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Introduction to arc welding

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2
Overview of joining methods
Mechanical methods
Screwed fasteners, bolts, rivets,

Adhesive bonding

Brazing and Soldering
Base metal does not fuse.
Molten filler drawn into close-fit joints by capillary
action (surface tension forces).
Brazing filler melts >450 C, solder <450 C

Welding
Introduction to arc welding
Weld

A joint produced by heat or pressure or both so there
is continuity of material.

Filler (if used) has a melting temperature close to the
base material
Introduction to arc welding
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4
Welding processes
Fusion welding
Welding in the liquid state with no pressure
Union is by molten metal bridging

Solid phase welding
Carried out below the melting point without
filler additions
Pressure often used
Union is often by plastic flow
Introduction to welding
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Introduction to welding
Basic Requirements of Welding Process

Source of Heat
Chemical Reaction
Electrical - Arc, Resistance, Induction
Mechanical

Protection from Atmosphere
Gas Shielding
Flux
Mechanical Expulsion
Vacuum

Fusion welding heat sources
Power
beams
Laser
Electron
beam
Spot, seam and
projection
welding
Electroslag
Electric
arc
Chemical
reaction
Electric
resistance
Oxyfuel
gas
welding
Thermit
welding
MMAW
GMAW
GTAW
FCAW
SAW
PAW
Introduction to arc welding
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Introduction to arc welding
10
3
Watts/cm
2
melts most metals
10
6
-10
7
Watts/cm
2
vaporizes most metals
10
3
to 10
6
Watts/cm
2
typical for fusion welding
7
Electric arc
Introduction to arc welding
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The Welding arc Electric discharge between 2
electrodes through ionised gas
10 to 2000 amps at 10 to 40 V
arc voltage
Column of ionised gas at high
temperature

Forces stiffen the arc column
Transfer of molten metal from
electrode to workpiece
Can have a cleaning action,
breaking up oxides on
workpiece
+
-
Cathode
drop zone
Anode
drop zone
Peak
temperatures
18,000 K
Introduction to arc welding
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Conduction of Current in the Arc
Plasma
Electron
Ion
Neutral
Gas Atom
Ionization
Free
Recombination
T>10,000K
Thermal
Cathode
Anode
Electrons Emitted
Electrons Absorbed
Introduction to arc welding
Introduction to arc welding
Temperature Distribution in Welding arc
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Direct Current
Electrode Ngative

DCEN

Straight Polarity
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
DCEN
Introduction to arc welding
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Direct Current
Electrode Positive

DCEP

Reverse Polarity
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
DCEP
Introduction to arc welding
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Heat Distribution in arc
+
_
1/3
2/3
Straight polarity
DCEN Electrode Negative
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Polarity Influence cathodic cleaning effect
Introduction to arc welding
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Introduction to arc welding
Voltage drop in welding arc
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Welding Arc Current Vs Voltage
Introduction to arc welding
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Electrical characteristic of Arc
Introduction to Arc Welding
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Voltage
Current
Arc voltage

Is directly
In proportion
with

Arc length
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Introduction to arc welding
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Sudden change in gun position
25 mm
L
Arc length L = 12,7 mm
Arc voltage = 29V
Welding current = 220A
WFS = 6,4 m/min
Melt off rate = 5,6 m/min
Current (A)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

Re-established stable condition
25 mm
L
Arc length L = 6,4 mm
Arc voltage = 24V
Welding current = 250A
WFS = 6,4 m/min
Melt off rate = 6,4 m/min
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Introduction to arc welding
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Lorentz Force
Introduction to arc welding
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Metal Transfer in Arc
Introduction to arc welding
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Arc energy
Q = arc energy in kJ/mm
E = current in amps
I = arc voltage
V = travel speed in mm/min
Low arc energy
Small weld pool size
Incomplete fusion
High cooling rate
Unwanted phase
transformations
Hydrogen cracking
High arc energy
Large weld pool size
Low cooling rate
Increased solidification cracking risk
Low ductility and strength
Precipitation of unwanted phases
(corrosion and ductility)
E x I
Q =
V
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Manual Metal Arc Welding
MMAW,
SMAW,
Stick electrode welding
Manual welding
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Electrical Circuit for SMAW
Welding
power source
Earthing
cable
Earth clamp
Work piece for
welding
Electrode
Welding cable
Electrode holder
Electric Arc
Introduction to arc welding
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Feb-14
Introduction to arc welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Introduction to arc welding
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<Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Heat source - arc between metal and a flux coated
electrode (1.6 - 8 mm diameter)

Current 30-400A (depends on electrode size)

AC or DC operation

Power 1 to 12 kW
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Process features
Simple portable equipment

Widely practiced skills

Applicable to wide range of materials, joints, positions

About 1kg of weld per arc-hour deposited

Portable and versatile

Properties can be excellent

Benchmark process
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Minimum equipment
Power source (ac or dc, engine driven or mains
transformer)

Electrode holder and leads
May carry up to 300 amps

Head shield with lens protects face & eyes

Chipping hammer to remove slag

Welding gloves protect hands from arc radiation, hot
material and electric shock
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Covered electrodes
Core wire
Solid or tubular
2mm to 6mm diameter,
250 to 350mm long
Coating
Extruded as paste, dried
to strengthen
Dipped into slurry and
dried (rare)
Wound with paper or
chord (obsolete)
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Functions of coating
Slag protects weld pool from oxidation

Gas shielding also protects weld pool

Surface tension (fluxing)

Arc stabilising (ionising)

Alloying and deoxidation

Some ingredients aid manufacture (binder and
extrusion aids)
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Typical coating constituents
Organic materials (Cellulose)

Titanium dioxide (rutile)

Silica, alumino-silicates

Sodium and potassium silicate binders

Calcium carbonate and fluoride

Iron powder, ferro-alloys
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Applications
Wide range of welded products:
light structure & Heavy steel structures
Workshop and site
High integrity (nuclear reactors, pressure
equipment)

Ideal where access is difficult - construction site,
inside vessels, underwater

Joins a wide range of materials
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SMAW Advantages
Most versatile process.
Can be used for all positions and for wide thickness range.
Can be used in Shop and site. Highly portable

Almost all metals can be welded by this processes.

External shielding etc is not required. So less number of
equipment and accessories are required.

The investment for equipment is relatively less,

Process is simple.

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Limitations of MMAW
Low productivity
Low power
Low duty cycle (frequent electrode changes)

Hydrogen from flux coatings

Electrode live all the time
Arc strike, stray current and electric shock risks
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Submerged arc welding
SAW,
Sub-arc
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Introduction to arc welding
Submerged arc welding
40
Equipment
Power source

Welding head and
control box

Welding head travel

Flux recovery system
(optional)

Positioners and Fixtures
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Submerged arc welding - Features
High productivity
2 to 10 kg/hour
Up to 2 m/min
Bulky, expensive and
heavy equipment
Flat and horizontal
positions only
Thicker sections (3mm
and above)
Mostly ferrous materials
(also Ni alloys)
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SAW tandem arc
with two wires
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Advantages of SAW
high current density, high deposition rates (up to 10 times those
for MMA), high productivity
deep penetration allowing the use of small welding grooves
fast travel speed, less distortion
De-slagging is easier
uniform bead appearance & good surface finish give good
fatigue properties
can be easily performed mechanised, giving a higher duty cycle
and low skill level required
provide consistent quality when performed automatic or
mechanised
assured radiographically sound welds
arc is not visible, little smoke/fumes are developed
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limited mainly between flat and horizontal positions
limited to carbon, low alloy, creep resisting, stainless
steels and nickel alloys
due to the high heat input, impact strength of weld
metal/HAZ may be low; also high dilution
slag must be cleared away after welding due to the
danger of slag inclusions
need flux storage, handling and recirculation control
difficult to apply on-site due to complicated equipment
high capital costs
weld line must be regular (straight or circumferential
seams only) with accurate fit-up
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Applications of SAW
Long straight welds in heavier material
Vessel longitudinal and circumferential welds
Flange to web joints of I beams

Flat or horizontal position
Flux has to be supported

Access has to be good
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Consumables for SAW
Solid or cored wires
Granular fluxes
Agglomerated, fused or sintered

Alloying activity
Contribution to weld metal chemistry from flux

Basicity
Acid fluxes made from manganese oxide, silica, rutile are
easy to use
Basic fluxes (MgO, CaO, CaF
2
, Al
2
O
3
) provide excellent
toughness welds
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Process variations
Surfacing and hardfacing
Wire and strip electrodes

Semi-automatic

Multiple electrodes

2 (and more) electrode wires
From one or more power sources

Iron powder additions to groove
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Gas shielded arc process
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)
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Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
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Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Alternative names -
GTAW,TIG (Tungsten Inert
Gas), Argon arc

Heat source is an electric
arc between a non-
consumable electrode and
the workpiece

Filler metal is not added or
is added independently
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Introduction to arc welding
Gas Tungsten arc welding
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-TIG Welding
Heat source - arc between a tungsten tip and the
parent metal
30 400 A, AC or DC
10 - 20V
0.3 - 8kW

Inert gas shielding

Consumable filler rod can be used (1 to 4mm
diameter)
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Process features
Excellent control
Stable arc at low power (80A at 11V)
Independently added filler
Ideal for intricate welds eg root runs in pipe or thin
sheet
Low productivity 0.5kg/h manual

High quality
Clean process, no slag
Low oxygen and nitrogen weld metal
Defect free, excellent profile even for single sided
welds
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Equipment for GTAW
Welding power source with constant current
characteristic
DC for most metals, AC for Al
Arc starting by high frequency (5000V, 0.05A)
Sequence timers for arc starting, arc finishing &
gas control

Water- or gas-cooled torch with tungsten electrode
Electrode may contain thoria or zirconia, etc
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Shielding gases
Torch is fed with an inert or reducing gas
Pure argon - widespread applications
Argon-helium - Higher arc voltage, inert
Argon-2% hydrogen - Cu alloys & austenitic steel
Torch gas must not contain oxygen or CO
2

Backing (or purge) gas
Used for all single-sided welds except in carbon steel
Argon, nitrogen, formier gas (N
2
+ H
2
)

Supplementary shielding

Reactive metals: Ti, etc
Gas filled chambers or additional gas supply devices
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Shielding gas requirements
Pre-flow and
post-flow
Preflow Postflow
Shielding gas flow
Welding current
Flow rate
too low
Flow rate
too high
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Filler metals
Autogenous welding (no filler)

Filler wire or rod of matching composition
C-Mn & low alloy steel
Stainless Steel
Al, Mg, Ti
Cu & Ni

Consumable inserts - filler preplaced in joint
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Pure
Least expensive, low current capacity
Zirconiated
Has properties of both pure and thoriated
with greater stability for AC welding
Thoriated
Better arc starting, higher current carrying
capacity, resistant to comtamination
Ceriated
Similar properties to thoriated tungsten,
gaining use as a safer alternative
Lanthanated
Similar properties to ceriated tungsten,
gaining use as a safer alternative

Types of Tungsten Electrodes
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Electrode tip prepared for
low current welding
Electrode tip prepared for
high current welding
Vertex
angle
Penetration
increase
Increase
Bead width
increase
Decrease
2
-
2
,
5

t
i
m
e
s

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
d
e

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

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15 60 120
Penetration Profiles of GTAW, 150a/dc @ 2s 100% Argon
Variations & Effects of Electrode Tip Geometry
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How Current type influence weld
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Electrode capacity
Current type & polarity
Heat balance
Oxide cleaning action
Penetration
DCEN
DCEP
AC (balanced)
70% at work
30% at electrode
50% at work
50% at electrode
35% at work
65% at electrode
Deep, narrow Medium Shallow, wide
No Yes - every half cycle Yes
Excellent
(e.g. 3,2 mm/400A)
Good
(e.g. 3,2 mm/225A)
Poor (e.g.
6,4 mm/120A)
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AC - SQUARE WAVE
Eliminates rectification
Insures good cleaning
Improves arc stability
+
_
Reduces Peak
Half Cycle Current
Reduces Cycle Time
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TIG - arc initiation methods
Arc initiation
method
Touch Start HF start
need a HF generator (spark-
gap oscillator) that generates
a high voltage AC output
(radio frequency) * costly
reliable method * required on
both DC (for start) and AC (to
re-ignite the arc)
can be used remotely
HF produce interference
requires superior insulation
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simple method
tungsten electrode is in
contact with the workpiece!
high initial arc current due to
the short circuit
impractical to set arc length
in advance
electrode should tap the
workpiece - no scratch!
ineffective in case of AC
used when a high quality is
not essential
Pulsed current
usually peak current is 2-10
times background current

useful on metals sensitive
to high heat input

reduced distortions

in case of dissimilar
thicknesses equal
penetration can be
achieved
Time
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Pulse
time
Cycle
time
Peak
current
Background
current
Average current
one set of variables can be used in all positions
used for bridging gaps in open root joints
require special power source
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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
Advantages
High quality
Good control
All positions
Lowest H
2
process
Minimal post weld cleaning
Autogenous welding
(No filler material)
Can be automated

Disadvantages
High skill factor required
Low deposition rate
Small consumable range
High protection required
Complex equipment
Low productivity
High ozone levels +HF
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GMAW and FCAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding
(MIG, MAG, CO
2
Welding)
Flux Cored Arc Welding
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Introduction to arc welding
GMAW and FCAW
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Gas Metal Arc Welding
Introduction to arc welding
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Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
70
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW
Developments
71

<MIG Welding
Heat source - arc between parent metal and
consumable electrode wire (0.6 to 1.6mm diameter)
60 500 A, DC only
16 40 V
1 to 20 kW
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
72
GMAW & FCAW processes
A continuous solid wire, small diameter
GMAW uses solid wire, no flux
FCAW uses flux-filled wire

Fed through the gun to the arc by wire
feeder.

The weld pool may be protected from
oxidation by shielding gas.

High productivity 3 kg/arc-hour or more

Direct current (DCEP mostly)
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GMAW & FCAW equipment
Welding power source

Wire feeder mechanism

Gun with gas supply & trigger
switch
Manual (semiautomatic) guns
Automatic torches available

Can be fitted to robot etc
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POSITIVE
TERMINAL
NEGATIVE
TERMINAL
POWERSOURCE
CONTROL
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
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76
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Typical air-cooled
MIG/MAG torch
main components

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Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
MIG/MAG welding
wire-feed unit
Introduction to arc welding
The basic GMAW process includes three distinctive
process techniques:

+ Short Circuit (Short Arc)

+ Globular Transfer

+ Spray Arc Transfer


Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Types of Metal Transfer
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Current
Voltage
No arc (birds-nesting)
Burn-back
and unstable arc
Spray
Globular
Short
circuiting
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
79
Current/voltage conditions
Current
Voltage
Dip transfer
Spray
transfer
Globular
transfer
Electrode diameter = 1,2 mm
WFS = 3,2 m/min
Current = 145 A
Voltage = 18-20V
Electrode diameter = 1,2 mm
WFS = 8,3 m/min
Current = 295 A
Voltage = 28V
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+Operates at low voltages and welding current

+Small fast-freezing weld puddle obtained

+Useful in joining thin materials in any position, as well
as thick materials in vertical and overhead positions

+Metal transfer occurs when an electrical short circuit is
established


Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Short Circuiting Transfer
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+Welding current and wire speed are increased above
maximum for short arc

+Droplets of metal have a greater diameter than the wire
being used

+Spatter present

+Welding is most effectively done in the flat position
when using globular transfer
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Globular Transfer
Introduction to arc welding
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+Occurs when the current and voltage settings are
increased higher than that used for Globular Transfer

+Used on thick sections of base material, best suited
for flat position due to large weld puddle

+Spatter is minimal to none
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Spray Transfer
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GMAW transfer types
Spray
Higher current & voltage, argon-rich gas

Short circuiting (dip)
Low current and voltage, CO
2

Globular
Intermediate current

Pulsed current power sources
Adjustable frequency
One droplet per current pulse.
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Introduction to arc welding
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Welding
Current
Polarity
Increasing welding current
Increase in depth and width
Increase in deposition rate
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Arc voltage
Travel speed
Increasing travel speed
Reduced penetration and width, undercut
Increasing arc voltage
Reduced penetration, increased width
Excessive voltage can cause porosity, spatter
and undercut
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Consumables
Solid Wires (GMAW)
A wide variety of alloys are available

Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas shielded flux cored wires
Self-shielded flux cored wires
Used outdoors
Metal cored wires
Light flux cover
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GMAW Filler Metal Designations
ER - 70S - 6
Electrode
Rod (can be used
with GTAW)
Minimum ultimate tensile
strength of the weld metal
Solid Electrode
Composition
6 = high silicon
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FCAW Electrode Classification
E70 T - 1
Electrode
Minimum UTS
70,000 psi
Position
Flux Cored /Tubular
Electrode
Type Gas, Usability
and Performance
American Welding Society Specification
AWS A5.20 and AWS A5.29.
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Torch gas mixtures
Inert gases (MIG)
Argon or helium or mixtures of these
Active base metals, Al, Mg, Ti

Active gases (MAG and FCAW)
Carbon dioxide
Argon plus oxygen and/or carbon dioxide
Nitrogen, hydrogen
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+Purpose of shielding gas is the protect the weld area from
the contaminants in the atmosphere

+Gas can be Inert, Reactive, or Mixtures of both

+Gas flow rate is between 25-35 CFH

+Argon, Helium, and Carbon Dioxide are the main three
gases used in GMAW
Shielding Gases
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Carbon Dioxide
Advantages
1) Inexpensive
2) Low heat radiation
3) Superior depth to width ratio
4) Lower hydrogen in weld metal

Disadvantages
1) Higher spatter levels
2) Narrow voltage band
3) Does not produce true spray transfer
4) Fully basic wires produce superior physical
characteristics with CO2
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Shielding Gas Characteristics
Argon
Chemically inert, forms no compounds. Used for aluminium and its
alloys in spray transfer and pulse modes. Gives a good, stable arc.
Can promote good penetration; however, weld bead profile tends to
be irregular.
Carbon
Dioxide
Cheapest welding gas. Used for carbon steels and low alloy steels
in dip transfer mode. Arc tends to be rather unstable and welding
conditions are difficult to optimize. High levels of spatter may be
produced. Penetration is deep and bulbous Will not support spray
transfer conditions.
Argon
90%+5%Co2
Gives a good, stable arc. Used for carbon steels and low alloy
steels. Supports all modes of metal transfer. Penetration is
generally narrow and not as deep as CO2. Weld bead profile fairly
uniform. Less spatter than CO2.
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Introduction to arc welding
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Gas Metal Arc Welding-GMAW
Shielding Gas Characteristics
Argon
80%+20%Co2
Cheaper than the 95/5 mixture. Gives a stable arc. Widely used
for a broad range of ferrous alloys. Supports all modes of metal
transfer, but not commonly used for pulse welding Good
penetration, uniform weld bead profile.
Argon
98%+2%Co2
For welding stainless steels in the spray and pulsed modes. Gives
a stable arc which is hotter than the above gases. Oxygen reacts
with weld metal at toes to give smooth, feathered finish.
Argon/helium
Mixture
For aluminium and its alloys. Chemically inert, forms no
compounds. Produces a hotter arc than argon alone, so less
preheat is required when welding thick sections. Causes more
spatter than pure argon.
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Gas Metal Arc Welding-GMAW
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW Process is
Most suited for
Application
With Robots
96
Introduction to arc welding
Plasma Cutting, Welding & Surfacing
97
ANY QUESTIONS
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99

100

101
Wide use in manufacture

Occurs late in manufacturing process
Large number of practitioners
Cost is high proportion of manufactured item
Risk and cost of defective welds is high

Technology is complex
Welding is Special Process as per ISO
quality system standards
Process control is key to success
Introduction to arc welding
Importance of Welding
102
Solid phase welding
Hot processes
Forge welding
Friction welding
Diffusion bonding

Cold processes
Ultrasonic welding
Explosive welding
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Allied processes
Thermal cutting
Oxyfuel gas, plasma, laser cutting

Gouging
Air-arc, plasma, oxyfuel gas

Surfacing
Powder and arc spray coating
Clad welding, hardfacing
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Introduction to arc welding
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Polarity and Current Flow
I I
DCEP DCEN
Anode
Cathode
Cathode
Anode
Welding Electrode or "Electrode"
Work Electrode or "Work"
Straight
DCEN
Reverse
DCEP
Introduction to arc welding
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Ionization Potential

He 24.6 ev
Ar 15.8
N 15.6
Fe Vapour 7.9
Na Vapour 5.1
K Vapour 4.3
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Polarity Influence cathodic cleaning effect
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Volts
Amps
OCV
Constant Voltage Characteristic
Small change in voltage =
large change in amperage
The self
adjusting arc.
Large arc gap
Small arc gap
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O.C.V. Arc Voltage
Virtually no Change.
Voltage
Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic Used With
MIG/MAG, ESW & SAW < 1000 amps
100 200 300
33
32
31
Large Current Change
Small Voltage
Change.
Amperage
Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic
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Risk of slag
entrapment
Easy slag
removal
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Submerged arc welding Tandem arc
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Tandem arc SAW process - multiple wires
only for welding thick
sections (>30 mm)
not suitable for use in
narrow weld preparations
(root passes)
one 4 mm wire at 600 A,
6.8 kg/hr
tandem two 4 mm wires
at 600 A, 13.6 kg/hr
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High productivity
2 to 10 kg/ arc-hour
Up to 2m/min welding speed

Bulky, expensive and heavy equipment

Flat and horizontal positions only

Thicker sections ( 3 mm and above)

Mostly ferrous materials (also Ni alloys)
Submerged arc welding - Features
High productivity
2 to 10 kg/hour
Up to 2 m/min
Bulky, expensive and
heavy equipment
Flat and horizontal
positions only
Thicker sections (3mm
and above)
Mostly ferrous materials
(also Ni alloys)
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Submerged arc welding Tandem arc
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High dilution procedures
Square edges
Low cost of preparation
Fast travel speeds (acid
fluxes)
Maximum thickness
16 mm in one pass, 20 mm
in two
Location of bead is critical
High dilution leads to low
toughness
High cap height, lower
fatigue life
Single pass with temporary backing
Two pass weld
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Vee butt weld procedures
One, two or multipass
Vee or U preparations
Lower currents
Unlimited thickness
Excellent quality
60
included
1.5mm max
6mm
Introduction to arc welding
122
can be DCEN or DCEP
DCEN gives deep penetration
requires special power source
low frequency - up to 20 pulses/sec
(thermal pulsing)
better weld pool control
weld pool partially solidifies
between pulses
Type of
welding
current
can be sine or square wave
requires a HF current (continuous
or periodical)
provide cleaning action
DC
AC
Pulsed
current
Introduction to arc welding
123
simple method
tungsten electrode is in contact
with the workpiece!
high initial arc current due to
the short circuit
impractical to set arc length in
advance
electrode should tap the
workpiece - no scratch!
ineffective in case of AC
used when a high quality is not
essential
Arc initiation
method
Lift arc HF start
need a HF generator (spark-
gap oscillator) that generates a
high voltage AC output (radio
frequency) * costly
reliable method * required on
both DC (for start) and AC (to
re-ignite the arc)
can be used remotely
HF produce interference
requires superior insulation
Introduction to arc welding
124
usually peak current is 2-10
times background current
useful on metals sensitive to
high heat input
reduced distortions
in case of dissimilar thicknesses
equal penetration can be
achieved
Time
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Pulse
time
Cycle
time
Peak
current
Background
current
Average current
one set of variables can be used in all positions
used for bridging gaps in open root joints
require special power source
Introduction to arc welding
125
Electrode tip prepared for low
current welding
Electrode tip prepared for high
current welding
Vertex
angle
Penetration
increase
Increase
Bead width
increase
Decrease
2
-
2
,
5

t
i
m
e
s

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
d
e

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

Introduction to arc welding
126
Preflow and
postflow
Preflow Postflow
Shielding gas flow
Welding current
Flow rate
too low
Flow rate
too high
Introduction to arc welding
127
Advantages
High quality
Good control
All positions
Lowest H
2
process
Minimal cleaning
Autogenous welding
(No filler material)
Can be automated

Disadvantages
High skill factor required
Low deposition rate
Small consumable range
High protection required
Complex equipment
Low productivity
High ozone levels +HF
Introduction to arc welding
128
Argon (Ar):
higher density than air; low thermal conductivity * the
arc has a high energy inner cone; good wetting at the
toes; low ionisation potential
Helium (He):
lower density than air; high thermal conductivity *
uniformly distributed arc energy; parabolic profile; high
ionisation potential
Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
):
cheap; deep penetration profile; cannot support spray
transfer; poor wetting; high spatter
Ar Ar-He
He
CO
2

Introduction to arc welding
129
Introduction to arc welding
130
Automatic orbital GTAW
Introduction to arc welding
131
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Pulsed Transfer
Transfer-mode advantages
O Good fusion
O Small weld pool allows all-position welding

Transfer-mode disadvantages
O More complex & expensive power source
O Difficult to set parameters - requires power source
manufacturer to provide pulse programmes to suit wire
type, dia. and type of gas
Introduction to arc welding
132
Dip Transfer
Dip transfer occurs when current & voltage settings are low
(typically < ~ 200amps & ~ 22volts)
There is just enough energy to give an arc and cause fusion at
the tip of the wire
A droplet grows to a size larger than the wire diameter and
eventually extinguishes the arc - causing a short-circuit
The short circuit causes the current rises very quickly giving
energy to violently pinch-off the droplet
This is akin to blowing a fuse and causes spatter
When the droplet detaches, the arc is re-established and the
current falls
This cycle occurs at up to ~ 200 times per second
Introduction to arc welding
133
Dip transfer
Transfer occur due to short circuits between
wire and weld pool, high level of spatter,
need inductance control to limit current raise
Can use pure CO
2
or Ar- CO
2
mixtures as
shielding gas
Metal transfer occur when arc is
extinguished
Requires low welding current/arc voltage, a
low heat input process. Resulting in low
residual stress and distortion
Used for thin materials and all position welds
Introduction to arc welding
134
Dip Transfer
Transfer-mode advantages
The low energy conditions allow welding in all positions
It can be used for the root run on single-sided welds
It can be used for welding thin materials
Transfer-mode disadvantages
It frequently gives lack of fusion and may not be allowed
in semi-automatic mode for high-integrity applications
It tends to give spatter
(this can be reduced/controlled by having an inductance
control on the power source)
Introduction to arc welding
135
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
136
Spray Transfer
When current & voltage are raised together higher energy
is available for fusion (typically > ~ 25 volts & ~ 250 amps)
This causes a fine droplets of weld metal to be sprayed
from the tip of the wire into the weld pool
Transfer-mode advantages
High energy gives good fusion
High rates of weld metal deposition are given
These characteristics make it suitable for welding
thicker joints
Transfer-mode disadvantages
It cannot be used for positional welding
Introduction to arc welding
137
Spray transfer
Transfer occur due to pinch effect
NO contact between wire and weld
pool!
Requires argon-rich shielding gas
Metal transfer occur in small
droplets, a large volume weld pool
Requires high welding current/arc
voltage, a high heat input process.
Resulting in high residual stress
and distortion
Used for thick materials and
flat/horizontal position welds
Introduction to arc welding
138
Pulsed transfer
Controlled metal transfer, one droplet per pulse,
No transfer between droplet and weld pool!
Requires special power sources
Metal transfer occur in small droplets (diameter equal
to that of electrode)
Requires moderate welding current/arc voltage, a
reduced heat input . Resulting in smaller residual
stress and distortion compared to spray transfer
Pulse frequency controls the volume of weld pool,
used for root runs and out of position welds
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139 of 691
Feb-14
Pulsed transfer
Controlled metal transfer. one droplet
per pulse. NO transfer during
background current!
Requires special power sources
Metal transfer occur in small droplets
(diameter equal to that of electrode)
Requires moderate welding current/arc voltage, reduced
heat input smaller residual stress and distortions
compared to spray transfer
Pulse frequency controls the volume of weld pool, used
for root runs and out of position welds
Introduction to arc welding
140
MIG/MAG-methods of metal transfer
Globular transfer
Transfer occur due to gravity or
short circuits between drops and
weld pool
Requires CO
2
shielding gas
Metal transfer occur in large drops
(diameter larger than that of
electrode) hence severe spatter
Requires high welding current/arc
voltage, a high heat input process.
Resulting in high residual stress
and distortion
Non desired mode of transfer!
Introduction to arc welding
141
Current type and polarity
Usually DCEP, deep
penetration, better
resistance to porosity

DCEN increase
deposition rate but
reduce penetration
(surfacing)

AC used to avoid arc
blow; can give unstable
arc

Introduction to arc welding
142
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
Introduction to arc welding
Pay off pack drum
And dispenser
143
Gas metal arc welding
Introduction to arc welding
144
Introduction to arc welding
145
Plasma Cutting, Welding & Surfacing
Introduction to arc welding
146
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
147
Introduction to arc welding
GMAW & FCAW processes
148
can be DCEN or DCEP
DCEN gives deep penetration
requires special power source
low frequency - up to 20 pulses/sec
(thermal pulsing)
better weld pool control
weld pool partially solidifies between
pulses
Type of
welding
current
can be sine or square wave
requires a HF current (continuos
or periodical)
provide cleaning action
DC
AC
Pulsed
current
Introduction to arc welding
149
Current type influence
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Electrode capacity
Current type & polarity
Heat balance
Oxide cleaning action
Penetration
DCEN DCEP AC (balanced)
70% at work
30% at electrode
50% at work
50% at electrode
35% at work
65% at electrode
Deep, narrow Medium Shallow, wide
No Yes - every half cycle Yes
Excellent
(e.g. 3,2 mm/400A)
Good
(e.g. 3,2 mm/225A)
Poor
(e.g. 6,4 mm/120A)
Introduction to arc welding
150
Stringer Bead Technique Weaving technique
Introduction to arc welding
151
Advantages Disadvantages
High productivity
Easily automated
All positional (dip & pulse)
Material thickness range
Continuous electrode
Wide range of application
Lack of fusion (dip)
Small range of consumables
Protection on site
Complex equipment
Not so portable
Introduction to arc welding
152
ANY QUESTIONS
Introduction to arc welding
153