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Raster Graphics

Hardware

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EXAMPLE RASTER
GRAPHICS
ARCHITECTURE Peripheral
CPU devices

System bus

Display System
processor memory

Display
Frame Video
processor Monitor
buffer controller
memory

Fig. 4.22 Raster system architecture with a display processor.


(Used by permission from Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice.)
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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
BASIC
DEFINITIONS
RASTER: A rectangular array of points or dots.

PIXEL (Pel): One dot or picture element of the raster

SCAN LINE: A row of pixels

Video raster devices


display an image by
sequentially drawing
out the pixels of the
scan lines that form
the raster.

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Pixels

• Pixel - The most basic addressable image element in a


screen
– CRT - Color triad (RGB phosphor dots)
– LCD - Single color element
• Screen Resolution - measure of number of pixels on a
screen (m by n)
– m - Horizontal screen resolution
– n - Vertical screen resolution

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Color

• There are no commercially available small


pixel technologies that can individually
change color.
• Color is encoded by placing different-
colored pixels adjacent to each other.
• Field sequential color uses red, blue and
green liquid crystal shutters to change color
in front of a monochrome screen.
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Raster Displays

• Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs), most “tube” monitors


you see. Very common, but big and bulky.
• Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
- there are two types:
1) transmissive (Shine light through the image-forming
element, e.g. laptops, those snazzy new flat panel
monitors)
2) reflective (Bounce light off the image-forming element
e.g. wrist watches).
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CRT Monitor

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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
CRT Monitor
CRT

Shadow Mask

Electron Guns

Red Input

Green
Input

Blue Input

Deflection
Yoke Red, Blue,
and Green
Phosphor Dots

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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
Electron Gun

•Contains a filament that, when heated, emits a stream of electrons.

•Electrons are focused with an electromagnet into a sharp beam and directed
to a specific point of the face of the picture tube.

•The front surface of the picture tube is coated with small phosphor dots.

•When the beam hits a phosphor dot it glows with a brightness proportional to
the strength of the beam and how often it is excited by the beam.

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CRT Phosphor Screen

• The screen is coated with


phosphor, 3 colors for a color
monitor, 1 for monochrome.
• For a color monitor, three guns
light up red, green, or blue
phosphors.
• Intensity is controlled by the
amount of time at a specific
phosphor location.

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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
Color CRT
•Red, Green and Blue electron guns. G R B G

•Screen coated with phosphor triads.


B G R B
•Each triad is composed of a red, blue
and green phosphor dot. G R B G
•Typically 2.3 to 2.5 triads per pixel.

FLUORESCENCE - Light emitted while the phosphor is being struck by electrons.


PHOSPHORESCENCE - Light given off once the electron beam is removed.
PERSISTENCE - Is the time from the removal of excitation to the moment when
phosphorescence has decayed to 10% of the initial light output.

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Scanning An
Image
Frame: The image to be scanned out on the CRT.
•Some minimum number of frames must be displayed each second to eliminate
flicker in the image.

CRITICAL FUSION FREQUENCY


•Typically 60 times per second for
raster displays.
•Varies with intensity, individuals,
phosphor persistence, room lighting.

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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
Scannin
g

VERTICAL SYNC PULSE — Signals the start of the next field.


VERTICAL RETRACE — Time needed to get from the bottom of the
current field to the top of the next field.
HORIZONTAL SYNC PULSE — Signals the start of the new scan line.
HORIZONTAL RETRACE — Time needed to get from the end of the
current scan line to the start of the next scan line.

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Interlaced Scanning
1 /3 0 S E C 1 /3 0 S E C

1 /6 0 S E C 1 /6 0 S E C 1 /6 0 S E C 1 /6 0 S E C

FIEL D 1 F IE L D 2 F IE L D 1 FIEL D 2

FR A M E FR A M E

•Scan frame 30 times per second


•To reduce flicker, divide frame into
two fields—one consisting of the
even scan lines and the other of the
odd scan lines.
•Even and odd fields are scanned out
alternately to produce an interlaced
image.
Image from
http://www.anchorbaytech.com/_media/images/s
upport/interlaced-scan.jpg
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Video
Formats
• NTSC - 525x480, 30f/s, interlaced
• PAL - 625x480, 25f/s, interlaced
• VGA - 640x480, 60f/s, noninterlaced
• SVGA – 800x600, 60f/s noninterlaced
• RGB - 3 independent video signals and
synchronization signal, vary in resolution and refresh
rate
• Time-multiplexed color - R,G,B one after another on a
single signal, vary in resolution and refresh rate

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Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

Wavefront
distortion
Small Diffuser filter
fluorescent LCD Linear
tubes Linear Module Color Polarizer
Polarizer Filter

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Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

• Also divided into pixels, but without an electron


gun firing at a screen, LCDs have cells that either
allow light to flow through, or block it.

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Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

• Liquid crystal displays use small flat chips which


change their transparency properties when a
voltage is applied.
• LCD elements are arranged in an n x m array call
the LCD matrix
• Level of voltage controls gray levels.
• LCDs elements do not emit light, use backlights
behind the LCD matrix

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Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

• Color is obtained by placing filters in front of each


LCD element
• Usually black space between pixels to separate the
filters.
• Because of the physical nature of the LCD matrix, it is
difficult to make the individual LCD pixels very small.
• Image quality dependent on viewing angle.

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LCDs
(cont.)

LCD resolution is often quoted as number of


color elements not number of RGB triads.
R G B R G B R G

B R G B R G B R

R G B R G B R G

Example: 320 horizontal by 240 vertical elements = 76,800


elements
Equivalent to 76,800/3 = 25,500 RGB pixels
"Pixel Resolution" is 185 by 139 (320/1.73, 240/1.73)
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LCDs
(cont.)
• Passive LCD screens • Active LCD screens
– Cycle through each – Each element contains
element of the LCD a small transistor that
matrix applying the maintains the voltage
voltage required for that until the next refresh
element. cycle.
– Once aligned with the – Higher contrast and
electric field the much faster response
molecules in the LCD than passive LCD
will hold their
alignment for a short
time
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Advantages
of LCDs
• Flat
• Lightweight
• Low power consumption

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CRTs (cont.)

• Strong electrical fields and high voltage


• Very good resolution
• Heavy, not flat

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Frame Buffers

A frame buffer may be thought of as computer memory organized as a two-


dimensional array with each (x,y) addressable location corresponding to one
pixel.
Bit Planes or Bit Depth is the number of bits corresponding to each pixel.
A typical frame buffer resolution might be
640 x 480 x 8
1280 x 1024 x 8
1280 x 1024 x 24
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1-Bit Memory. Monochrome
Display
(Bit-map Display)

1 bit
2 levels

Electron
Gun

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3-Bit Color Display
3

red

green
blue

COLOR: black red green blue yellow cyan magenta white

R 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
G 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
B 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

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True Color Display
24 bitplanes, 8 bits per color gun. 224 = 16,777,216

N Red

Green

Blue

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Color Map Look-Up
Tables
Extends the number of colors that can be displayed by a given number of
bit-planes.

y RED
max
GREEN
255
BLUE
1
1
0
y 0
0 67 Pixel displayed
0
1 1001 1010 0001
0
67100110100001 at x', y'
R G B
Pixel in
bit map 0
0 at x', y'
0 x x
max

Bit map Look-up table Display


Fig. 4.LUT Video look-up table organization. A pixel with value 67
(binary 01000011) is displayed on the screen with the red electron
gun at 9/15 of maximum, green at 10/15, and blue at 1/15. This look-up
table is shown with 12 bits per entry. Up to 24 bits per entry are
common.
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Pseudo Color : 28 x 24 Color Map
LUT be used to define 256 shades of
Could
green or 64 shades each of red, blue,
green and white, etc. RED GREEN BLUE
255
254

256 colors chosen from a


palette of 16,777,216.

Each entry in the color map 3


2
LUT can be user defined.
1
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Larry F. Hodges (modified by H.Quynh Dinh 11/02)
Examples of Pseudo Color Application
Image from
www.miram Image from
etrics.com/br hinode.nao.ac.jp
ief_contour.h /news_e/200611
tm 27_press_e

Image from
www.catenary.com/howto/
pseudo.html

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Display Processor

Also called either a Graphics Controller or Display CoProcessor or


Graphics Accelerator or Video Card

Specialized hardware to assist in scan converting output primitives into


the frame buffer.

Fundamental difference among display systems is how much the display


processor does versus how much must be done by the graphics
subroutine package executing on the general-purpose CPU.

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Video Controller
Cycles through the frame buffer, one scan line at a time. Contents of the
memory are used to control the CRT's beam intensity or color.

X address Set or increment


Horizontal
M Linear Raster scan
and vertical
e address generator
deflection
m
signals
o Y address Set or decrement
r
y

Data Pixel Intensity


value(s) or color

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Projection
Displays
• Use bright CRT or LCD
screens to generate an image
which is sent through an
optical system to focus on a
(usually) large screen.
• Full color obtained by
having separate
monochromatic projector for
each of the R,G,& B color
channels

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Basic Projector Designs
(Images from Phillips Research)

Reflective Projection System Transmittive Projection


System

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Advantages/D
isadvantages
of Projection
•Display
Very large screens can provide large field of view and can
be seen by several people simultaneously.
• Image quality can be fuzzy and somewhat dimmer than
conventional displays.
• Sensitive to ambient light.
• Delicate optical alignment.
• Less eye strain
• Very immersive
• Very expensive
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Displays in Virtual Reality

• Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs)


– The display and a position tracker are attached
to the user’s head

• Head-Tracked Displays (HTDs)


– Display is stationary, tracker tracks the user’s
head relative to the display.
– Example: CAVE, Workbench, Stereo monitor
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Image Quality Issues

• Screen resolution • Brightness


• Color • Contrast
• Blank space between • Refresh rate
the pixels • Sensitivity of display
• Intentional image to viewing angle
degradation

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Input
Devices
• Locator Devices: to indicate a position and/or orientation
e.g. Tablet, Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, Touch Panel, Light Pen

• Keyboard devices: to input a character string


e.g. Alphanumeric keyboard

• Scanner
– Image Scanners, e.g. Flatbed, etc
What type of data is returned? Bitmap

– Laser Scanners, e.g. Deltasphere


Emits a laser and does time of flight. Returns 3D point
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