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Architecture 324

Structures II

Structures II

Slide 2/21

Standard section shapes: W wide flange S american standard beam C american standard channel L angle WT or ST structural T Pipe Structural Tubing

Structures II

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Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Beams:

Deeper sections Flange thicker than web

Structures II

Slide 4/21

Columns: Closer to square Thicker web & flange

Beams:

Deeper sections Flange thicker than web

Structures II

Slide 5/21

Yield Stress Values

A36 Carbon Steel Fy = 36 ksi A992 High Strength Fy = 50 ksi

Fb = 0.66 Fy Compact Section = Lc

Lc <

l < Lu

l

Fv = 0.40 Fy fv=V/(twd)

University of Michigan, TCAUP

Source: AISC, Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design, 9th ed. 1989

Structures II

Slide 6/21

Calculate Required Moment Assume Allowable Stress Fb = 0.66Fy = 24 ksi (A36) Fb = 0.60Fy = 21.6 ksi (A36)

Mc M fb Fb I S M S Fb

Choose a section based on S from the table (D-35 and D-36) Bold faced sections are lighter Fy is the stress up to which the section is compact ( is ok for all grades of Fy)

Source: Structural Principles, I. Engel 1984

Structures II

Slide 7/21

Find Load w in KLF 1. Find the Section Modulus for the given section from the tables (D-35 and D-36). 2. Determine the maximum moment equation.

Structures II

Slide 8/21

W30x116

4. Using the maximum moment equation, solve for the distributed loading, w.

w = 1.28 KLF

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Structures II

Slide 9/21

Example

1. Use the maximum moment equation, and solve for the moment, M.

Structures II

Slide 10/21

Example

3. Choose a section based on Sx from the table (D35 and D36). 4. Most economical section is: W16 x 40 Sx = 64.7 in3

Structures II

Slide 11/21

Example

5. Add member self load to M and recheck Fb (we skip this step here)

Structures II

Slide 12/21

Example

6. Check Deflections

compare to code limits if the actual deflection

a stiffer section is needed

Structures II

Slide 1335

Composite Design

Steel W section with concrete slab attached by shear studs. The slab acts as a wider and thicker compression flange.

Structures II

Slide 14/21

Slab on both sides: (Least of the three)

Total width: of the beam span Overhang: 8 x slab thickness Overhang: the clear distance to next beam (i.e. the web on center spacing)

Total width: 1/12 of the beam span Overhang: 6 x slab thickness Overhang: the clear distance to next beam

Structures II

Slide 15/21

Analysis Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4. Define effective flange width Calculate n = Ec/Es Transform Concrete width = n bc Calculate Transformed Itr do NOT include concrete in tension

f steel

Mc I tr Mc n I tr

5. If load is known, calculate stress or 6. If finding maximum load use allowable stresses. The lesser M will determine which material controls the section.

f conc

Fsteel I tr Ms c Fconc I tr Mc cn

Structures II

Slide 16/21

Given: DLslab = 62.5 psf DLbeam = 135 plf n = 1/9 fsteel = 24 ksi ( Fy = 36 ) fconc = 1.35 ksi

For this example the floor capacity is found for two different floor systems:

1. Find capacity of steel section independent from slab 2. Find capacity of steel and slab as a composite

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Structures II

Slide 17/21

Find section modulus, Sx in chart. Assume an allowable stress, Fb. Determine the total moment capacity of the section, M. Subtract the DL moment to find the remaining LL moment. Calculate LL capacity in PSF.

Structures II

Slide 18/21

1. Determine effective width of slab. (using 90y92) 2. Find n=Ec/Es (1/9)

Structures II

Slide 19/21

Composite Analysis

cont.

Use parallel axis theorem.

Ia=Ig+Ad2

Structures II

Slide 20/21

5. Calculate moment capacity for steel and concrete each assuming full allowable stress level.

Structures II

Slide 21/21

7. Subtract the DL moment to find the remaining LL moment.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Structures II

Slide 22/21

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