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Sedimentation discussion

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Solid-Liquid

Separation in

Water Treatment

Settling and Flotation

J(Hans) van Leeuwen, DEE

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Introduction

The need to clarify water -

Aesthetic and health reasons

Technologies available

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Topics of Discussion

Separation by settling

Separation by flotation

Direct filtration

Softening

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Typical surface water

treatment process

Ferric/alum sludge

Ferric/

Alum

Screen

T

R

E

A

t

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Typical water treatment

process with lime softening

Lime sludge

Ca(OH)

2

Lime

OR

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Typical layout of a water treatment plant

Solid- liquid separation in water treatment

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Analysis of

Forces Acting

On a Settling

Particle

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Archimedess Principle

Examination of the nature of buoyancy shows that the

buoyant force on a volume of water and a submerged object

of the same volume is the same. Since it exactly supports

the volume of water, it follows that the buoyant force on any

submerged object is equal to the weight of the water

displaced. This is the essence of Archimedes principle.

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Terminal Velocity of a Particle

An expression for V

t

from the submerged weight of

the particle, W, and the fluid drag force, D.

The drag force on a particle is given by

D = C

D

l

A

p

V

t

2

/2

The submerged weight of the particle can be expressed as

W = ( -

l

)g

s

Since D = W, the above, after substituting A

p

and

p

for particle diameter d

_______________

V

t

= / 4 ( -

l

) gd

3

l

C

D

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Stokess Law

R

e

< 1, C

D

= 24 /Re

Substitute in the equation for v

t

V

t

=

g ( -

l

) d

2

18

V

t

=

2 ( -

l

)gr

2

9

The upflow velocity in a settling tank needs to be < V

t

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(20-40 m

3

m

-2

d

-1

)

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Activated Sludge Mass Balance over Settler

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Weir Details

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LAMELLA SETTLING TANKS:

Shortening the settling distance

Pipe

bundles

also used

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(20 40 m

3

m

-2

d

-1

or 0.8 1.7 m/h)

(2.5 mm/s) limits weir loading rate to

100 200 m

3

m

-1

d

-1

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Sludge Thickening Design

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FLOTATION

Separation of low density flocs

If flocs have a density very close

to that of water, it may be

necessary to decrease their

density by adding gas bubbles

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FLOTATION

Separation of low density flocs

Methods of forming gas bubbles

Diffusion

Vacuum

Electrolysis

Dissolved air

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Surface Tension and Bubbles

The surface tension of water provides the wall tension

for the formation of bubbles. To minimize the wall tension

the bubble pulls into a spherical shape (LaPlace's law).

Pressure difference between the inside and outside of

a bubble depends upon the surface tension and the radius

of the bubble. Visualize the bubble as two hemispheres

Note the internal pressure which tends to push the

hemispheres apart is counteracted by the surface tension

acting around the circumference of the circle.

For a bubble with two surfaces providing tension, the

pressure relationship is:

P

i

P

o

= 4T/r

P

i

P

o

P

i

T

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La Place's Law

The larger the vessel radius, the larger the wall tension

required to withstand a given internal fluid pressure.

For a given vessel radius and internal pressure, a spherical

vessel will have half the wall tension of a cylindrical vessel.

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Wall Tension

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Why does wall tension increase with radius?

If the upward part of the fluid pressure remains the same, then the

downward component of the wall tension must remain the same.

If the curvature is less, then the total tension must be greater in

order to get that same downward component of tension.

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Bubble Pressure

Net upward force on the top hemisphere of the bubble:

F

upward

= (P

i

P

o

)r

2

The surface tension force downward around circle is

twice the surface tension times the circumference,

since two surfaces contribute to the force:

F

downward

= 2T(2r)

P

i

P

o

P

i

T

P

i

P

o

= 4T/r for a spherical bubble

P

i

P

o

= 2T/r for half a bubble

8/13/2014 water treatment 33

Attachment to floc

Ratio of area/volume increases

with decreasing size

Forces acting on a gas bubble:

Internal pressure x area

= surface tension x circumference

Easier for bubble to form against

solid

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Stokess law for flotation

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Essential Elements in a Flotation Unit Process

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Dissolved Air Flotation

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Saturation tank for flotation

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Overview of solid-liquid separation alternatives in water

Direct

Filtration

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What you need to be able to do

Be able to size settling tanks on the basis

of particle settling rates and identify

important zones in the settling tank

Be able to do a mass balance over a

flotation unit to account for air usage

Be able to size a flotation unit based on

particle sizes and densities

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