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Slide 7.

Motivation at Work

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.2

Chapter Seven+other sources


Work Motivation and Job
Satisfaction

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.3

Some assumptions about people


People will defend their self interest
People instinctively want autonomy (even if they do not
want responsibility
People have a model of what ought to be
People have a comparison mechanism
People have a sense of equity
People will make sense of everything in their own way
People will process away negative feelings
People will always differentiate and stereotype
People will resist change

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.4

12 human needs

Family
Health and well-being
Work/career
Economic
Learning
Home/shelter
Social relationships
Spirituality
Community
Leisure
Mobility and
environment/safety
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.5

motives
According to Loscocco (1989), every
working person has a certain order of
priorities with regard to what she or he
seeks from work.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.6

WHY DO PEOPLE COME TO


WORK---the role of motivation?

Economic benefits
Contribute to society
Status
Self-respect
Structures the passage of time
Helps ward off depressing thoughts and feelings
Provides scope for personal achievement
Tests and affirms our personal competences
It must be noted that the worker productivity is affected
by the specific motives for coming to work.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.7

The needs and expectations of


people at work

Figure 7.2

Needs and expectations of people at work


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.8

GOALS- JOHN HUNT1992

Comfort
Structure
Relationships
Recognition
Power
Autonomy, Creativity, Growth

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.9

FARREN reminds us that:


Work and private life in the new
millennium will continue to revolve around
these twelve needs which can be
categorised in a number of ways.
Either simply as physiological (intrinsic)
and social motives or into intrinsic and
extrinsic (tangible rewards) motivation.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.10

Reason for Action (Warr, 1985)


Intrinsic desirability of
an immediate
outcome
consequential
outcomes
social comparison
social pressures

Trends in aspiration
levels
perceived probability
of success
habits
other wants & actions
the structure of action

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.11

What questions are asked about


motivation?
What motivates? (content theories)
How does motivation work? (process
theories)
Is it individual or can there be group
motivation?
How can I motivate people?
What are we motivating people for?
Is it only managers who motivate?
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.12

What are we motivating people for?

To work harder?
To be flexible about the job?
To be loyal employees?
To be committed employees?
To learn new skills?
To be part of a group?
To abandon old skills?
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.13

So what is motivation: Concept


The underlying concept of motivation is
some driving force within individuals by
which they attempt to achieve some goal
in order to fulfill some need or expectation.
(Mullins 2005:471)

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.14

Mullins (1992)
Mullins (1992) defined motivation as the direction and
persistence of action. He stated that the driving force of
motivation is towards the satisfaction of certain needs
and expectations.
Other researchers such as Nicholson et al. (1995) refers
motivation to a dynamic, internal state resulting from the
independent and joint influences of continuous interplay
between personal, situational, and organizational factors.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.15

Motivation: Definitions

The determinants that influence the selection, activation, and sustained


direction of behavior (Bandura, 1991)

The processes underlying the initiation, intensity and persistence of


behavior (Geen, 1995)

What energizes behavior, what directs behavior, and how this behavior is
sustained (Steers & Porter, 1991)

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.16

Caution!
The complexity of the interacting variables
listed needs to be recognised.
In practice this is represented in a simple
model of needs and expectations at work.
- intrinsic satisfaction
- economic rewards
- social relationships

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.17

MOTIVATION
Motivation is getting people to do willingly
and well those things which have to be
done. In other words, it is a force that
energizes and sustains behaviour towards
a goal. Motivation is important in any job if
people are to give in their best.
Motivation is the degree to which an
individual wants and chooses to engage in
certain specified behaviours
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Four characteristics of definitions of


motivation:

Slide 7.18

Motivation is typified as an individual


phenomenon.
Motivation is described, usually, as intentional.
Motivation is multifaceted.
The purpose of motivational theories is to
predict behaviour.
Mitchell

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.19

The Concept of Motivation


(Westwood, 1992)
Internal state

Multifaceted

Desire & intention

Individual
differences

Element of choice &


intention

Variable motivational
state

Action & performance


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.20

SIGNS OF MOTIVATION
High performance and results being
consistently achieved
There is energy, enthusiasm and
determination to succeed.
Cooperation in overcoming problems
Willingness of individuals to accept
responsibility.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.21

SIGNS OF LACK OF MOTIVATION


Apathy and indifference to the job
Poor record keeping and high
absenteeism
Exaggeration of problem, disputes and
grievances.
Resistance to change

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.22

Motivation and performance


Peoples behaviour is determined by what
motivates them. Their performance is a
product of both ability level and motivation.
Performance = function (ability motivation)
Motivation-influence-drive
(Influence is the process of attempting to modify
others' behaviour

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.23

Motivation

Self Confidence
(feelings and emotions)

Performance

Ability
(level of knowledge and skill)

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.24

A basic motivational model

Figure 7.1

A simplified illustration of the basic motivational model


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.25

Core Phases of the


Motivational Process

1. Employee
identifies
needs.

6. Employee
reassesses
need
deficiencies.

2. Employee
searches for
ways to satisfy
these needs.

3. Employee
selects goaldirected
behaviors.

5. Employee
receives either
rewards or
punishments.

4. Employee
performs.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.26

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation


Extrinsic-external to work
and indiividual- motivation
(org level: no control by
managers)
Related to tangible
rewards, e.g. salary and
fringe benefits, security,
promotion, conditions of
work/work environment,
contract of service.

Intrinsic-arising from form


performance of work
itself- motivation
(actions and beh. Of
individual managers)
Related to psychological
rewards, e.g. a sense of
challenge and
achievement, receiving
appreciation.
Positive recognition and
being treated in a caring
and considerate manner

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.27

Higher motivational needs system (best performing


companies possess a set of values

Attachment / affiliation
the need for engagement and sharing, a feeling of
community and a sense of belonging.

Exploration / assertion
the ability to play and work, a sense of fun and
enjoyment, the need for self-assertion and the
ability to choose.
Kets de Vries
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.28

Broad classification for


motivation at work (simplistic but
useful)

Economic rewards
such as pay, fringe benefits, pension rights, security
(instrumental orientation and other things).(

Intrinsic satisfaction
derived from the nature of work itself (personal
orientation to work and concerned with ones self).

Social relationships
such as friendships, group working, status and
dependency (relational orientation concerned with
other people).
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.29

Broader concerns such as :


Work/life balance
Opportunities for flexible working,
Career advancement and personal growth
and development
Feeling of identification with values of the
organisation.
Remember the psychological contract
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.30

A basic model of frustration

Figure 7.3

A basic model of frustration


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.31

Constructive behaviour
A positive reaction to the blockage of
desired goal and can take the form of
Problem solving-removal of the barrier
Restructuring or compromise-substitute
alternative goal.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.32

Negative responses

Frustration
is a negative response to blockage of desired goals and
results in defensive form of behaviour such as:
Aggression
-physical or verbal attack/Displaced aggression-easier or
safer person to turn frustration on
Regression
- reverting to primitive or childish behaviour such as
sulking, crying, tantrums etc.
Fixation continue action with no results
Withdrawal apathy, giving up or resigning-absenteeism, sickness,
coming late , leaving early.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.33

Factors influencing individual


reactions to frustration
The level and potency of need
The degree of attachment to the desired
goal
The strength of motivation
The perceived nature of the barrier or
blocking agent
The personality characteristics of the
individual
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.34

Reducing potential frustration


Effective recruitment,
selection and socialisation

Recognition and rewards


Effective communications

Training and development


Job design and work
organisation
Equitable personnel
policies

Participative styles of
management
Attempting to understand
the individuals perception
of the situation

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.35

Money as a motivator
F.W. Taylor and the rational economic concept of
motivation saw money as the main motivator
If the 1980s were all about money in more recent years
time has become the new money, and quality-of-life
issues have come to the fore. Benefits that replenish the
psychological contract are becoming the most valuable.
So holiday arrangements, career breaks and potential for
flexible hours and homeworking are now on the agenda.
Saunders

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.36

The Motivation to Work


Is there a relationship between money and
happiness?
Adaptation
Comparison
Alternatives
Worry

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.37

Key Approaches to Motivation


in the Workplace

Meeting basic human needs


Designing jobs that motivate people
Enhancing the belief that desired rewards
can be achieved
Treating people equitably

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.38

Factors Necessary for Arousing Employee


Motivation

Individuals must be:


Attracted to join the organization and remain in it
Allowed to perform the tasks for which they were
hired
Stimulated to go beyond routine performance and
become creative and innovative in their work

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.39

Types of motivation theory


Motivation theories, according to Fulop and
Linstead (2004) have been centered on two
main approaches to application but
emphasises that neither is holistic but rather
they compliment each other.
One concentrates on how performance-based
schemes (what) could be developed to reward
organizational members while the other
concentrates on the designing of work so as
to increase performance outcomes(how) for
both organizational and individual benefits.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Main theoretical approaches: All the widely

Slide 7.40

accepted theories of motivation can be classified as either Content


theories or Process theories though a contemporary addition of
information processing theories has been added recently.

Main theoretical approaches:


Content theories:

what

Need Theory: what

Process theories:

how

Cognitive Theory: how

Theories numerous
Content theories based on psychological needs
(Maslow, Herzberg, Alderfer)
Process theories explaining how the motivational drive
is activated (expectancy theory, equity theory)
Information theories based on how situational
information is processed. (note that to date no coherent
body of theory so still unconclucive)
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.41

Schools of Thought
How motivation works
Emphasis on what
motivates
Static

Emphasis on process
Dynamic

Content

Process

Behavioural

Cognitive

Focus on behaviour
Responses to stimuli

Consciousness / Rationality
Goals & behaviour
known & calculable

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.42

Main theories of work motivation

Figure 7.4

An overview of main theories of work motivation


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.43

Content and process theories


of motivation
Content

Theories(what
causes them to divert efforts
towards certain kinds of
desired outcome)

Main theorists include:


Abraham Maslow
Clayton Alderfer
F Herzberg
D McClelland

Process Theories-how
people become
motivated)
Main theorists include:
Vroom
Porter and Lawler
Adams
Locke

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.44

MOTIVATION THEORIES-MASLOWS
Abraham Maslow thinking was centered round a hierarchy of
needs. It operates in a ascending order. As one need
becomes satisfied, the next ascending need uncovers.

The needs that Maslow identified were as follows:


Physiological: food, shelter, clothing etc
Security:
job security, stable relationships,
social security etc
Social needs : group identity, love , belongingness
Esteem :
recognition, status etc
Self-actualization : realizing ones aspirations
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.45

Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


Needs for
self-actualisation
Esteem Needs
Love/Social Needs

Safety Needs
Physiological Needs

The deficit
principle
The prepotency
principle
The progression
principle
The need
structure is openended

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.46

Assumptions of Maslows
Needs Hierarchy

A satisfied need ceases to motivate behavior


Several needs affect a persons behavior at any one
time
Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher
level needs are activated
More ways to satisfy higher level needs than lower
level needs

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.47

Using the Needs Hierarchy Model


Satisfaction of deficiency needs fosters physical and
psychological health
Satisfaction of growth needs helps development as a
human being
If not blocked, higher level needs will emerge and
motivate behavior
Order of needs may be influenced by culture
Organizational position or team membership can
facilitate growth need satisfaction

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.48

Applying Maslows hierarchy

Table 7.1

Applying Maslows need hierarchy

Source: Steers, R. M. and Porter, L. W., Motivation and Work Behaviour, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill (1991), p. 35
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.49

Applying Maslows hierarchy (Continued)

Table 7.1

Applying Maslows need hierarchy (Continued)

Source: Steers, R. M. and Porter, L. W., Motivation and Work Behaviour, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill (1991), p. 35
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.50

Relating Maslows model to


work situations
There are a few problems doing this:
People do not necessarily satisfy their needs,
especially higher-level needs, just through work
There is doubt about the time that elapses between
satisfying lower-level and emergence of higher-level
needs
Some rewards or outcomes may satisfy more than
one need
The motivating factors may not be the same for each
person
Job satisfaction does not necessarily lead to improved
performance
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.51

Clayton Alderfers modified need


hierarchy model (ERG)
Existence needs
concerned with sustaining human existence and
survival and covers physiological and safety needs of
a material nature.

Relatedness needs
concerned with relationships to the social environment
and covers love or belonging, affiliation, and
meaningful interpersonal relationships.

Growth needs
concerned with the development of potential and
covers self-esteem and self-actualisation.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.52

FREDERICK HERZBERG
Frederick Herzberg and his
associates conducted research based
on the interview of 200 engineers and
accountants working in 11 different
firms to come out with the hygiene
factors and motivational factors. The
hygiene factors are related to the
work environment and are external to
the job.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.53

Herzbergs two-factor theory

Figure 7.6

Representation of Herzbergs two-factor theory


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.54

Hygiene factors
Salary, company policy and administration
Job security, working conditions, personal
life
Status , technical supervision, inter
personal relationships

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.55

Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory


Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to
remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given,
then satisfaction can occur.
Herzberg is limited by his procedure
Participants had self-serving bias

Reliability of raters questioned


Bias or errors of observation

No overall measure of satisfaction was used


Herzberg assumed, but didnt research, a strong
relationship between satisfaction and productivity
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-55
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.56

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

Job security
Feeling of achievement
Recognition
Responsibility
Advancement
Opportunity for growth
Challenging task.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.57

FREDERICK HERZBERG
APPROACH TO MOTIVATION

He deals with motivation through job design. The


theory is based on the belief that the factors that
tend to de-motivate employees are usually
associated with the work environment.
According to him factors that motivate are
related to the job itself as opposed to the
environment they include: achievement,
recognition, responsibility advancement and job
challenges. He concluded that true motivation
occurs when both motivators and hygiene
factors are present.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.58

Maslow, Alderfer and Herzberg

Table 7.2

Linking Maslows, Alderfers and Herzbergs theories of motivation


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.59

David McClellands theory


of needs

David McClellands theory of needs:

His view is that achievement, power, and affiliation are


three important needs that help explain motivation.
Need for achievement drive to excel, to achieve in
relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
Need for powerthe need to make others behave in a
way they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliationthe desire for friendly and close
interpersonal relations.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.60

McClellands Three Needs Theory


Need for Achievement (nAch)
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards, to strive to succeed

Need for Power (nPow)


The need to make others behave in a way that they
would not have behaved otherwise

Need for Affiliation (nAff)


The desire for friendly and close interpersonal
relationships

People have varying levels of each of the three needs


Hard to measure
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-60
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.61

Performance Predictions for High nAch


People with a high need for achievement are likely
to:
Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of
success avoiding very low or high risk situations
Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal
responsibility, feedback, and moderate risk
Dont necessarily make good managers too personal
a focus
Most good general managers do NOT have a high nAch
Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial
success

Good research support but it is not a very practical


theory
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-61
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.62

McClellands achievement
motivation theory
McClellands work investigated the relation between hunger needs
and extent to which imagery of food dominated thought processes.
He later identified four main arousal-based, and socially developed
motives:
Identified four arousal-based and socially developed motives,
namely:

Achievement motive
Power motive
Affiliative motive
Avoidance motive
The first three are roughly similar to Maslows upper three needs of
love,esteem and self-actualisation.
Difference exists between individuals and between occupations
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.63

McClellands Learned Needs

Power motive

Action that affects others behavior and has a strong emotional


appeal

Affiliation motive
Establish, maintain, and restore close personal relationships with
others

Achievement motive
Compete against a standard of excellence or provide a unique
contribution

63

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.64

Using the Achievement


Motivation Model
Provide periodic performance feedback to
employees
Provide good role models
Help employees modify self-images
Guide employee aspirations in setting and
attaining realistic goals
Communicate that managerial success is
related more to power than to affiliation
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.65

McClellands achievement
motivation theory
Use of Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)
in research (subjective but high validity)
Used to gauge an individuals motivation.
Show a number of pictures of activities
Look(10-15mins)
Describe what is happening, what the
characters are thinking and what situation
has led to that. Eg. below
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.66

Example of a TAT test

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.67

McClelland and achievement


need (n-Ach)
Four characteristics of people with a
strong achievement need (n-Ach):
They prefer moderate task difficulty and goals
as an achievement incentive.
They prefer personal responsibility for
performance.
They have the need for clear and
unambiguous feedback on performance.
They are more innovative.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.68

Characteristics of achievement
motivation
McClelland suggests the need for achievement can
be developed through four steps of training:
Striving to attain feedback on performance, reinforcing
of success which strengthens the desire to perform.
Developing models of achievement by seeking to
emulate people who have performed well.
Attempting to modify self-image and to see themselves
as needing challenges and success.
Controlling daydreaming and thinking about themselves
in more positive terms.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.69

Performance Predictions for High nAch


People with a high need for achievement are likely
to:
Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of
success avoiding very low or high risk situations
Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal
responsibility, feedback, and moderate risk
Dont necessarily make good managers too personal
a focus
Most good general managers do NOT have a high nAch
Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial
success

Good research support but it is not a very practical


theory
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-69
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.70

Cognitive Theory
Cognitive evaluation theory proposes that the
allocation of extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had
been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to
decrease the overall level of motivation. The argument
is that when performance is rewarded extrinsically the
intrinsic value that the performer has is reduced. This
theory is of little value to those whose work does not involve
factors that will foster intrinsic interest such as low-pay jobs.
Expectancy theory - Victor Vroom
Expectancy theory - Porter and Lawler
Goal setting theory - Latham and Locke

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.71

THE PROCES THEORIES OF


MOTIVATION
Process theories include those of:
Vroom
Expectancy and valence

Porter and Lawler


Expectancy

Adams
Equity theory

Locke
Goal theory
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.72

Expectancy TheoryThe strength of a tendency to act


in a certain way depends on the
strength of an expectation that the
act will be followed by a given
outcome and on the attractiveness
of that outcome to the individual.

--

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.73

Expectancy theory: the


motivational link

Figure 7.7

Expectancy theory: the motivational link


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.74

Vrooms expectancy theory


Based on the idea that people prefer certain
outcomes from their behaviour over others and
anticipate feelings of satisfaction should the
preferred outcome be achieved:
This feeling of anticipated satisfaction from an
outcome is termed valence
Expectancy is the perception of the probability
that the desired satisfaction will be achieved by
the chosen behaviour
The combination of valence and expectancy
determines the strength of individual motivation,
or motivational force
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.75

Motivational force
Motivation is the sum of the products of the
valences of all outcomes, multiplied by the
strength of expectancies that action will
result in the achievement of these
outcomes.
n

M = E V

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.76

Basic model of expectancy theory

Figure 7.8

Basic model of expectancy theory


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.77

Expectancy Model in Action


First-level Outcomes

Second-level Outcomes
Self-confidence

Effort
Attend class
Study
Take notes
Prepare for
exams

Performance:
Grade in Class

Self-esteem

A B C D F

Personal happiness
Overall GPA

Expectancy
Approval of others
Instrumentality

Respect of others

Source: Cron, Wm.L., Slocum, J.W., and VandeWalle, D. The role of goal orientation
following performance feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001, 86, 629-640.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.78

Basic Assumptions of the


Expectancy Model
A combination of forces determines behavior
Individuals decide their own behaviors in
organizations
Different individuals have different needs and goals,
and want different rewards
Individuals decide among alternatives based on their
perceptions

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.79

Porter and Lawlers motivation model

Figure 7.9

The Porter and Lawler motivation model

Source: From Porter, I. W. and Lawler, E. E., Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Copyright Richard D. Irwin Inc. (1968) p. 165
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.80

Key Variables in the


Expectancy Model
First-level outcomesresults of doing the job
Second-level outcomespositive or negative events
produced by first-level outcomes
Expectancyeffort-performance belief
Instrumentalityrelationship between first-level and
second-level outcomes.
Valencepreference for a second-level outcome

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.81

Implications of expectancy
theories
Managers need to
Use rewards appropriate in terms of individual
performance.
Attempt to establish clear relationships between
effortperformance and rewards, as perceived by the
individual.
Establish clear procedures for the evaluation of
individual levels of performance.
Pay attention to intervening variables.
Minimise undesirable outcomes that may be
perceived to result from a high level of performance,
e.g. industrial accidents.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.82

Potential Problems of the


Expectancy Model

Accurate measurement of effort is difficult


Lack of specification of relative importance
of second-level outcomes
Implicit assumption that motivation is a
conscious choice process
Works best in cultures that emphasize
internal attribution rather than fatalism
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.83

Organizational Uses of the Expectancy


Model
Determine outcomes that each employee values
Define performance levels in observable and
measurable terms
Ensure that desired performance can be attained
Link desired performance and employees desired
outcomes
Remember that motivation is based on perceptions
Eliminate factors that conflict with desired
behaviors
Make sure changes in rewards are linked to
employees effort
83

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.84

Examples of Inputs and Outcomes


in Organizations
INPUTS
Age
Attendance
Interpersonal skills,
communication skills
Job effort (long hours)
Level of education
Past experience
Performance
Personal appearance
Seniority
Social status
Technical skills
Training

OUTCOMES
Challenging job assignments
Fringe benefits
Job perquisites (parking space or
office location)
Job security
Monotony
Promotion
Recognition
Responsibility
Salary
Seniority benefits
Status symbols
Working conditions

Chapter 5: Achieving
84
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.85

Equity theory: Adams


individuals compare their job inputs
and outcomes with those of others and
then respond to eliminate any inequities.
Assumes that people will modify their behaviour by
the envious comparisons they make.
The comparisons are based on assumptions
rather than facts
Comparison matrix: my pay their pay: my effort
their effort: my investment their investment
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.86

Equity theory: Adams


Equity theory focuses on peoples feelings of how
fairly they have been treated in comparison with
the treatment received by others.
Suggests six broad types of possible behaviour
which result from a sense of inequity:

Changes to input levels


Changes to outcomes
Cognitive distortion of inputs and outcomes
Leaving the field
Acting on others
Changing the object of comparison
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.87

Inequity as a Motivational Process


Individual
perceives
inequality
Individual
experiences
tension
Individual
wants to
reduce
tension
Individual
takes
action
87

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.88

Ways to Reduce Tensions


Produced by Inequity
Actually change inputs
Actually change outcomes
Mentally distort inputs or outcomes
Leave organization or transfer to another
department
Change the reference group
Distort others inputs or outcomes

88

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.89

Organizational Uses
of the Equity Model
Treat employees fairly
People make decisions concerning equity
after comparing themselves with others
Procedural justice influences perceptions
of organizational fairness
89

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.90

Goal-setting Theory -- it is a cognitive approach and


postulates that specific and difficult
goals, with feedback, lead to higher
performance. Intentions to work toward
a goal are seen as a major source of
work motivation.( opposite is the
reinforcement theory which is behaviorist
in nature and postulates that behaviour is
a function of its consequences).
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.91

Goal theory: Locke

Figure 7.12

An illustration of Lockes theory of goal-setting


Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.92

Implications of goal theory


Practical implications for the manager of
goal theory include:
The need for systematic identification of
specific performance goals.
The need for goals to be challenging but
realistic.
The importance of complete, accurate and
timely feedback on results.
The need for goals to be determined either by
a superior or by the individuals themselves.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.93

Motivation of knowledge workers


(Tampoe 1994)
Knowledge workers are those who apply their
theoretical and practical understanding of an
area of knowledge to produce outcomes that
have commercial, social or personal value.
Could be doctors, scientists, computer and
personnel professionals, accountants, managers
etc.

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.94

Motivation of knowledge workers


(Tampoe 1994)

In addition to the individuals own motivation, the


performance of knowledge workers is dependent
upon a mixture of the following:
Personal growth, especially self-developments
rather than developing managerial or professional skills.
Autonomy, freedom to work within the rules.
Creative achievement, where work is of commercial
value. Financial rewards, where salary plus bonus or
personal effort is recognised

Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.95

Motivating knowledge workers

Figure 7.13

Motivating knowledge workers

Source: Reproduced with permission from Tampoe, M., Knowledge workers the new management challenge, Professional Manager, Institute of Management, November 1994, p. 13
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.96

So?????????????
It is generally assumed that individuals value
extrinsic as well as intrinsic job rewards.
Some workers may strongly emphasize both
types of rewards, some may place little value
on either, and others may emphasize one type
and de-emphasize the other. Nevertheless,
both forms of rewards contribute significantly
to the levels of employees motivation to work
(Herzberg et al., 1959).
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.97

Job Satisfaction
The term job satisfaction refers to a
collection of feelings that an individual
holds toward his or her job. One with
high level of job satisfaction holds
positive feelings about the job while
the person with who is dissatisfied with
his or her job holds negative feelings
about the job.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.98

The meaning and nature


of job satisfaction
An attitude or internal state that is
associated with the working environment
and working experiences.
Key questions for managers:
Does job satisfaction cause good
performance, or does good performance
cause job satisfaction?
Or both?
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.99

Job satisfaction dimensions


Levels of job satisfaction can be affected by a wide
range of variables including:
Individual factors
Social factors
Cultural factors
Organisational factors
Environmental factors
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.100

Five contractual areas relating


to job satisfaction 1

Table 7.3

Five contractual areas relating to job satisfaction

Source: Mumford, E., Job satisfaction: a method of analysis, Personnel Review, vol. 20, no. 3, 1991, p. 14. Reproduced with permission from Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.101

Five contractual areas relating


to job satisfaction 2

Table 7.3

Five contractual areas relating to job satisfaction (Continued)

Source: Mumford, E., Job satisfaction: a method of analysis, Personnel Review, vol. 20, no. 3, 1991, p. 14. Reproduced with permission from Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.102

Alienation at work
Alienation refers to the detachment of the
person from their work role. Marx viewed
the division of labour as a means by which
workers became estranged from their work.
Blauner identifies four dimensions of
alienation:
Powerlessness
Meaninglessness
Isolation
Self-estrangement
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.103

Broader approaches to job


satisfaction
Greater job satisfaction can be achieved through
Permitting workers greater freedom and control of the
scheduling and pacing of work.
Allowing workers to undertake a full task cycle.
Providing workers with tasks which challenge their
abilities and make full use of their expertise.
Giving workers greater freedom to work in selfmanaging teams.
Providing workers with the opportunity to have greater
direct contact with clients and customers.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.104

A job characteristics model of


work motivation

Figure 7.14

A job characteristics model of work motivation

Source: Hackman, J. R. and Oldham, G. R., Work Redesign, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. (1980), Figure 4.6, p. 90. Reproduced with
permission from Pearson Education, Inc.
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8th Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.105

Global Implications
Motivation theories are often culture-bound
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Order of needs is not universal

McClellands Three Needs Theory


nAch presupposes a willingness to accept risk and
performance concerns not universal traits

Adams Equity Theory


A desire for equity is not universal
Each according to his need socialist/former communists

Desire for interesting work seems to be universal


There is some evidence that the intrinsic factors of
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory may be universal
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-105
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007

Slide 7.106

Summary and Managerial Implications


Need Theories (Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland,
Herzberg)
Well known, but not very good predictors of behavior

Goal-Setting Theory
While limited in scope, good predictor

Reinforcement Theory
Powerful predictor in many work areas

Equity Theory
Best known for research in organizational justice

Expectancy Theory
Good predictor of performance variables but shares
many of the assumptions as rational decision making
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
6-106
Mullins, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 8

th

Edition, Laurie J. Mullins 2007