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Seismic Design of

Concrete
Structure

Seismic Design of Concrete


Structure
Earthquakes occur in many regions of the
world. In certain locations where the intensity
of the ground shaking is small, the designer
does not have to consider seismic effects.
In other locations-particularly in regions near
an active geological fault (a fracture line in
the rock structure), such as the San Andreas
fault that runs along the western coast of
California-large ground motions frequently
occur that can damage or destroy buildings
and bridges in large areas of cities
Assuming the building is fixed at its base, the
displacement of floors will vary from zero at
the base to a maximum at the roof

Earthquake focus and


epicenter

Distribution of magnitude
5 or greater earthquakes,
1980 - 1990

There are several analytical procedures to


determine the magnitude of the base shear
for which buildings must be designed, we will

equivalent lateral
force procedure, described in the
only consider the

ANSI/ASCE and UBC standard. Using this


procedure, we compute the magnitude of the

Palestine
S D1 0.10
S DS 0.21

Table 2:

Design Coefficients & Factors for Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting

Story Drift & The P-Delta Effect


,Allowable Story Drift

Important Factor

Overturning

Example 1
Determine the design seismic forces acting at each
floor of the six-story office building in Figure below.
D.L=8kN/m2
L.L=2.5kN/m2
Shear wall system
N

25m

18m

S D1W
V
TR I
S D1 0.10
W 8(25)(18)(6) 21600kN
T 0.0488 20 0.462
3
4

R 4 Shear Wall
I 1

0.10 21600
V
1169 kN
4
0.462( 1 )
Vmin 0.0441( IS DSW ) 0.0441(1)(0.21)21600 200kN
Vmax

S DSW 0.21(21600)

1134 kN
R
4
I
1

T=0.462 < 0.5 then k=1

:Note
Column 4 = column 3a * Column 2
)) Fx = column 5 * (V = 1134)
Vx = cumulative column 6
Mx = moment from Fx can calculated from shear Area

Shear Wall Design

Introduction
Shear walls

provide a
high in-plane stiffness and
strength for both lateral and
gravity loads, and are ideally
suitable for tall buildings,
especially those conceived in
reinforced concrete. Tall
buildings designed to carry the
entire lateral loading through
shear walls can be economical to
heights of around 40 stories.
Taller structures should combine
shear walls with other structural
systems.

Shear Wall design

Shear Wall Design Steps


1- Calculate External Load
Mu
Vu
Pu

2- boundary element check


bh 3 bwlw
Ig

12
12
P MC
fc
A
I
if

f c 0.2 f c'

Then boundary elements are not required

Then choose the one of:


lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bw
lw
lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

bw

lw

3- Longitudinal Reinforcement
At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed
in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a
value of
'

Acv

fc

hw
2 Vu Vn Acv
if

lw

hw
1.5 Vu Vn Acv
if

lw

0.6
Vn max

4 Acv f c

'

Acv lwbw

f c'
n f y

f c'
n f y

Minimum reinforcement

if Vu

f c'

Acv
6

v 0.0025
h 0.0025
if Vu

f c'

Acv
6

for bar 16

v 0.0012
h 0.0020
for bar 16

v 0.0015
h 0.0025

4- Verify adequacy of shear wall section at its


base under combined axial load and bending
moment
Mu
Pu
M u Pu
,
interaction diagram
Ag lw Ag

As Ag

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

Asb As Asv
Asb area of reinforcement in boundary elements
Asv area of reinforcement in (lw 2lb )

bw

lw

5- Boundary element transverse reinforcement


'

fc
Ash 0.09 S hc
f yh
Ag
fc'
Ash 0.3 S hc
1
Ach f yh
You must check it in two dimension

h
bc

b
hc

Example 1
Design the following shear wall
1- Calculate External Load

Moment

Shear
Force

bw 0.2m
l w 4m

2- boundary element check


bl
0.2 4
Ig w w
1.067
12
12
1500 8800 2
6
2
fc

*10 18.4MN / m 0.2(30) 6Mpa


0.2 4 1.067
Boundary element required
3

0.8 (0.2 0.25)4

bw 0.2

lw 4

bb 0.3

3- Longitudinal Reinforcement
At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed
in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a
value of
Acv f c' 200( 4000) 30

730.3kN Vu 660kN
6
6
Minimum reinforcement
Vu

f c'

Acv
6

for bar 16

v 0.0012 Asv 0.00121000 200 240mm 2 2.4cm 2


S max 45cm
use 12 @ 25cm each direction
h 0.0020 Asv 0.0021000 200 400mm 2 4cm 2
S max 45cm
use 12 @ 25cm each direction

4- Verify adequacy of shear wall section at its


base under combined axial load and bending
M u moment
8800 10 6 N .m
Pu 1500 103 N

Ag 4 2 0.8 0.2 2 0.8 0.3 1m 2 110 6 mm 2


Mu
8800 10 6

2.2MPa 0.31ksi
6
Ag lw 110 4000

Pu 1500 103

1.5MPa 0.21ksi
6
Ag
1 10

0.9
0.01

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

As Ag 0.01(1 106 ) 10000mm 2 100cm 2


Asb As Asv 100 ( 02..256 2 1.13) 76.5cm 2
38.25cm 2 for each boundary element use 1618

bw

lw

5- Boundary element transverse reinforcement h


'

fc
Ash 0.09 S hc
f yh

Ag
fc'
Ash 0.3 S hc
1
Ach f yh
Check short direction

S 120mm
hc 80 2(3 1.8) 70.4cm

bc

b
hc
Check short direction

Check long direction

bc 30 2(3 1.8) 20.4cm


'

f
30
Ash 0.09 S hc c 0.09(120)(704)
543.2mm 2 5.4cm 2
f yh
420

Check long direction

S 120mm
hc 80 2(3 1.8) 70.4cm
bc 30 2(3 1.8) 20.4cm
'

fc
30
Ash 0.09 S bc
0.09(120)(204)
160mm 2 1.6cm 2
f yh
420
Ash 1.6cm 2
in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10 & 2 internal legs 16

2(0.79) 2(2.01) 5.6cm 2


in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10

2(0.79) 1.6cm 2

Design Example

Design Shear wall 1 & 2 in the figur


Gaza City
3.0

3.0

D.L=8kN/m2
L.L=2.5kN/m2

5.0
2

5.0

7.5
5.0

20.0
5.0

10
5.0

3.0

3.0
5.0

20.0

1- calculate the length of shear wall 1


n

I i yi
y
i 1 I i

3.0

3.0
5.0
2

7.5

53 0.2
I2
2.08,
12
y2 7.5

L3 0.2
I1
0.0166 L3 ,
12
y1 10

10

3.0

L
20.0

I i yi
I1 y1 I 2 y2 2.08(7.5) 0.0166 L3 (10)
y

0
I1 I 2
I1 I 2
i 1 I i
n

2.08(7.5) 0.0166 L3 (10) 0


L1 4.5m

20.0

3.0

2- Seismic Shear for the total building


V

S D1W
TR I

S D1 0.10
W 8(20)(20)(5) 16000kN
T 0.0488 25 0.55
R 4 Shear Wall
I 1.25
3
4

0.1016000
909kN
4
0.55( 1.25 )

Vmin 0.0441( IS DSW ) 0.0441(1.25)(0.21)16000 185.2kN


Vmax

S DSW 0.21(16000)

1050kN
R
4
I
1.25

For the total Building

T=0.55> 0.5 k 1 T 20.5 1.025

V = 909 kN
M =16726 kN.m

For shear walls


x

Vi (a b) V
M i ( a b) M
a

Ii
n

I
i 1

I i yi
C.R 0.05( L)
2
2
I iy yi I ix xi

In this example without neglect the effect of twist for


2

3.0

For shear wall No. 1

3.0
5.0
2

7.5

20.0

Ii

I
i 1

0.2 4.53
12

b 0.024

0.2 4.53
12
3
0.2 4.5
0.253
12
12

0.42

10

3.0

(10)
2

0.2 4.53
12
0.253
12

10

(7.5) 4
2

0.233
12

(10)

(0.05 20)

3.0

L
20.0

3- In this example we will neglect the effect of twist f


2

For shear wall No. 1

3.0

3.0
5.0
2

Ii
n

Ii

0.2 4.53
12
3
0.2 4.5
0.253
12
12

7.5

0.42

20.0

i 1

10

Vi (a) V 0.42 909 382kN


M i (a ) M 0.42 16726 7025kN .m

3.0

3.0

L
20.0

For shear wall No. 2


a 0.58

Vi (a) V 0.58 909 528kN


M i (a) M 0.58 16726 9702kN .m

4- Shear wall design


boundary element check
bl
0.2 4.5
Ig w w
1.519
12
12
7025 2.25
1500
3
2
fc

*10 12.072 MN / m 0.2(30) 6Mpa


1.519
0.2 4.5
Boundary element required
3

0.9 (0.2) 4.5


bw 0.2m
l w 4.5m

Longitudinal Reinforcement
At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed
in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a
value of
Acv f c' 200(4500) 30

821.6kN Vu 382kN
6
6
Minimum reinforcement
Vu

f c'

Acv
6

for bar 16

v 0.0012 Asv 0.00121000 200 240mm 2 2.4cm 2


S max 45cm
use 12 @ 25cm each direction
h 0.0020 Asv 0.0021000 200 400mm 2 4cm 2
S max 45cm
use 12 @ 25cm each direction

Verify adequacy of shear wall section at its


base under combined axial load and bending
M umoment
8800 106 N .m
Pu 1500 103 N
Ag 4.5 0.2 0.9m 2 0.9 106 mm 2
Mu
7025 106

1.73MPa 0.25ksi
6
Ag lw
0.9 10 4500

Pu 1500 103

1.66 MPa 0.24ksi


6
Ag
0.9 10

0.9
0.01

0.9 (0.2) 4.5

bw 0.2m

As Ag 0.01(0.9 106 ) 9000mm 2 90cm 2


Asb As Asv 90 ( 4.50.225( 0.9 ) 2 1.13) 65.6cm 2
32.8cm 2 for each boundary element use 1616

lw 4.5m

Boundary element transverse reinforcement


'

fc
Ash 0.09 S hc
f yh
Ag
fc'
Ash 0.3 S hc
1
Ach f yh
Check short direction

S 100mm
hc 90 2(3 1.8) 80.4cm

bc

b
hc
Check short direction

Check long direction

bc 20 2(3 1.8) 10.4cm


'

f
30
Ash 0.09 S hc c 0.09(100)(804)
516.9mm 2 5.2cm 2
f yh
420

Check long direction

S 100mm
hc 90 2(3 1.8) 80.4cm
bc 20 2(3 1.8) 10.4cm
'

fc
30
Ash 0.09 S hc
0.09(100)(104)
66.8mm 2 0.7cm 2
f yh
420
in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10 & 2 internal legs 16

2(0.79) 2(2.01) 5.6cm 2


in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10

2(0.79) 1.6cm 2
Repeat the last procedure for Shear wall 2