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Concrete

Structure

Structure

Earthquakes occur in many regions of the

world. In certain locations where the intensity

of the ground shaking is small, the designer

does not have to consider seismic effects.

In other locations-particularly in regions near

an active geological fault (a fracture line in

the rock structure), such as the San Andreas

fault that runs along the western coast of

California-large ground motions frequently

occur that can damage or destroy buildings

and bridges in large areas of cities

Assuming the building is fixed at its base, the

displacement of floors will vary from zero at

the base to a maximum at the roof

epicenter

Distribution of magnitude

5 or greater earthquakes,

1980 - 1990

determine the magnitude of the base shear

for which buildings must be designed, we will

equivalent lateral

force procedure, described in the

only consider the

procedure, we compute the magnitude of the

Palestine

S D1 0.10

S DS 0.21

Table 2:

,Allowable Story Drift

Important Factor

Overturning

Example 1

Determine the design seismic forces acting at each

floor of the six-story office building in Figure below.

D.L=8kN/m2

L.L=2.5kN/m2

Shear wall system

N

25m

18m

S D1W

V

TR I

S D1 0.10

W 8(25)(18)(6) 21600kN

T 0.0488 20 0.462

3

4

R 4 Shear Wall

I 1

0.10 21600

V

1169 kN

4

0.462( 1 )

Vmin 0.0441( IS DSW ) 0.0441(1)(0.21)21600 200kN

Vmax

S DSW 0.21(21600)

1134 kN

R

4

I

1

:Note

Column 4 = column 3a * Column 2

)) Fx = column 5 * (V = 1134)

Vx = cumulative column 6

Mx = moment from Fx can calculated from shear Area

Introduction

Shear walls

provide a

high in-plane stiffness and

strength for both lateral and

gravity loads, and are ideally

suitable for tall buildings,

especially those conceived in

reinforced concrete. Tall

buildings designed to carry the

entire lateral loading through

shear walls can be economical to

heights of around 40 stories.

Taller structures should combine

shear walls with other structural

systems.

1- Calculate External Load

Mu

Vu

Pu

bh 3 bwlw

Ig

12

12

P MC

fc

A

I

if

f c 0.2 f c'

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bw

lw

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

bw

lw

3- Longitudinal Reinforcement

At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed

in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a

value of

'

Acv

fc

hw

2 Vu Vn Acv

if

lw

hw

1.5 Vu Vn Acv

if

lw

0.6

Vn max

4 Acv f c

'

Acv lwbw

f c'

n f y

f c'

n f y

Minimum reinforcement

if Vu

f c'

Acv

6

v 0.0025

h 0.0025

if Vu

f c'

Acv

6

for bar 16

v 0.0012

h 0.0020

for bar 16

v 0.0015

h 0.0025

base under combined axial load and bending

moment

Mu

Pu

M u Pu

,

interaction diagram

Ag lw Ag

As Ag

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

Asb As Asv

Asb area of reinforcement in boundary elements

Asv area of reinforcement in (lw 2lb )

bw

lw

'

fc

Ash 0.09 S hc

f yh

Ag

fc'

Ash 0.3 S hc

1

Ach f yh

You must check it in two dimension

h

bc

b

hc

Example 1

Design the following shear wall

1- Calculate External Load

Moment

Shear

Force

bw 0.2m

l w 4m

bl

0.2 4

Ig w w

1.067

12

12

1500 8800 2

6

2

fc

0.2 4 1.067

Boundary element required

3

bw 0.2

lw 4

bb 0.3

3- Longitudinal Reinforcement

At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed

in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a

value of

Acv f c' 200( 4000) 30

730.3kN Vu 660kN

6

6

Minimum reinforcement

Vu

f c'

Acv

6

for bar 16

S max 45cm

use 12 @ 25cm each direction

h 0.0020 Asv 0.0021000 200 400mm 2 4cm 2

S max 45cm

use 12 @ 25cm each direction

base under combined axial load and bending

M u moment

8800 10 6 N .m

Pu 1500 103 N

Mu

8800 10 6

2.2MPa 0.31ksi

6

Ag lw 110 4000

Pu 1500 103

1.5MPa 0.21ksi

6

Ag

1 10

0.9

0.01

lb (0.2 0.25)lw

bb

Asb As Asv 100 ( 02..256 2 1.13) 76.5cm 2

38.25cm 2 for each boundary element use 1618

bw

lw

'

fc

Ash 0.09 S hc

f yh

Ag

fc'

Ash 0.3 S hc

1

Ach f yh

Check short direction

S 120mm

hc 80 2(3 1.8) 70.4cm

bc

b

hc

Check short direction

'

f

30

Ash 0.09 S hc c 0.09(120)(704)

543.2mm 2 5.4cm 2

f yh

420

S 120mm

hc 80 2(3 1.8) 70.4cm

bc 30 2(3 1.8) 20.4cm

'

fc

30

Ash 0.09 S bc

0.09(120)(204)

160mm 2 1.6cm 2

f yh

420

Ash 1.6cm 2

in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10 & 2 internal legs 16

in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10

2(0.79) 1.6cm 2

Design Example

Gaza City

3.0

3.0

D.L=8kN/m2

L.L=2.5kN/m2

5.0

2

5.0

7.5

5.0

20.0

5.0

10

5.0

3.0

3.0

5.0

20.0

n

I i yi

y

i 1 I i

3.0

3.0

5.0

2

7.5

53 0.2

I2

2.08,

12

y2 7.5

L3 0.2

I1

0.0166 L3 ,

12

y1 10

10

3.0

L

20.0

I i yi

I1 y1 I 2 y2 2.08(7.5) 0.0166 L3 (10)

y

0

I1 I 2

I1 I 2

i 1 I i

n

L1 4.5m

20.0

3.0

V

S D1W

TR I

S D1 0.10

W 8(20)(20)(5) 16000kN

T 0.0488 25 0.55

R 4 Shear Wall

I 1.25

3

4

0.1016000

909kN

4

0.55( 1.25 )

Vmax

S DSW 0.21(16000)

1050kN

R

4

I

1.25

V = 909 kN

M =16726 kN.m

x

Vi (a b) V

M i ( a b) M

a

Ii

n

I

i 1

I i yi

C.R 0.05( L)

2

2

I iy yi I ix xi

2

3.0

3.0

5.0

2

7.5

20.0

Ii

I

i 1

0.2 4.53

12

b 0.024

0.2 4.53

12

3

0.2 4.5

0.253

12

12

0.42

10

3.0

(10)

2

0.2 4.53

12

0.253

12

10

(7.5) 4

2

0.233

12

(10)

(0.05 20)

3.0

L

20.0

2

3.0

3.0

5.0

2

Ii

n

Ii

0.2 4.53

12

3

0.2 4.5

0.253

12

12

7.5

0.42

20.0

i 1

10

M i (a ) M 0.42 16726 7025kN .m

3.0

3.0

L

20.0

a 0.58

M i (a) M 0.58 16726 9702kN .m

boundary element check

bl

0.2 4.5

Ig w w

1.519

12

12

7025 2.25

1500

3

2

fc

1.519

0.2 4.5

Boundary element required

3

bw 0.2m

l w 4.5m

Longitudinal Reinforcement

At least two curtains of reinforcement are needed

in the wall if the in-plane factored shear exceed a

value of

Acv f c' 200(4500) 30

821.6kN Vu 382kN

6

6

Minimum reinforcement

Vu

f c'

Acv

6

for bar 16

S max 45cm

use 12 @ 25cm each direction

h 0.0020 Asv 0.0021000 200 400mm 2 4cm 2

S max 45cm

use 12 @ 25cm each direction

base under combined axial load and bending

M umoment

8800 106 N .m

Pu 1500 103 N

Ag 4.5 0.2 0.9m 2 0.9 106 mm 2

Mu

7025 106

1.73MPa 0.25ksi

6

Ag lw

0.9 10 4500

Pu 1500 103

6

Ag

0.9 10

0.9

0.01

bw 0.2m

Asb As Asv 90 ( 4.50.225( 0.9 ) 2 1.13) 65.6cm 2

32.8cm 2 for each boundary element use 1616

lw 4.5m

'

fc

Ash 0.09 S hc

f yh

Ag

fc'

Ash 0.3 S hc

1

Ach f yh

Check short direction

S 100mm

hc 90 2(3 1.8) 80.4cm

bc

b

hc

Check short direction

'

f

30

Ash 0.09 S hc c 0.09(100)(804)

516.9mm 2 5.2cm 2

f yh

420

S 100mm

hc 90 2(3 1.8) 80.4cm

bc 20 2(3 1.8) 10.4cm

'

fc

30

Ash 0.09 S hc

0.09(100)(104)

66.8mm 2 0.7cm 2

f yh

420

in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10 & 2 internal legs 16

in short direction use 2 legs close hoop 10

2(0.79) 1.6cm 2

Repeat the last procedure for Shear wall 2

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