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Elasticity

Archimedes Principle

Bernoullis Equation

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasmas

Stress = Measure of force felt by material

Force

Stress

Area

SI units are Pascals, 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

(same as pressure)

F

L

Strain

L

dimensionless

L

F

A

Y

L L

F

tensile stress

A

tensile strain

L

Measure of stiffness

Tensile refers to tension

Example 9.1

King Kong (a 8.0x104-kg monkey) swings from a 320m cable from the Empire State building. If the 3.0cm diameter cable is made of steel (Y=1.8x1011 Pa),

by how much will the cable stretch?

1.97 m

Shear Modulus

A

S

x h

F

Sheer Stress

Sheer Strain

Bulk Modulus

F

P

A

B

V

V

V

V

BY 3

Change in Pressure

Volume Strain

F

P

A

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Example 9.2

A large solid steel (Y=1.8x1011 Pa) block (L 5 m, W=4 m,

H=3 m) is submerged in the Mariana Trench where the

pressure is 7.5x107 Pa.

a) By what percentage does the length change?

-0.041 %

b) What are the changes in the length, width and height?

-2.08 mm, -1.67 mm, -1.25 mm

c) By what percentage does the volume change?

-0.125%

Solids have Youngs, Bulk, and Shear moduli

Liquids have only bulk moduli

Ultimate Strength

Maximum F/A before fracture or crumbling

Different for compression and tension

Densities

M

Densities depend on temperature, pressure...

Specific gravity = ratio of density to density of

H2O at 4 C.

Example 9.3

The specific gravity of gold is 19.3. What is the mass

(in kg) and weight (in lbs.) of 1 cubic meter of gold?

19,300 kg

42549 lbs

F

P

Pressure applied to any part

A

of

an enclosed fluid is transmitted

undimished to every point of the

fluid and to the walls of the

container

Transmitting

force

Hydraulic press

F1 F2

P

A1 A2

An applied force F1 can

be amplified:

A2

F2 F1

A1

Examples: hydraulic brakes,

forklifts, car lifts, etc.

w is weight

w Mg Vg Ahg

Sum forces to zero,

PA P0 A w 0

Factor A

P P0 gh

Find the pressure at 10,000 m of water.

DATA: Atmospheric pressure = 1.015x105 Pa.

9.82x107 Pa

Example 9.6

Assume the ultimate strength of legos is 4.0x104

Pa. If the density of legos is 150 kg/m3, what is

the maximum possible height for a lego tower?

27.2 m

Example 9.7

Estimate the mass of the Earths atmosphere given

that atmospheric pressure is 1.015x105 Pa.

Data: Rearth=6.36x106 m

5.26x1018 kg

Archimedes Principle

Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid

is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Example

9.8

is suspended on a cable. The probe has a mass of 500

kg and its average density is 1400 kg/m3. What is the

tension in the cable?

1401 N

Example 9.9a

A wooden ball of mass M and volume V floats on a

swimming pool. The density of the wood is wood < H20.

The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward

b) H20gV upward

c) ( H20- wood)gV upward

Example 9.9b

A steel ball of mass M and volume V rests on the

bottom of a swimming pool. The density of the steel

is steel > H20. The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward

b) H20gV upward

c) ( steel- H20)gV upward

Example 9.10

A small swimming pool has an area of 10 square

meters. A wooden 4000-kg statue of density 500

kg/m3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far

does the water rise?

Data: Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

40 cm

The can will

a) Float

b) Sink

When I pour in the paint thinner, the cylinder will:

a) Rise

b) Fall

Equation of Continuity

What goes in must come out!

mass density

M Ax Avt

Mass that passes a point

in pipe during time t

Eq. of Continuity

1 A1v1 2 A2 v2

Example 9.11

Water flows through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe at 5

cm/s. The pipe then narrows downstream and has a

diameter of of 2.0 cm. What is the velocity of the

water through the smaller pipe?

20 cm/s

Fluid elements move

along smooth paths

Friction in laminar flow

is called viscosity

Turbulence

Fluid elements move along irregular paths

Sets in for high velocity gradients (small pipes)

Ideal Fluids

Non-viscous -> No friction between fluid layers

Incompressible -> Density is same everywhere

Bernoullis Equation

1 2

P v gy constant

2

Sum of P, KE/V and PE/V is constant

Consider a volume V of mass M of incompressible fluid,

1

1

2

KE Mv2 Mv12

2

2

1

1

2

Vv2 Vv12

2

2

PE Mgy2 Mgy1

Vgy2 Vgy1

W F1x1 F2 x2

P1 A1x1 P2 A2 x2

P1V P2 V

1 2

1 2

P1 gh1 v1 P2 gh2 v2

2

2

Example

9.12

A very large pipe carries

water with a very slow

velocity and empties into a

small pipe with a high

velocity. If P2 is 7000 Pa

lower than P1, what is the

velocity of the water in

the small pipe?

3.74 m/s

Venturi Meter

Venturi meter

Curve balls

Airplanes

Example 9.13a

choose >, < or =

1 ____ 2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 9.13b

choose >, < or =

Mass that passes 1 in one second

_____ mass that passes 2 in one second

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 9.13c

choose >, < or =

v1 ____ v2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 9.13d

choose >, < or =

P1 ____ P2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 9.14

Water drains out of the bottom of a

cooler at 3 m/s, what is the depth of

the water above the valve?

45.9 cm

Viscosity

Diffusion

Osmosis

Viscosity

v

F A

d

Pressure drop required to

force water through pipes

(Poiselles Law)

At high enough v/d,

turbulence sets in

Diffusion

Molecules move from region of high concentration

to region of low concentration

Ficks Law:

Mass

C2 C1

Diffusion rate

DA

time

L

D = diffusion

coefficient

Osmosis

Movement of water through a boundary while

denying passage to specific molecules, e.g.

salts

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