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MEASUREMENTS

AND
INSTRUMENTATION
Prepared BY
D.Thivya Prasad

UNIT-II
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS
INSTRUMENTS

Prepared BYD.Thivya Prasad

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
The device used for comparing the unknown
quantity with the unit of measurement or
standard quantity is called a Measuring
Instrument.

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CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS
Electrical instruments may be divided into two
categories, that are;
1. Absolute instruments,
2. Secondary instruments.
- Absolute instruments gives the quantity to be
measured in term of its deflection.
- In Secondary instruments the deflection gives
the magnitude of electrical quantity to be
measured directly. These instruments are required
to be calibrated by comparing with another
standard instrument before putting into use.

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CLASSIFICATION OF ANALOG
INSTRUMENTS / SECONDARY
INSTRUMENTS
i. Indicating instruments
ii. Recording instruments
iii. Integrating instruments

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INDICATING INSTRUMENTS:
It indicate the magnitude of an electrical

quantity at the time when it is being


measured.
The indications are given by a pointer
moving over a graduated dial.

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RECORDING INSTRUMENTS
The instruments which keep a continuous

record of the variations of the magnitude


of an electrical quantity to be observed
over a defined period of time.

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INTEGRATING INSTRUMENTS
The instruments which measure the total

amount of either quantity of electricity or


electrical energy supplied over a period of
time. For example energy meters.

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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF ANALOG


INSTRUMENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Magnetic Effect
Heating Effect
Electrostatic Effect
Electromagnetic Effect
Hall Effect

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MAGNETIC EFFECT
When a current carrying conductor is placed

in a magnetic field ,it experiences a force


which causes to move it.
EG:-PMMC Instrument

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THERMAL EFFECT
The current to be measured is passed through

a small element which gets heated thus


increasing its temperature
The temperature raise is converted to EMF
,with the help of thermocouple attached to the
element.

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ELECTROSTATIC EFFECT
When two plates are charged ,there is a force

exerted between them, which moves one of


the plates.

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INDUCTION EFFECT
When a non-magnetic disc is placed in a

alternating magnetic field produced by a


system of electromagnets excited by
alternating currents, an emf is induced in the
disc .
If a closed path is provided in the disc, then a
flow of current occurs in the disc

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HALL EFFECT
TheHall effectis the production of

avoltagedifference (theHall voltage) across


anelectrical conductor, transverse to
anelectric currentin the conductor and
amagnetic fieldperpendicular to the current.

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OPERATING FORCES OF INDICATING


INSTRUMENTS
Deflecting Force
Controlling Force
Damping Force

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DEFLECTING FORCE
It utilize some physical effect of electric current or

voltage to produce a mechanical force.


This deflection or force causes the system along with the

pointer attached to it to move from its zero position.


The magnitude of the deflection force(deflection of

pointer) depends on the value of electrical quantity to be


measured.

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CONTROLLING FORCE
It is the opposing force required by an

indicating instrument ,in order to that the


current to be measured produces deflection of
the pointer proportional to its magnitude.
The two methods are ------ Gravity control
method
------- Spring control method

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DAMPING FORCE
When a deflecting force is applied to the

moving system, it deflects and it should come


to rest at a position where the deflecting force
is balanced by the controlling force.
In order to bring the pointer to rest with in
short time damping system is provided which
produces damping force.

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CONTROLLING SYSTEMGRAVITY CONTROL SYSTEM


In this a small adjustable weight is

attached to the moving system(pointer) in


such a way that in deflection condition it
produces a restoring or controlling torque.

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CONT
GRAVITY CONTROL SYSTEM
Tc = Wsin x L =WL sin
Tc = kg sin
Where , kg = WL ----- it is constant
As Deflecting Torque Td I
Td = kt I ------ kt is constant

In equilibrium position Td= Tc

kt I =

kg sin

I sin

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CONTROLLING SYSTEMSPRING CONTROL SYSTEM


When the pointer is deflected one spring unwinds

itself while
the other is twisted. This twist in the spring
produces restoring
(controlling) torque, which is proportional to the
angle of
deflection of the moving systems.

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DAMPING FORCE
The damping torque is proportional to the speed

of rotation of the moving system, that is

Depending upon the degree of damping

introduced in the moving system, the


instrument may have any one of the following
conditions as depicted in above graph.

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CONT.

DAMPING FORCE

1. Under damped condition:

The response is oscillatory


2. Over damped condition:
The response is sluggish and it rises very
slowly from its zero position to final position.
3. Critically damped condition:
When the response settles quickly without any
oscillation, the system is said to be critically
damped.
The damping torque is produced by the following
methods:
1.Air Friction Damping
2.Fluid Friction Damping

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3.Eddy Current
Damping
4.Eddy current

AIR FRICTION DAMPING


Light aluminium piston attached to the moving system

(pointer)
The piston moves in a fixed air chamber which is closed
at one end
Where there is oscillations in the pointer, the piston will
move inside the air chamber
When piston moves in to the chamber towards upward
direction ,the air inside the chamber near the top end is
compressed
When the piston moves
out of the air chamber
towards the downward
position ,now the air pressure
increases which inturn opposes
the motion of the piston.

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FLUIDFRICTION DAMPING
In this method of damping, a light disc is attached to the

spindle of the moving system and completely submerge in the


damping oil in a pot.
The motion of the disc is always opposed by a frictional drag
on the disc. This frictional drag is zero when the disc is
stationary and increases with the speed of the rotation of the
disc.
For increase damping, vanes
in a vertical planes, carried
on a spindle and immersed
in oil are used.
Fluid friction damping can
only be used in the instruments
which are use in the vertical
position.

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EDDY CURRENT DAMPING


It is based of Faradays law and Lenz law
When a conductor moves in a magnetic field,

it cuts the magnetic field and hence EMF is


induced
This induced EMF opposes the cause of
producing it, thus opposing the motion of the
moving system.

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TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS
Permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)
Moving iron instrument (MI)
Electro dynamometer type
Hot wire type
Thermocouple type
Induction type

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PMMC TYPE INSTRUMENT


Principle :-

DArsonval Principle
It mainly works on motoring principle
When a current carrying conductor is placed in a

magnetic field ,produced by a permanent magnet


,the coil experiences a force and hence moves .

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PMMC TYPE INSTRUMENT TORQUE EQUATION

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MOVING IRON INSTRUMENT (MI)


Moving iron instruments are most commonly

used laboratory instruments because of its


advantages like low cost , high accuracy,
ruggednes
PRINCIPLE:
A soft iron piece brought near a magnet ,it gets
attracted
By magnet.
Two basic classification of MI instruments are
(i) Moving iron attraction type
instruments
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(ii) moving
iron repulsion type

(I) MOVING IRON ATTRACTION TYPE


INSTRUMENTS
The moving iron is flat disc which is eccentrically

mounted.
When the current to be measured flows through the
coil , magnetic field is produced which attracts the
moving iron towards it, thus making pointer to move
Controlling torque is provided
by springs
Air friction damping is provided
With the help of light aluminium
piston attached to the moving
system.

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(I) MOVING IRON REPULSION TYPE


INSTRUMENTS

MI repulsion type instrument consist of two vanes

inside the coil


Among two vanes one is fixed and one is moveable
When the current to be measured flows through the
coil, both vanes get magnetized and hence force of
repulsion exists between the two vanes
Which results in movement of the moving vane and
thus movement of the pointer
Current to be measured is proportional to the pointer
Two types are there :---------- Radial Vane type
---------- Coaxial vane type

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a) RADIAL VANE TYPE

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b) Coaxial VANE TYPE

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Moving-Coil
instrument
There

are

instruments

two

types

namely,

of

moving

permanent

coil

magnet

moving coil type which can only be used for


direct current, voltage measurements.
The dynamometer type which can be used

on

either

direct

or

alternating

voltage measurements.

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current,

PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL


The principle operation
of PMMC is based
upon the principle
of current carrying
conductor is placed
in a magnetic field it
is acted upon by force
which tends to move
it.

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DYNAMOMETER
This

instrument is suitable for the


measurement of direct and alternating
current, voltage and power.
The deflecting torque in dynamometer is
relies by the interaction of magnetic field
produced by a pair of fixed air cored coils
and a third air cored coil capable of
angular movement and suspended within
the fixed coil.

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BASIC D.C. AMMETER

The PMMC galvanometer constitutes the basic

movement of a dc ammeter.
The coil winding of a basic movement is small
and light, so it can carry only very small
currents.
A low value resistor (shunt resistor) is used in
DC ammeter to measure large current.
+
Basic DC ammeter:
+
Rsh

_
_

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Rm

DArsonval
Movement

CONT..BASIC D.C. AMMETER


Rm

= Internal resistance of the movement

Rsh = shunt resistance


Ish

= shunt current

Im

= full scale deflection current of the


movement

= full scale current of the ammeter + shunt


(i.e. total current)

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CONT..BASIC D.C. AMMETER


Ish Rsh = Im . Rm----------- 1
Rsh = Im .Rm / Ish ----------2
We know that

I = Ish +Im

II

Ish = - m ------------------

Sub equ 3 in 2

Rsh = Im.Rm / I - Im -------4


Rm/Rsh = I - Im / Im
Rm/Rsh = I/Im

I/Im = 1 + Rm / Rsh = m ------5

Where m is Multiplying power of shunt

From equ 4

m = I/Im

Rsh = Im.Rm / I-Im

Rsh = Rm / (I/Im Im/Im) = Rm/ (I/ Im-1)


Rsh = Rm/
m-1 --------6
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MULTI RANGE AMMETERS

Consists of four shunts


Rsh1,Rsh2,Rsh3,Rsh4
+
Rsh is put in parallel with

R1

R2

R3

R4

Basic meter to give four


Different current ranges
S
I1,I2,I3,I4
_
Let, m1,m2,m3,m4
2.3: Multirange
Be shunt multiplying powersFigure
Ammeter
For currents I1,I2,I3,I4
Rsh1 = Rm /M1-1
Rsh2 = Rm/ m2-1
Rsh3 = Rm / m3-1
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Rsh4 = Rm / m4-1

+
Rm
_
DArson
val
Moveme
nt

BASIC D.C. VOLTMETER

A basic DArsonval movement can be

converted into a DC voltmeter by adding a


Rs
series resistor (multiplier) as +
shown in Figure
Im
Multiplier
Im =full scale deflection
Rm
V
current of the movement
(Ifsd)
_
Figure 2.5: Basic DC
Voltmeter

Rm=internal resistance of the movement


Rs =multiplier resistance
V

=full range voltage of the instrument

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CONT. BASIC D.C. VOLTMETER


From the circuit of Figure 2.5:

V I m ( Rs Rm )
V I m Rm V
Rs
Rm
Im
Im
Therefore,

V
Rs Rm
Im
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MULTI RANGE - VOLTMETER


A DC voltmeter can be converted into a

multirange voltmeter by connecting a number


of resistors (multipliers) in series with the
meter movement.
A practical multi-range DC voltmeter is shown
in Figure

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ELECTRO DYNAMOMETER TYPE


INSTRUMENT

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DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS
DIGITAL VOLTMETERS
DIGITAL MULTIMETERS

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BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DVM

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COMPARISON OF ANALOG AND


DIGITAL METER

CLASSIFICATION OF DVM
DVM
INTEGRATING TYPE

NON-INTEGRATING TYPE
POTENTIOMETRIC
TYPE

RAMP TYPE

LINEAR
TYPE

SERVO
POTENTIOMETRIC
TYPE

V/F CONVERTER POTENTIOMETRIC


TYPE
TYPE

STAIR CASE
TYPE

NULL
BALANCE
TYPE

SUCESSIVE
APPROXIMATION
TYPE

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DUAL SLOPE
INTEGRATING
TYPE

SERVO POTENTIOMETRIC TYPE DVM


The volatge to be measured is Vin
The unknown voltage is compared with

reference voltage Vref


The arm of the potentiometer is varied to
obtain null condition of the galvanometer

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CONT..SERVO POTENTIOMETRIC TYPE DVM


The servo meter is used to vary the

potentiometric arm .So, It is called is servo


potentiometric type DVM

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SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION TYPE


DVM

SUCCESSIVE APROXIMATION : Amethodforestimatingthevalueofanunkno


wn
quantitybyrepeatedcomparisontoasequenc

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CONT..SUCCESSIVE
APPROXIMATION TYPE DVM

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CONT..SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION TYPE DVM


Servo motor in servo balancing type DVM is replaced by electronic

logic control and sequencer


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
In SDVM, F/B voltage is not obtained from the output voltage ,instead
it is assumed successively by approximation.
This function is performed by logic control and sequencer block & D/A
converter block which generates voltages in the set of pattern 8-4-2-1
WORKING:
Initially the switch S is in position 2 , The Logic Controller and
Sequence block and DAC block generates highest value (8V) . This
voltage is fed to the capacitor C
As soon as capacitor is fully charged , the position of the switch is
changed to position 1.
When the switch is in position 1 ,the unknown voltage is fed to the
comparator
The change over of the switch 1 & 2 is as per the requirement is done
by clock
Now the comparator compares the unknown voltage and assumed
feedback voltage in the capacitor and produces LOGIC HIGH / LOW
signal depending upon the comparison result

CONT..SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION TYPE DVM


CASE (I): F/B Voltage is High
If the feedback voltage is higher than the unknown

voltage ,then LOGIC HIGH signal is generated by the


comparator and it is sent to logic control and sequencer
block which is connected to D/A converter
Then the D/A converter along with the logic control and
sequencer block generates the next lower voltage (4V)
and send to comparator and this procedure repeated
until logic LOW signal is achieved .
CASE (II): F/B Voltage is Low
If feedback voltage is less than the unknown voltage ,
then LOGIC LOW signal is fed to D/A converter through
logic control and sequencer block ,the corresponding digit
8V is stored in D/A converter
Then the D/A Converter generates next voltage 4V in the
same pattern 8-4-2-1 for further comparison
This process repeats until Voltage stored in D/A converter
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Prasad
is equal
to unknownPrepared
voltage
.

RAMP TYPE DVM


The reference voltage used for comparison is

a ramp signal
It is classified in to two types :
(i) Linear Ramp Type DVM
(ii) Staircase Ramp Type DVM

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LINEAR RAMP TYPE DVM

The ramp signal used is a linear ramp signal which decrease or

increase between the range voltages .


The signal decrease linearly from maximum point and after
reaching the minimum point ,it will increase linearly until it reaches
the maximum

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CONT..LINEAR RAMP TYPE DVM


WORKING PRINCIPLE :
Works on the basic principle of voltage to time conversion technique.
WORKING :
The unknown attenuated voltage and ramp signal from ramp

generator is fed to the comparator


When the voltage of ramp signal becomes equal to the unknown
voltage the input comparator generates the start pulse which opens
the gate
Oscillator generates the clock pulse and it is connected to the
counter
The counter counts the no.of clck pulse generated by the oscillator
until the gate gets closed
The linear ramp signal goes on decreasing and reaches 0V or gnd
potential
One input of ground comparator is connected to ram generator while
the other inuput is connected to ground (zero volt)
Hence the ramp voltage becomes zero , the comparator generates a
stop pulseand send it toPrepared
the gate.
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VOLTAGE TO TIME CONVERSION FOR LINEAR RAMP TYPE DVM

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STAIRCASE TYPE DVM

The ramp signal used here is staircase type

,which increases in steps according to clock


pulse
Initially logic control circuit sends a reset
signal to counter and DAC

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CONTSTAIRCASE TYPE DVM


Now counter counts the clock pulse
The o/p of the counter is given to DAC which

generates ramp signal


At every change in clock pulse there will be a
incremental change in ramp signal ,Thus
staircase ramp signal is generated by DAC
This is given to the null detector
When the staircase ramp signal and unknown
voltage is equal then the null detector sends
signal to Logic controller
Then Logic controller sends stop signal to gate
Counter reading is displayed in digital display

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DUALSLOPE INTEGRATING TYPE DVM

Unknown voltage and reference voltage is

integrated for a fixed interval of time using


integrator
Slope of unknown and reference voltages is
appositive
Thus the
slope changes
can be calculated ,as

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When switch S1 is in position 1 ,the integrator

is connected to the unknown voltage and


capacitor charges
The O/P of opamp at this instant is

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As soon as capacitor is fully charged ,switch

S1 is changed to position2 (-Vref) and switch


S2 is closed
Now the O/P of op-amp is

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