You are on page 1of 108

Building Technology 1

Materials of Construction
Taken from UST Architecture final exam by Arch. Rafael Alli
Recommended review material for UST Preboard Exams
Prepared by:
arkireviewph.multiply.com

Components of paints
Body
Vehicle
Pigment

Types of Glass
Plate

glass
Float glass
Sheet glass

Common Paint Problems


Tackining
Bleeding
Blistering
Chalking
Deadening
Moisture

blush
Orange peel
Peeling
Wrinkling

Concrete Testing Methods


Slump

test
Compressive test
Core test

Types of Concrete
Heavyweight
Lightweight

structural
Normal weight
Lightweight insulating
Cellular
Cap graded
Shotcrete
Preplaced
Pumped

Types of Concrete Finishes


Integrally

pigmented finish
Screeded trowelled
Swirl
Broomed
Burlap drag
Travertine and rock salt
Stamped
Exposed aggregate
Form board
Form liner plastics
Dimpled

Types of Aggregates
Expanded

shale
Expanded slate
Porlite
Vermiculite

Types of Adhesive
Animal

glue
Cellulose cement
Chlorinated (rubber) adhesive
Natural rubber cement
Casein glue

Casein glue
A kind

of glue that is made from protein


material, it is a dry powder that is mixed
with water, it has good bonding properties
for wood to wood or paper to wood
application and will develop the full
strength of the wood in most situations.

admixture
Any

substance other than cement, water


or aggregate, added to the concrete or
mortar mix to alter its properties or those
of the hardened product; also called an
additive.

Concrete hardener
An

additive which improves the denseness


of concrete surface which are subjected to
rolling live loads and impact.

Body
That

solid, finely ground material which


gives paint the power to hide, as well as
color the surface.

Chalking
A paint

defect characterized by
progressive powdering from the surface
inward.

enamel
Any

paint or varnish drying to a smooth,


hard, usually glossy finish.

Natural resin
A varnish

made from natural resin or


exudations from living trees.

ferrocement
A type

of concrete having mortar with


large amount of light gauge reinforcement
is used; it is used in bins, boat hulls and
other thin complex shapes

Reinforced concrete
A type

of concrete using reinforcing bars


(plain or deformed) and mats as primary
reinforcement.

Integrally pigmented concrete


A type

of concrete finish in which coloring


agents are added to the mixture. It may be
trowelled, sandblasted, tooled or stamped.

Stamped concrete
A concrete

finish using proprietary


aluminum tools to imprint various patterns
in freshly placed horizontal concrete
surface.

aggregate
Any

of the various hard inert mineral


material, such as sand and gravel, added
to a cement paste to make concrete or
mortar.

fillers
Finishing

material which is used on wood


surfaces, particularly those with open
grains, to till the pores and provide
perfectly smooth, uniform surface for
varnish or lacquer.

Animal glue
A glue

in liquid form having excellent


bonding property with paper or glass and
reasonably good bond with wood or metal.
Resistance to heat, cold, creep and water
is poor.

Fire retardant
A type

of paint which retards the passage


of fire to the surface beneath them.

Alkyd paint
A type

of paint using alkyd in the


formulation. It has a mild alkali resistance
but excellent water resistance, particularly
useful for porch and deck application.

pigment
Paint

component which gives it color.

alligatoring

An

incomplete form of peeling where


the paint cracks into large segments,
usually due to repeated application of
new coats over old coats which are no
longer adherent.

thinner
Volatile

solvents used to cause paint to


flow better.

Normal weight concrete


A type

of concrete having density of 135165 lbs/cu.ft., compressive strength from


2,000psi - over 8,000psi. It is used in
structural framing, pavements, floor, etc.

Slump test
A method

of determining the consistency


and workability of freshly mixed concrete
by measuring the slump of a test
specimen.

Compressive test
A test

for determing the compressive of a


concrete batch, using a hydraulic press to
measure the maximum load test a cylinder
can support.

Shotcrete
A term

used to describe mortar or


concrete placed by high velocity
compressed air that adheres to the
surface.

Polymer-portland cement
A type

of concrete wherein monomer or


polymer is added to freshly mixed
concrete and subsequently allowed to
cure, and if needed polymerized in place.

sandglass

Concrete

characterized by textured
patterns through the use of templates.

Dimpled concrete
Concrete

cast over a bed of crushed stone


or gravel aggregate against a polyethylene
sheet between them to prevent bonding.

vermiculite
Mica

exoanded by heat into very light


wormlike threads, used as non-structural
lightweight aggregate and as loose fill
insulation.

Expanded shale
A strong

lightweight aggregate obtained by


exfoliation of clay or shale, also called
expanded clay.

Vitreous colored glass


Polished

plate glass which is heat


strengthened and coated on one side with
vitreous color which is fire fused to the
surface. This type of glass is widely used
in curtain wall construction, storefronts,
showrooms, laboratories and industrial
buildings.

Acoustical glass
Laminated

or insulating glass used for


sound control.

Insulating glass
A glass

unit consisting of two or more


sheets of glass separated by hermetically
sealed air spaces.

glass
A hard

brittle usually transparent or


translucent substance, produced by fusing
silica together with a flux and a stabilizer
into a mass that cools into a rigid mass
without crystallization.

Laminated safety glass


Glass

used in the transportation industry,


but also widely used in the building
industry. This is made of two sheets or
plate or sheet glass bounded by a thin
tough layer of polyvinyl butyral resin.

Plate glass
A flat

soda lime-silica glass that is


extremely smooth and nearly distortion
free. It is manufactured by pouring molten
glass onto a surface of molten tin and
allowing it to cool slowly.

Wired glass
A rolled

glass in which wire mesh is


inserted during the process of
manufacture. It is characterized by its
great resistance to shattering through
impact.

Crown glass
An

old form of window glass formed by


blowing and whirling a hollow sphere of
glass into a flat circular disc with the
center lump left by the workers rod.

Glass block
A translucent

hollow block of glass with


clear, textured or patterned faces made by
fusing two halves together with hollow
core, used for glazing openings.

Tempered plate glass


A type

of glass made by reheating and


suddenly cooling plate glass. Used for
swing doors, sliding doors, skating rink
enclosures, etc.

Elasticity
The

property of a material that enables it


to deform in response ti an applied force
and to recover its original size and shape
upon removal of the force.

Thermal Expansion
The

change in length or volume which a


material or body undergoes while being
heated.

Hardness
The

resistance of a material to
deformation by compression or
indentation.

Acid resistance property


The

degree of which a surface such as


porcelain, enamel will resist attack by acid.

Workability
The

ease with which a fresh concrete can


be molded or deformed.

Weatherability
The

property of a material that enables it


to retain its appearance and integrity when
exposed to sun, wind, moisture and
changes in temperature.

ductility
The

property of a material described as


capable of being stretched or deformed
without fracturing.

malleability
The

property of a metal that permits


mechanical deformation by extrusion,
forging, rolling, etc. without fracturing.

Sound absorption
A property

possessed by materials or
objects of absorbing sound energy.

Abrasion resistance property


The

property of a material that enables it


to resist being worn away by friction when
rubbed with another object.

Hearthwood
The

central core of the log which is


composed of inactive cells.

slab
A kind

of rough lumber which is cut


tangent to the annual rings of the wood,
running full length of the log.

serviculture
The

process of growing timber crops of


the better and more valuable species
through scientific forestry.

Particle board
A non-veneered

wood panel product made


by bonding small wood particles under
heat and pressure.

plywood
A wood

panel product made by bonding


veneers together under heat and
pressure, usually at right angles to each
other.

lumber
The

term applied to wood after is is sawed


or sliced into boards, planks, slabs, etc.
used for commercial purposes.

Straight grained
A type

of grain where the direction of the


wood fibers are nearly parallel with the
sides and edges of the board.

wood
The

tough, fibrous cellular substance that


makes up most of the stem and branches
of trees beneath the bark.

endogenous
These

are inside growing trees. These


kind of trees are preferred for lumbering
because of the center core, which is soft
and brittle in character.

hardwood
Classified

as deciduous trees that have


broad leaves which normally shed during
the cold season.

checks
A defect

in wood which is characterized by


separation across annual growth rings.

twisting
A warp

resulting from the turning of the


edges of a wood piece.

decay
A wood

defect which is caused by the


attack of fungi and microorganisms.

Rough lumber
A term

applied to undressed or unplaned


lumber.

lumbering
The

operation performed in preparing


wood for commercial purposes.

fiberboard
A building

material made of wood or other


plant fibers compressed with a binder into
rigid sheets.

waferboard
A non-veneered

panel product composed


of large, thin, wood-flakes bonded under
heat and pressure with a waterproof
adhesive.

Parallel strand lumber


A structural

lumber product made by


bonding long, narrow wood strands
together under heat and pressure using a
waterproof adhesive; used as beams and
columns post and beam construction.

wane
A kind

of wood defect which is caused by


chipping and drying at the edge.

Plank
A wide

piece of lumber with thickness


ranging from 2-5.

decking
A type

of dimension lumber having a width


of 4 and wider.

Dimension lumber
A classification

of lumber and with


thickness of 2-4 and a width of 2.

plank
A piece

of lumber with thickness ranging


from 2-5.

s2s
These

are planed or dressed lumber with


two sides smooth or planed.

exogenous
These

are outward growing trees which


are most preferred for lumbering.

Cast iron
A hard

brittle non-malleable iron based


alloy containing 2.0%-4.5% carbon and
0.5%-3% silicon, cast in a sand mold and
machined to make building products.

Medium steel
A carbon

carbon.

steel containing 0.25%-0.45%

Ferrous metals
A metal

containing iron as a principal


element.

zinc
A ductile,

crystalline, bluish white metallic


element, used for galvanizing iron and
steel and in making other alloys.

Stainless steel
An

alloy containing a minimum of 12%


chromium, sometimes with nickel,
manganese, or molybdenum as additional
alloying element.

lead
A lustrous,

low-melting, bluish white


metallic element that is malleable and
ductile at ordinary temperatures and used
in plating and in making alloys and soft
solders.

Pig iron
Crude

iron that is drawn from a blast


furnace and cast into pigs in preparation
for conversion into cast iron, wrought iron
or steel.

metals
Any

class of elementary substances as


gold, silver or copper, all of which are
crystalline when solid and many of which
are characterized by opacity, ductility,
conductivity and a unique luster when
freshly fractured.

Wrought iron
A tough

malleable, relatively soft iron that


is readily forged and welded, having a
fibrous structure, containing approximately
0.2% carbon and a small amount of
uniformly distributed slag.

Carbon steel
Ordinary

unalloyed steel in which the


residual elements such as carbon,
manganese, phosphorous, sulfur and
silicon are controlled.

marble
A metamorphic

rock of crystallized
limestone, consisting mainly of calcite and
dolomite, used especially in architecture
and sculpture.

granite
A very

hard, coarse-grained igneous rock,


composed mainly of quartz, feldspar and
mica or other colored minerals.

Metamorphic rock
A class

of rock that has undergone change


in structure, texture or composition due to
natural agencies, as heat and pressure.

oolite
A limestone

composed of small, round,


calcerous grains resembling fish roe. Also
called egg stone.

limestone
A sedimentary

rock formed chiefly by the


accumulation of organic remains, as shells
and corals, and used as a building stone
in the manufacture of lime.

slate
A dense,

fine-grained, metamorphic rock


formed by the compression of various
sediments, as clay and shale.

dolomite
A limestone

carbonate.

rich in magnesium and

quartzite
A compact,

granular metamorphic rock


consisting essentially of quartz, derived
from sandstone.

soapstone
A massive,

soft rock, containing a high


proportion of talc, used as dimension
stone for hearths, tabletops and carved
ornaments. Also called steatite.

Sedimentary rock
A class

of rock formed by the deposition of


sediment, as limestone, sandstone or
shale.

gneiss
A banded

or foliated metamorphic rock


corresponding in composition to granite.

travertine
A variety

of limestone deposited by spring


waters, especially hot springs, sold as
marble in the building trade.

sandstone
A sedimentary

rock consisting of sand,


usually quartz, cemented together by
various substances, as silica, clay or
calcium carbonate.

Building stone
Any

stone suitable for use in building


construction, as limestone, marble or
granite.

Construction terms:

Larga masa - concrete slab


Tirante - bottom chord
Plantilya - pattern
De bandeha - panel door
Pierno pasante - machine bolt
Uno sinatra - alternate
Ladrillo - brick
Tabike - exterior siding

Baral de kadena - chain bolt


Pie de gallo - brace
Yiero lizo galbanizado - plain GI
sheet
Biga - concrete beam
Tubo de banada - downspout
Hamba pintuan - door jamb
Kuatro aguas - hip roof

Done! :)
Source: preliminary and final examinations 2002
For additional review materials or contributions go to:
www.arkireviewph.multiply.com
Good luck!