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CHAPTER 1

WAVES

WAVE MOTION
First situation

A boy kicks a ball and the ball accidentally hits and breaks the glass window producing noise. In this case, energy is transferred from the source (the boy) to the receiver (the glass window) by the matter (the ball). The noise we hear from the breaking glass is due to the energy transferred to our ears by sound

wave.

WAVE MOTION
Second situation

When we throw a stone into a pond, a ripple spreads out in an expanding circle from the source of disturbance. In this case, energy is transferred from the source (the stone) to the receiver (the cork) without involving the transfer of matter (the water). The movement of cork we see because of

water wave.

Wave motion
There are two ways of transferring energy:

Motion of objects

Motion by waves

LONGITUDINAL and TRANVERSE WAVES

WAVEFRONT Lines joining all the points of the same phase

DIRECTION of PROPAGATION of WAVES


The wavefronts of a transverse wave and longitudinal wave are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the waves.

Group activity:- (Find partner)


Try to find meaning for this terms:1. Wavelength 2. Amplitude 3. Frequency 4. Wave speed 5. Period 6. The relationship between speed, wavelength and frequency.

Group activity:- (Find partner)


Try to find meaning for this terms:1. Wavelength the distance between two adjacent points of the same phase on a wave. 2. Amplitude- maximum displacement from its equilibrium position 3. Frequency- The number of waves produced in one unit time. 4. Wave speed the measurement of how fast a crest is moving from fixed point. 5. Period- time taken for an oscillation to complete one cycle 6. The relationship between speed, wavelength and frequency. - Velocity = wavelength x frequency

TRANVERSE WAVES

Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of wave travel.

LONGITUDINAL WAVES

Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction parallel to the direction of wave travel.

REFRESHER
Differences between transverse wave and a longitudinal wave

Type of wave

Direction of vibration in relation to direction of propagation

Examples

Transverse wave
Longitudinal Wave

REFRESHER
Differences between transverse wave and a longitudinal wave

Type of wave Transverse wave Longitudinal Wave

Direction of vibration in relation to direction of propagation

Examples
Water wave Light wave Electromagnetic wave

Perpendicular Parallel

Sound wave

QUESTION
1. In an experiment, Aziz observes that a

simple pendulum completes 30 oscillations in 48.0 seconds. What is a) the period of oscillation? b) the frequency of oscillation?
string

bob

Solution:a) Period, T =

Time taken Number of complete oscillation = 48.0 30 = 1.6 s b) Frequency, = 1/ T = 1/ 1.6 = 0.625 Hz

QUESTION
2. The displacement-distance graph in below shows the motion of a transverse wave. The source of the wave produces 10 complete waves in one second.
Displacement, s (cm) 6

0 -6

25
a. b. c.

Distance, d (cm)
Calculate the amplitude Calculate the wavelength Calculate speed of the wave

Solution:a) Amplitude, A = 6 cm

b) Wavelength, = 4/5 x 25 cm

= 20 cm c) Frequency, = 10 Hz Speed, v = Displacement, s (cm) = 10 x 20 6


= 200 cm s-1
0 -6 25 Distance, d (cm)

Damping and Resonance

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

Oscillation of a simple pendulum

A O

Lets we refer page 6 (Practical Book) Experiment 1.3 Why not we try to do that activity?

DAMPING (Pelembapan)
The amplitude of oscillation of the simple pendulum will gradually decrease and become zero when the oscillation stops. The decrease in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called damping.

Why Damping happens:a) External Damping

System loss of energy to overcome frictional forces or air resistance. b) Internal Damping System loss of energy due to the extension and compression of molecules in the system.

Resonance (Resonans)
Barton s Pendulum
Rope

Pendulum A Retort

B
D E C

stand

Resonance
To enable an oscillating system to go on continuously, an external force must be applied to the system 1. External force Supplies energy to the system 2. Natural frequency Without the action of an external force 3. Resonance Resonance occur when frequency by external force equivalent to natural frequency of system and produce maximum amplitude. At this time, energy from outside will be transfer to oscillating system.

Phenomena of waves

1. Reflection of waves
2. Refraction of waves 3. Diffraction of waves

4. Interference of waves

Phenomena of waves

Reflection of waves

LAWS OF REFLECTION
The angle of incidence =The angle of reflection 2. The incidence wave, the reflected wave and the normal lie in the same plane which is perpendicular to the reflecting surface.
1.

PATTERN OF REFLECTED WAVES


CHARACTERISTIC OF WAVES
Reflected wave

ANGLE OF INCEDENCE (i) ANGLE OF REFLECTION (r) WAVELENGHT

00 00
DO NOT CHANGE DO NOT CHANGE

Direction of reflected waves

Direction of incident waves

FREQUENCY

SPEED OF WAVES
Incident wave

DO NOT CHANGE
CHANGE

DIRECTION OF PROPAGATION

Applications of reflection of waves in Daily life Safety

Mirrors of a car

Motor car lamps

Defence

Periscope

Medication

Optical fibre

Telecommunications

1. Optical fibres in a cable 2. Infrared waves from a remote control

QUESTION
1.

Which of the following quantities of a wave changes after reflection?


A. Frequency B. Wavelength C. Speed D. Direction of propagation

2. Which of the following are applications of reflection of waves I Radar II Ultrasonic imaging III Sonar A I only C I and III only B III only D I,II and III

Phenomena of waves

Refraction of waves
- Any types of wave can be refracted - Refracted can change of direction - Refraction occur when the speed of a wave changes, as it moves from one medium to another

Refraction of waves
1. Refraction of plane water waves 2. Refraction of light 3. Refraction of sound waves

Refraction of plane water waves


Water waves undergo refraction when they are slow down. Refraction can change of speed and wavelength of the waves. Water waves travel faster (with higher velocity) on the surface of deep water than they do on shallow water. If water waves are passing from deep water into shallow water, they will slow down. Speed and wavelength will decrease. The change in speed of the wave causes refraction.

Refraction of plane water waves


v1 v2

V1 > v2

Deep water

Shallow water

2 Deep water 1 > 2

Water waves travel slower in shallow water

HOME WORK Complete this given table)


ANGLE OF INCEDENCE (i) ANGLE OF REFRACTION (r) WAVELENGHT FREQUENCY SPEED OF WAVES DIRECTION OF PROPAGATION

HOME WORK (Answer)


ANGLE OF INCEDENCE (i) ANGLE OF REFRACTION (r) WAVELENGHT FREQUENCY SPEED OF WAVES DIRECTION OF PROPAGATION

x0 y0
Change Do not change Change Do not Change

Phenomena of waves

Diffraction of waves
- Diffraction involves a change in the direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around an obstacle . - Water waves have ability to travel around corners, around obstacles and through opening. -The spreading of waves around corners, around obstacles and

through opening is called

diffraction.

The diffraction of water waves

Do you still have problem to understand about diffraction of waves? Read this paragraph.
Diffraction involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around a barrier in their path. Water waves have the ability to travel around corners, around obstacles and through openings. This ability is most obvious for water waves with longer wavelengths. Diffraction can be demonstrated by placing small barriers and obstacles in a ripple tank and observing the path of the water waves as they encounter the obstacles. The waves are seen to pass around the barrier into the regions behind it; subsequently the water behind the barrier is disturbed. The amount of diffraction (the sharpness of the bending) increases with increasing wavelength and decreases with decreasing wavelength. In fact, when the wavelength of the waves are smaller than the obstacle, no noticeable diffraction occurs.

A few figure show about phenomena of diffraction of water waves

Incident Waves

Spreading Waves

V1

V2

Try to find answer!!!! (Complete this given table)


WAVELENGHT
FREQUENCY SPEED OF WAVES

Read this paragraph and try to get differences with reflection, refraction and diffraction
Reflection, refraction and diffraction are all boundary behaviors of waves associated with the bending of the path of the wave. The bending of the path is an observable behavior when the medium is a two- or threedimensional medium. Reflection occurs when there is a bouncing off of a barrier. Reflection of waves off straight barriers follows the law of reflection. Reflection of waves off parabolic barriers results in the convergence of the waves at a focal point. Refraction is the change in direction of waves which occurs when waves travel from one medium to another; refraction is always accompanied by a wavelength and speed change. Diffraction is the bending of waves around obstacles and openings; the amount of diffraction increases with increasing wavelength.

Figure A

Figure C

Figure B

Try to find answer!!!!


(Complete this given table differences between reflection, Refraction and Diffraction)
Reflection
WAVELENGHT FREQUENCY SPEED OF WAVES

Refraction

Diffraction

Phenomena of waves

Interference of waves
Principle of superposition:Simulations of superposition of waves

Principle of superposition
A

Lets us consider two waves A and B, A moves towards the right, and B move towards the left. What will be happen when this two waves meet each other? Wave interference is the phenomena which occurs when two wave meet while traveling propagating along the same medium.

or
Figure 1.5.1 ( Two crests are moving in opposite direction) When the two waves are superposed, interference will occur.

How does interference occur?

Two crest meet Each other

Two troughs meet Each other

Interference of waves
(There are two types of interference) 1. Constructive interference

Interference of waves
(There are two types of interference) 2. Destructive interference

Pattern of interference from two sources of vibration coherent


antinodal lines antinodal lines

x
Nodal lines A D B Nodal lines

S1

S2

Antinodes place that constructive interference occurs

Nodes place that destructive interference occurs

Youngs Formula

=ax D
- Wavelength a Distance between two sources of wave

To understand this Youngs Formula, refer example 1.2 in your text book page 26.

X - the separation between two adjacent nodes or antinodes D - Perpendicular distance between waves source to the position where x is measured

1.6 SOUND WAVES


How is sound waves produced?

Sound waves are produced when vibrating object causes the air molecules around it to vibrate.

Sound wave are longitudinal waves


A series of compressions and rarefactions will produce sound. The particles in the air vibrate backward and forward in the direction parallel to the direction of propagation of the sound wave.

Propagation of sound

Loudness and Pitch


Discuss with your partner and try to get relationship between Loudness and amplitude Pitch and frequency Try to identify answer for activity 1.6.3 ( Page 32)

Applications of sound waves


Ultrasonic spectacles Sonar Ultrasound scanner

1.7 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES


Homework?
1. How the electromagnetic waves

produced? 2. Draw electromagnetic spectrum? 3. Find applications of electromagnetic waves?

How the electromagnetic waves produced?

When you watch television, listen to the radio or cook something in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves are propagating waves in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angle to each other and to the direction of propagation. Electromagnetic waves are produced when a charged particles (electron or nucleus) oscillates.

Electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies and wavelengths over which electromagnetic wave are propagated.

Transverse wave
Do not require a medium To propagate and can travel In a vacuum

Energy is transferred By the waves

Are electrically neutral

Properties of electromagnetic wave

Undergo the same phenomena As light: reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference

In a vacuum, the waves Travel at the speed of light, C = 3 x 108 ms-1

Sources and Applications of electromagnetic waves in daily life

QUIZ
1. At an airport, a scanner is used to

examine passengers baggage The scanner is using A. microwave B. Infrared waves C. X-ray D. Gamma rays

Quiz
2. Peter shouts loudly in front of a concrete wall. After 1.4 s , he heard the echo of his voice. If the speed of sound in air is 330ms-1, find the distance between peter and wall. A. 110 m Formula to determine phenomena of the reflection B. 231 m of sound waves are: C. 308 m d = tv/2 D. 462 m E. 924 m

Quiz
3. A monochromatic light source with a wavelength of 600 nm is used in a Youngs double-slit experiment. A series of interference fringes is produced on a screen placed at a distance of 2.5 m from the two slits. What is the distance between the two slits if the distance between two consecutive dark fringes is 1.2 mm?