monks do
not live here.
The Grand Palace
The Upper Terrace -the model of Angkor Wat
-consists of 12 smalls crafted by Royal Command of
pavilions surrounding the King Mongkut (Rama IV)
Ubosot (Chapel). Beside that, -and the Royal Pantheon
Phra Sri Rattana Chedi is on where statues of past
the left, Phra Mondop sovereigns of the ruling
(Library) is on the middle and dynasty are enshrined.
on the right is Prasart Phra
Thep Bidorn
- On this are four main
monuments: 
-the Reliquary in the shape of
a golden chedi
- the Repository of the
Canon of Buddhism with its
mother-of-pearl cabinet that
The Grand Palace
Subsidiary Buildings
To the north of the terrace
on the level ground
there are three
interesting buildings:
-the Scripture
Library, the west facade
of which is said to be the
finest in Bangkok
-the gabled Wiharn
decorated with tiles and
porcelain
-and the mausoleum
of the Royal Family
where are kept the
crematory relics of a
The Grand Palace
The Galleries
- The Chapel Royal
ground is enclosed by
galleries, the murals
of which depict the
story of the Ramakien
of the first reign
version. 
- If we start at the
east gate we come to A famous Scene from the
the initial stages of Ramakien Epic (Mural)
the war waged by
Rama of Ayodthaya to
rescue his wife who
had been abducted by
The Grand Palace
Phra Maha Montian Chakri Maha Prasat Hall
This consists of three main -The Chakri Group was
buildings, namely : built and resided in by King
Chulalongkorn, Rama V
3. The Audience Hall of (1868-1910). Only the
Amarin Winitchai- reception portion is now
where the ceremonies of used, consisting of two
the Court usually take wings for reception
place purposes decorated with
4. Paisal Taksin Hall where galleries of portraiture
the coronation of a
monarch takes place with
its coronation chair and
the octagonal seat where
the monarch receives the
people's invitation to rule
5. Descending from here we
come to the antechamber
The Grand Palace

Dusit Maha Prasat Hall Boron Phiman Mansion


-Here we have an -Phra Thinang Borom
audience hall with a throne Phiman: built in the western
of mother-of-pearl style in 1903 by King Rama V
surmounted by the usual for the Heir Apparent, the
nine-tiered white canopy, future King Rama VI, this
the mark of a duly crowned mansion was also used at
king. At the back of this various times as a royal
audience hall is yet a living residence by King Rama VII
(1925-1935), King Rama VIII
quarter. All are built in pure
Siamese architecture of
perfect proportions
The Grand Palace
Phra Asada Maha Chedi Wat Phra Keo Museum
-The “Eight Prangs” The -This museum
form of a Thai Prang
(tower) derives from the exhibits the seasonal
Khmer prasat, but whereas costumes of the
a prasat is “a residence of Emerald Buddha,
a king or a god,” a prang various offerings
has the same function as a presented to that
chedi. 
sacred image, and
Amarin Winitchai Hall samples of
-Phra Thinang Amarin architectural temple
Winitchai ( Throne Hall )
Originally this was the fragments that have
Principal Audience Hall of been replaced by new
the Middle Palace in which ones.
officials of state and
foreign ambassadors were
received in audience. 
The Grand Palace
Sources
• Beek & Invernizzi’s The Art of Thailand
• Sir Banister Fletcher’s History of Architecture
• http://www.thailandsworld.com/index.cfm?p=733
• http://www.cvl.iis.u-
tokyo.ac.jp/gallery_e/Wat_Si_Chum/Wat_Si_Chum.html
• http://www.thailand.com/travel/arts/art_architecture.htm
• http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/thailand/lampang/index.php
• http://www.library.ohiou.edu/sea/blog/?p=1157
• http://www.su.ac.th/sukhothai/Virtual_reality/WatSrichum/Eng/inde
xWatSriChum_Eng.html
• http://www.thailand.com/travel/arts/art_architecture_religious_ele
ments.htm
• http://www.travelhops.com/thailand/bangkok/bangkok/architectur
e-plus-historic-building-plus-monument-page-1.htm
• http://www.usmta.com/Thai-History-Frame.htm
• http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108034.html