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2009, Peter Von Buelow

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University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 2/23

Architecture 324

Structures II

Reinforced Concrete - WSD

Material Properties

Stress in Beams

Transformed Sections

Analysis by WSD

Design by WSD

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 3/23

Constituents of Concrete

Sand

Aggregate

Cement

Water

limestone aggregate

~ 1.5

~ 3/8 aggregate

Fine aggregate

(Sand)

1/4

Photos: CC:BY-SA Emadrazo (wikipedia)

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 4/23

Cement Types

Type 1

normal portland cement. Type 1 is a

general use cement.

Type 2

is used for structures in water or soil

containing moderate amounts of sulfate,

or when heat build-up is a concern.

Type 3

high early strength. Used when high

strength are desired at very early periods.

Type 4

low heat portland cement. Used where the

amount and rate of heat generation must

be kept to a minimum.

Type 5

Sulfate resistant portland cement. Used

where water or soil is high in alkali.

Types IA, IIA and IIIA are cements used to

make air-entrained concrete.

Constituents of Concrete

Sand

Aggregate

Water

Cement

Limestone

Cement rock

Clay

Iron ore

+ (after firing and grinding)

gypsum

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 5/23

Workability

Measured by the inches of slump of

a molded cone of fresh mix.

range 1 to 4 with vibration

2 to 6 without vibration

Water/Cement Ratio

range 0.4 to 0.7

for strength: higher is weaker

for workability: higher is better

Cement Content

LBS per cubic yard

range 400-800

dependent on aggregate

increases cost

Photos: CC:BY-SA Tano (wikipedia)

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 6/23

Reinforcing

Grade = Yield strength

gr. 40 is 40 ksi

gr. 60 is 60 ksi

Size in 1/8 inch increments

#4 is inch dia.

#6 is inch dia.

Deformation Patterns

add to bond with concrete

Spacing

between bars

Bar diameter

1

5/4 x max agg.

between layers

1

coverage

3 against soil

1.5-2 exterior

3/4 interior

Reinforcement of Weidatalbrcke

CC:BY-SA Strfix (wikipedia)

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 7/23

Curing

Strength increases with age. The

design strength is 28 days.

Source: Portland Cement Association

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 8/23

Strength Measurement

Compressive strength

12x6 cylinder

28 day moist cure

Ultimate (failure) strength

Tensile strength

12x6 cylinder

28 day moist cure

Ultimate (failure) strength

Split cylinder test

Ca. 10% to 20% of fc

'

c

f

'

t

f

Photos: Source: Xb-70 (wikipedia)

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 9/23

Youngs Modulus

Depends on density and strength

For normal (144 PCF) concrete

Examples

fc E

3000 psi 3,140,000 psi

4000 psi 3,620,000 psi

5000 psi 4,050,000 psi

' 5 . 1

33

c c c

f w E

'

57000

c c

f E

Source: Ronald Shaeffer

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 10/23

Flexure and Shear in Beams

Reinforcement must be placed to resist

these tensile forces

In beams continuous over supports, the

stress reverses (negative moment).

In such areas, tensile steel is on top.

Shear reinforcement is provided by vertical

or sloping stirrups.

Cover protects the steel.

Adequate spacing allows consistent

casting.

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 11/23

Flexure WSD Method

Assumptions:

Plane sections remain plane

Hookes Law applies

Concrete tensile strength is

neglected

Concrete and steel are totally

bonded

Allowable Stress Levels

Concrete = 0.45fc

Steel = 20 ksi for gr. 40 or gr. 50

= 24 ksi for gr. 60

Transformed Section

Steel is converted to equivalent

concrete.

c

s

E

E

n

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 12/23

Flexure Analysis

Procedure:

1. Assume the section is cracked to

the N.A

2. Determine the modular ratio:

3. Transform the area of steel to

equivalent concrete, nAs

4. Calculate the location of the N.A.

using the balanced tension and

compression to solve for x.

5. Calculate the transformed Moment

of Inertia.

6. Calculate a maximum moment

based first on the allowable conc.

stress and again on the allowable

steel stress.

7. The lesser of the two moments will

control.

t

t

c

c

x A x A

b

d

N.A.

x

d-x

Ac

nAs

fc

fs/n

As

x

x

_

t

c

_

c

tr c

c

c

I f

M

t

tr s

s

nc

I f

M

x c

c

x d c

t

0

2

2

2

d nA x nA x

b

x d nA

x

bx

x A x A

s s

s

t

t

c

c

2

3

3

x d nA

bx

I

s tr

c

s

E

E

n

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 13/23

1. Assume the section is

cracked to the N.A.

2. Determine the

transformation ratio, n

3. Transform the area of

steel to equivalent

concrete, nAs

Example Flexure Analysis

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 14/23

4. Calculate the N.A. using

the balanced tension

and compression to

solve for x.

A

c

x

c

= A

t

x

t

Example Flexure Analysis cont.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 15/23

5. Calculate the

transformed Moment

of Inertia.

Example - Flexure Analysis cont.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 16/23

6. Calculate a

maximum moment

based first on the

allowable concrete

stress and again on

the allowable steel

stress.

7. The lesser of the

two moments will

control.

Example Flexure Analysis cont.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 17/23

Effect of r

The behavior of the beam at failure (mode of failure)

is determined by the relative amount of steel present

measured by r.

r = 0

No steel used. Brittle (sudden) failure.

r min

Just enough steel to prevent brittle failure

r < r balance

Steel fails first ductile failure (desirable)

r balance = r max

Steel and concrete both stressed to allowable limit

r > r balance

Concrete fails first brittle failure (not desirable)

bd

A

s

r

balanced

y

c

y

f

f

f

r r

r

r

max

'

min

18 . 0

200

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 18/23

Calculate r balance

Procedure:

1. Draw stress diagram using allowable

stresses fc and fs/n

2. Use similar triangles to find x and

bar_x

s

3. Find bar_x

c

= x/2

4. Use moments of areas on transformed

section to solve for As.

5. Calculate r bal = As/bd

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 19/23

Internal Couple Method

Uses the internal force couple T & C to

determine the moment

Defines factors k and j that can be

used to find depth of stress block and

moment arm of couple

Provides equations for analysis or

design.

c

s

E

E

n

bd

A

s

r

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 20/23

Analysis by Internal Couple

Example :

1. Find r =As/bd

2. Find k

3. Calculate j

4. Calculate either force T or C

5. Calculate M using either T or C

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 21/23

Flexure Design

Procedure:

1. Determine load conditions.

choose material grade, fc

calculate n = Es/Ec

estimate size, choose b and

estimate d

determine loads (+ member DL)

calculate moment

2. Choose a target steel ratio, .

3. Sketch the stress diagram with

force couple.

4. Calculate d based on the required

moment.

5. Calculate As.

6. Choose bar sizes and spacing.

7. Choose beam size and revise

(back to step 1 with new b, d and )

.

3

2

2

1

d

b

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 22/23

1. As a simplification the

moment is given = 200 ft-k.

d will be determined based

on the moment.

f'c is given as 4000 psi

n is found = 8.

Example Flexure Design

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 23/23

2. Steel ratio, As/bd is taken

as balanced for this

problem.

3. Using similar triangles,

determine depth of

reinforcement, D in

relationship to depth of

compression zone, x.

Calculate the compression

zone resultant, R

c

in terms

of x

R

c

= f

c

Bx/2

4. Use the internal moment

couple

M = R

c

(D-x/3)

to solve for x and D.

Example Flexure Design cont.

Source: University of Michigan, Department of Architecture

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 24/23

5. Calculate As using

R

c

= R

t

and

R

t

= A

s

f

s

6. Choose bar sizes and

spacing.

Area >= As

c.g. = D

must be symetric

minimum spacing

7. Choose cover,

recalculate dead load,

iterate with new

moment.

Example - Flexure Design cont.

Source: ACI-318-05

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