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CHEMICAL BOND

&
MOLECULAR
GEOMETRY

SUMMARY OF LAST WEEK

Types of bonding
Ionic bond: transfer of electron(s)
Covalent bond: sharing of electron(s)
Types of compounds
Ionic compounds: metals + nonmetals
Covalent compounds: between metals
Naming of compounds
Ions: cations, anions, oxoanions
Ionic compounds
Covalent compounds: 4 rules

SUMMARY OF LAST WEEK

Quantum numbers: n, l, ml and ms


n: determines the energy of the orbital
l: determines the shape of the orbital
( l= 0, 1,..n-1);
l= 0 is s, l=1 is p, l=2 is d etc

m (or ml):
determines the orientation of the orbital;
m= -l,,0,,+l;
therefore: 1s orbital, 3p orbital, 5d orbital
ms: describes the spin of the electron,

SUMMARY OF LAST WEEK

Multi-electron configuration:
Pauli Exclusion Principle:
no 2 electrons in an atom may be in the same
quantum state (n,l,ml,ms)
Aufbau Principle:
electrons adopt the lowest possible energy
Shielding:
orbitals of equal n nearest the nucleus have
lowest energy
Hunds Rule:
in orbitals, electrons prefer to be unpaired first

THIS WEEK

PART 1: CHEMICAL BOND


Highlight:
Covalent bond
Ionic bond
Metallic bond

CONCEPTS
Valence electron
Lewis dot formula
Electronegativity
Polar, non polar bond
Polarity
Dipole, dipole moment

THIS WEEK

PART 2: MOLECULAR SHAPE


Highlight:
Lewis structure
Octet rule
Molecular
geometry

CONCEPTS
How to draw a LEWIS
structure
Octet rule
VSEPR (Valence-Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion)
theory
Determine the molecular
shape by VSEPR

THIS WEEK

PART 1: CHEMICAL BOND


Highlight:
Covalent bond
Ionic bond
Metallic bond

CONCEPTS
Valence electron
Lewis dot formula
Electronegativity
Polar, non polar bond
Polarity
Dipole, dipole moment

IONIC COMPOUNDS
NiCl2.6H2O

CuSO4.5H2O

K2Cr2O7

CoCl2.6H2O

NaCl

COVALENT COMPOUNDS

H2 O
(water)

CO2
(carbon
dioxide)

CH4
(methane)

C2H5OH
(ethyl
alcohol)

Light bulb experiment

Why are the properties of a substance


different from another ?
Properties of an atom depend on the
electron configuration and the strength of
the nucleus-electron attractions
Similarly,
Properties of a substance depend on the
type and strength of chemical bonds

CHEMICAL BONDS
the forces that hold the atoms of elements
together in compounds

CHEMICAL BONDS
the forces that hold the atoms of elements
together in compounds
Highlight:
Ionic bond: metals and nonmetals
Covalent bond: nonmetals and nonmetals
Metallic bond: metal with metal

3 types of bondings

To understand bonding, we should know:


Valence electrons
How to draw Lewis formula
Octet rule

Does electron configuration has any effect on


chemical bond?
YES. But only the electrons at outer most
shell will determine bonding
Numbers
They are and
called
arrangements
valence electrons
of valence
electrons determine:
chemical and physical properties of
elements
kinds of chemical bonds

Electron configuration:
Valence electrons: the outer most electrons
of atoms
11
Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 valence electrons: 1
O: 1s2 2s2 2p4

valence electrons: 6

Numbers and arrangements of valence


electrons determine:
chemical and physical properties of
elements
kinds of chemical bonds

Electron configuration:
Valence electrons: the outer most electrons
of atoms
11
Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 valence electrons: 1
O: 1s2 2s2 2p4

valence electrons: 6

Numbers and arrangements of valence


electrons determine:
chemical and physical properties of
elements
kinds of chemical bonds

Lewis formulas (Lewis dot formulas): to


describe the valence electrons
Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 valence electron: 1

11

O: 1s 2s 2p

Na

valence electrons: 6 O

Only valence electrons of s and p orbitals:


shown in dots

Number of valence electrons of GROUP A =


group number

-Use Lewis symbol to express valence electrons


-Its easy to write the Lewis symbol for any maingroup element:
1. Note its A-group number (1A to 8A), which equals
the number of valence electrons.
2. Place one dot at a time on the four sides (top,
right, bottom, left) of the element symbol.
3. Keep adding dots, pairing the dots until all are
used up.
Now, can you quickly write the Lewis symbol of all
elements in group 6A?

The Lewis symbol provides information about


an elements bonding behavior:
For a metal,
the total number of dots = the maximum
number of electrons an atom loses to form
a cation.

Na

Ca

Al

The Lewis symbol provides information about


an elements bonding behavior:
For a nonmetal,
the number of unpaired dots equals
either the number of electrons an atom
gains in becoming an anion
or the number it shares in forming covalent
bonds.

3 types of bonding: a closer look

IONIC BONDING
Ionic bonding: forms between
atoms with LARGE differences in
their tendencies to lose or gain
electrons.
These differences results in
transfer of electron from one
atom to another in large numbers
to form a compound.

IONIC BONDING
Normally, ionic bonding forms between
reactive metals and nonmetals
Reactive metals:
Group 1A
&
Group 2A
low ionisation
energy easily
loses e-

Nometals
Group 7A
&
the top of group 6A
very negative
affinity easily
attract e-

The electrostatic attraction of the ions draw them


into a 3D array of an ionic solid

STRENGTH OF IONIC BOND


The strength of ionic bonds depends on:
Charges & Sizes

Coulombs Law:

Proportional to
q: Charge(s) of the ion(s)

d: Distance between ions

Ions with higher charges and smaller sizes


will attract each other stronger

Higher charges q +, q - increase F increases


Smaller sizes D decreases F increases

COVALENT BONDING
Covanlent bonding: forms
between atoms with small
differences in their
tendencies to lose or gain
electrons.

COVALENT BONDING
Normally, covalent bonding forms between
nonmetals.
Each nonmetal has
HIGH ionisation energy: hold onto its own
electrons tightly
HIGHLY negative electron affinity:
attract electrons from others
The attraction of each nucleus & valence
electron: draw atoms close to each other

METALLIC BONDING
Metals: can easily loose
electron at outer shell
Electron pool
Electrostatic attraction

3 types of bonding
Ionic bonding
Covalent bonding
Metallic bonding
MODELS OF BONDING
Model of ionic bonding
Model of covalent bonding

3 types of bonding
Ionic bonding
Covalent bonding
Metallic bonding
MODELS OF BONDING
Model of ionic bonding
Model of covalent bonding

COVALENT BONDING
Why does covalent bonding form?
Key concepts
Covalent bonding
Shared and unshared pair
Bond energy and bond length
Bond polarity
Dipole moment

COVALENT BONDING of H2

COVALENT BONDING

the atoms are


too far apart to
attract each
other.

repulsions increase
the systems
energy and force
the atoms apart to
point 3 again.

each nucleus
attracts
the other
atoms electron.
The combination of nucleus-electron
attractions and electron-electron and
nucleus repulsions gives the minimum energy
of the system.

COVALENT BONDING
Distribution of electron density

COVALENT BONDING
Covalent bonding : results from sharing one or
more pair electrons between atoms
Valence electron(s): participate in covalent bonding

When can a covalent bond be formed?


Covalent bonding occurs when the electronegativity
difference, (EN), between elements (atoms) is zero
or relatively small.

BOND PAIR & LONE PAIR


Shared or bond pair (electron pairs)
Unshared or lone pair
SHARED

Unshared

SHARE
D

Unshare
d

BOND PAIR & LONE PAIR


Shared or bond pair (electron pairs)
Unshared or lone pair
SHARED

Unshared

SHARED

Unshared

BOND PAIR & LONE PAIR


Bonding pair (electron pair): Bonding pair A
pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.
Also called shared pair.
Lone pair: A pair of electrons residing on one
atom and not shared by other atoms; unshared
pair.

FORMATION OF COVALENT BOND

H + H

H + F

H H
or H-H

HF

or H-F
Covalent bonding : results from sharing one or
more pair electrons between atoms

BOND TYPES
Single covalent bond: two atoms share one electron
pair. SINGLE BOND

Double covalent bond: two atoms share two electron


pairs. DOUBLE BOND

Triple covalent bond: two atoms share three electron


pairs. TRIPLE BOND

BOND ENERGY AND BOND LENGTH

BOND ENERGY AND BOND LENGTH

The strength of a covalent bond depends on the


magnitude of the mutual attraction between bonded
nuclei and shared electrons.
The bond energy (BE) (also called bond enthalpy or
bond strength) is the energy required to overcome
this attraction.

BOND ENERGY AND BOND LENGTH


Bond energies depend on characteristics of
the bonded atoms
their electron configurations,
nuclear charges
atomic radii
A covalent bond has a bond length, the
distance between the nuclei of two bonded
atoms.

Bond Energy and Bond Length


Energy: (kJ) average bond energy
Length: (pm) average bond length

BOND LENGTH AND ATOMIC RADIUS


Energy: (kJ) average bond energy
Length: (pm) average bond length
Within a series of similar
molecules, such as the
diatomic halogen molecules,
bond length increases as
covalent radius increases

BOND STRENGTH, LENGTH AND BOND


TYPE
Between single bond, double bond and triple
bond
Bond length:
single bond > double bond > triple bond
Bond strength:
single bond < double bond < triple bond

BOND STRENGTH, LENGTH AND BOND


TYPE
Remember: the longer the length
the lower the bond energies
the lower the bond STRENGTH
Another example:
Trend atomic size: I > Br > Cl
Lets compare: C-I > C-Br> C-Cl

How the Model Explains the Properties of


Covalent Substances
The covalent bonding model proposes that
electron sharing between pairs of atoms leads
to strong, localized bonds, usually within
individual molecules.
Most covalent substances have low electrical
conductivity because electrons are localized
and ions are absent.

How the Model Explains the Properties of


Covalent Substances
The covalent bonding model proposes that
electron sharing between pairs of atoms leads
to strong, localized bonds, usually within
individual molecules.
Most covalent substances have low electrical
conductivity because electrons are localized
and ions are absent.
Pentane

How the Model Explains the Properties of


Covalent Substances
Substances that consist of separate
molecules are generally soft and low melting
because of the weak forces between
molecules.
Solids held together by covalent bonds
extending throughout the sample are
extremely hard and high melting.

COVALENT BONDING
Key concepts
Covalent bonding
Shared and unshared pair
Bond energy and bond length
Electronegativity
Bond polarity
Dipole moment

BONDING
The ionic and covalent bonding models portray
compounds as being formed by either complete
electron transfer or complete electron
sharing.
Questions: are all ionic bonds are 0% covalent?
YES
Questions: are all covalent bonds are 0% ionic?
Lets learn about electronegativity?

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
One of the most important concepts in
chemical bonding is electronegativity (EN).
(EN), the relative ability of a bonded atom to
attract the shared electrons.
Electronegativity different from electron affinity
(EA),

Electronegativity refers to a bonded atom


attracting the shared electron pair;

Electron affinity refers to a separate atom in


the gas phase gaining an electron to form a
gaseous anion.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
There are also trends in electronegativity in the
periodic table
Electronegativity is inversely related to atomic size.
Atomic size decreases
nucleus of a bonded atom attract more SHARED
electrons
electronegativity increases
For the main-group elements,
electronegativity generally increases up a group
and across a period.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY

POLAR AND NONPOLAR


COVALENT BONDS
Questions: are all covalent bonds are 0% ionic?
YES in NONPOLAR BOND
NO in POLAR BOND
Because:
Difference in ELECTRONEGATIVITY affect
an electrostatic (charge) contribution
Lets have a look at:
H-H and H-F

H-H or H : H
Both H atoms have the
samePOLAR
electronegativity
COVALENT
electrons
BOND: spend equal
amount
time near
each
Theofelectron
pair
is
H nucleaus
shared unequally
the electron density is
SYMETRICAL
The electron pair is
NONPOLAR
shared equally
COVALENT BOND: this covalent bond is
NONPOLAR

The covalent bonds in ALL homonuclear


diatomic molecules must be nonpolar.
H2, O2, N2, F2 and Cl2
Now consider heteronuclear diatomic
molecules: HF

H-F or H : F

H and F are two


different atoms
different
electronegativity
uneven electron
density
polar
POLAR COVALENT
BOND

The electron pair


is shared unequally
Asymetric
electron density

POLAR AND NONPOLAR


COVALENT BONDS
Different distribution of electron density

POLARITY: indicate how polar a compound is


one way to indicate polarity
Partial
positive
charge

Partial
negative
charge

Another way to indicate polarity

Compare POLARITY?
Which on is more polar?
HF
HCl
HBr

HI

The higher the difference in EN the more


polar a compound the higher polarity

The separation of charge in a polar covalent bond


creates an electric dipole.
We can express bond polarities on a numerical scale
as dipole moment
DIPOLE MOMENT
d: distance of separation
q: charge

DIPOLE MOMENT
Different distribution of electron density

DIPOLE MOMENT

What happened if we put a polar compound in


an electric field?

FIELD
OFF

FIELD ON

So WE understood:
Covalent bonding : polar and nonpolar bond
Electronegativity: is the attraction of
electron more toward a bonded atom
Difference in EN causes a bond polar
Polarity can be expressed in number by a
value called DIPOLE MOMENT

Question: is the polarity of a bond the same as a


molecule containing that bond?

Dipole moments only associated with


individual bonds

The polarity of the entire molecules depends


on MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY) next
part

COVALENT BONDING
SUMMARY
Key concepts
Covalent bonding
Shared and unshared pair
Bond energy and bond length
Bond polarity
Dipole moment

THIS WEEK

PART 2: MOLECULAR SHAPE


Highlight:
Lewis structure
Octet rule
Molecular
geometry

CONCEPTS
Octet rule
How to draw a LEWIS
structure
VSEPR (Valence-Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion)
theory
Determine the molecular
shape by VSEPR

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


We will know to explain the geometries of the
molecules in term of their electronic
structures.
Molecular geometry:
the general shape of a molecules
determined by relative positions of the
atomic nuclei

To see what a molecule look like:


Know the molecular formula
2D structure with Lewis dot formula:
the position of bonding pair,
the position of lone pair
central atom
should know the OCTET RULE

LEWIS FORMULAS FOR MOLECULES

LEWIS FORMULAS FOR POLYATOMIC IONS


An example: NH4+

OCTET RULE
In most of their compounds, the representative
elements achieve noble gas configuration
OCTET RULE: elements tend to reach a maximum 8
electrons in the outermost shell - lowest
energy/stable configuration (Except for H: 2
electrons)
H F

This rule is not always correct, there are some


exceptions

OCTET RULE
In most of their compounds, the representative
elements achieve noble gas configuration
OCTET RULE: elements tend to reach a maximum 8
electrons in the outermost shell - lowest
energy/stable configuration (Except for H: 2
electrons)

H F

How can we calculate the number of shared


electrons in a compound?

How can we calculate the number of shared electrons


in a compound?

S= N - A

S: number of shared electrons


N: the total number of valence electrons needed by
all the atoms in the molecule or ion to achieve noble
gas configurations
N = 8 numbers of atoms that are not H +
2 number of H atoms
A: the number of valence electrons of all of the
atoms. (so it should be the group number?)

Some examples?

HF:

N = 81 (1 atom F) + 21 (1 atom H) = 10
A = 71 (1 atom F) + 11 (1 atom H) = 8
S = N-A = 10-8 = 2 e- shared

HF

CO2: N = 82 (2 atom O) + 81 (1 atom C) = 24


A = 62 (2 atom O) + 41 (1 atom C) = 16
S = N-A = 24-16 = 8 e- shared

Some examples?
H2O:

N=
A=
S=

NH4+: N =

A=
S=

How to draw a Lewis structure


with single bonds
Step 1

Select a skeleton for molecules or ions

Step 2

Calculate the shared electrons (S)

Step 3

Put the shared electrons into


the skeleton

Step 4

Put the unshared electrons into


the skeleton to fulfill Octet rule

How to
to draw
How
draw aa Lewis
Lewisstructure
structure
with single bonds
Step 1

Select a skeleton for molecules or ions

A) The least electronegative element is


usually the central element
B) Oxygen atoms do not bond to each other:
dont put them close to one another
C) Hydrogen usually bonds to an O atom, not
to the central atom
D) For ions or molecules that have more than
one central atom, the most symmetrical
skeletons possible are used.

How to draw a Lewis structure


Step 1

Select a skeleton for molecules or ions

A) The least electronegative element is


usually the central element
E.g. : CS2

B) Oxygen atoms do not bond to each other:


dont put them close to one another
E.g. : SO4-

O
O S O
O

Some exceptions:
a) O2 and O3
b) Peroxides : O22-;
c) Superoxides: O2-

How to
to draw
How
draw aa Lewis
Lewisstructure
structure
with single bonds
Step 1

Select a skeleton for molecules or ions

C) Hydrogen usually bonds to an O atom, not


Some exceptions:
to the central atom
H3PO3 and H3PO2

E.g. : Nitrous acid HNO2

D) For ions or molecules that have more than


one central atom, the most symmetrical
skeletons possible are used.

How to
to draw
How
draw
Lewisstructure
structure of
Some examples:
drawaaaLewis
structure
with single bonds
a) H2SO4 b) ClO4
c)NO3
a) H2SO4
Step 1: Draw a skeleton

O
H O S O H
O

Step 2: Calculate number of shared electrons


N= 84 (4O) + 81 (1S) + 22 (2H) = 44
A= 64 (4O) + 61 (1S) + 12 (1H) = 32
Number of shared electrons:
S= N-A = 12 e-

a) H2SO4
Step 3: put the shared e- in the skeleton

Step 4: put the unshared e- in the skeleton

..
..

..

..

..
..

..
..

..
..

Some examples: draw a Lewis structure of


a) H2SO4 b) ClO4c)NO3-

How to draw a Lewis structure


with MULTIPLE bonds
Step 1

Select a skeleton for molecules or ions

Step 2

Calculate the shared electrons (S)

Step 3

Put the shared electrons into the


skeleton
Put the unshared electrons into the
skeleton to fulfill Octet rule

Sometimes after step 4, a central atom does not have


an octet: MAKE MULTIPLE BOND by changing a lone
pair into a bonding pair
change 1 pair: from single bond to double
change 2 pairs: double to triple

How to draw a Lewis structure


with MULTIPLE bonds
Sometimes after step 4, a central atom does not have
an octet: MAKE MULTIPLE BOND by changing a lone
pair into a bonding pair
change 1 pair: from single bond to double
change 2 pairs: double to triple
After STEP 4:
Move a
lone pair to
bonding
pair

How to draw a Lewis structure


Practice: draw a Lewis structure of some
hydrocarbon

CH4

C2H6

C2H4

C2H2

Lewis structures for Exceptions to the Octet


Rule: self-study, further reading in Principle of
General Chemistry.

RESONANCE
Sometimes, there COULD be 2 Lewis structure for 1
molecule

They are not correct structure; the bonds should be


between O-O and O=O
one-and-a-half bond

Resonance structures

RESONANCE: DELOCALISATION
Resonance structures

Resonance structures are not real bonding,


so to depict something in between, RESONANCE
HYBRID is used.

In Resonance hybrid, electron-pair delocalisation


occur

RESONANCE: DELOCALISATION
Another example of electron-pair
delocalisation

PART 2: MOLECULAR SHAPE


Highlight:
Lewis structure
Octet rule
Molecular
geometry

CONCEPTS
Octet rule
How to draw a LEWIS
structure
VSEPR (Valence-Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion)
theory
Determine the
molecular shape by VSEPR

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


VSEPR MODEL : the valence-shell electronpair repulsion.
SHAPE

VALENCE BOND THEORY


BONDING

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion model
(VSEPR) can be used to construct the molecule
shape from Lewis structure.
VSEPR THEORY: each group of valence electrons
around a CENTRAL ATOM is located as far away as
possible from the others in order to minimize
repulsions.
Electron group: regions around the central atom
where electrons are likely to be found

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


Electron group: regions around the central
atom where electrons are likely to be found
So valence electron groups can be:
Single bond
Double bond
Triple bond
A lone pair
Or even a lone electron
Each group REPEL each other to minimise
energy increase BOND ANGLE

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


Is the structure of a covalent compound is
ALWAYS flat?
NO, because there are repulsion between
bond pair/ lone pair
According the valence-shell electron-pair
repulsion theory (VSEPR), these repulsions
give rise to 5 geometric arrangements.
VSEPR MODEL

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


5 geometric arrangements

Valence electron groups defy the arrangement


Bond angle: is the angle formed by the nuclei
of two surrounding atoms with the nucleus of
the central atom at the vertex (top of angle).

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion model
(VSEPR) can be used to predict the shape of an ABn
molecule when A is a main group element.

AXnE

where A = central atom, main group element


X = outer atom(s), E: lone pair(s)
n = # of B atoms

MOLECULAR SHAPE (GEOMETRY)


So remember we have 5 molecular shape

Linear Arrangement
The molecular shape with 2 electron groups
2 electron groups are
as far apart as each
other
Linear arrangement of
electron groups
Linear shape
bond angle of 180o

Linear Arrangement
The molecular shape with 2 electron groups
Gaseous Beryllium Chloride (BeCl2)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Remember: only electron groups around


CENTAL atom influence shape

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The molecular shape with 3 electron groups
3 electron groups repel
each other
Trigonal arrangement of
electron groups
Trigonal planar shape
bond angle of 120o
Electron groups can be:
bonds (single and double)
and lone pair

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The molecular shape with 3 electron groups
Boron trifluoride (BF3)

The nitrate ion (NO3-)

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The molecular shape with 3 electron groups
Boron trifluoride (BF3)

The nitrate ion (NO3-)

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The bond angel change when 3 electron groups are
not identical:
If one of them is a DOUBLE BOND
If one of them is a LONE PAIR

Lets examine
The effect of double bond on bond
angle
The effect of a lone pair on bond angle

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The effect of double bond on bond angle
Example: formaldehyde (CH2O)

The actual bond angles deviate from the ideal


because
the double bond with its greater electron density
repels the two single bonds more strongly than
they repel each other.

Trigonal planar Arrangement


The effect of lone pair on bond angle
When one of the groups is a lone pair, the
shape is BENT, or V-shaped
A lone pair can have a major effect on bond
angle
Gaseous
tin(II)
chloride
a lone pair repels bonding pairs more strongly than
bonding pairs repel each other.
This stronger repulsion decreases the angle
between bonding pairs.

Tetrahedral Arrangement
The molecular shape with 4 electron groups

Tetrahedral Arrangement
The molecular shape with 4 electron groups
With 4 electron groups the molecule
shape is in 3D.
So, Lewis structures do not depict all shape
Consider: Methane (CH4)

All molecules or ions with four electron groups around


a central atom adopt the tetrahedral arrangement

Tetrahedral Arrangement

Tetrahedral Arrangement
Example: NH3

Tetrahedral Arrangement
Example: H2O

Tetrahedral Arrangement: BOND ANGLE


BOND ANGLE

<

<

Electron-pair repulsions cause deviations from


ideal bond angles in the following order:

Trigonal bibyramidal Arrangement


The molecular shape with 5 electron groups

Examples
can be
found in
text
books

Octahedral Arrangement
The molecular shape with 6 electron groups

VSEPR MODEL: MORE EXAMPLES

STEPS TO DETERMINE
A MOLECULAR SHAPE by VESPR MODEL
We understood how VESPR works for the
molecule shape
Now we learn to apply the model and
determine a molecule shape from a molecular
formula

STEPS TO DETERMINE A MOLECULAR SHAPE by


VESPR MODEL
Step 1

Write the LEWIS structure

Step 2

Choose suitable: Count the number of


electron group then choose shape

Step 3

Predict the ideal bond angle


+ the direction of any deviation

Step 4

Draw and name molecular shape

STEPS TO DETERMINE A MOLECULAR SHAPE by


VESPR MODEL

Example 1: PF3
Step 1

Step 3

Step 2

Step 4

MOLECULAR SHAPE & DIPOLE MOMENT

So we now know that molecules have different


shapes
The shape influence the overall dipole moment

COVALENT BOND THEORY


Self study /further reading!
Hybrid orbital interacts
Hybrid orbitals
Sigma and Pi bonds

THIS WEEK

PART 1: CHEMICAL BOND


Highlight:
Covalent bond
Ionic bond
Metallic bond

CONCEPTS
Valence electron
Lewis dot formula
Electronegativity
Polar, non polar bond
Polarity
Dipole, dipole moment

THIS WEEK

PART 2: MOLECULAR SHAPE


Highlight:
Lewis structure
Octet rule
Molecular
geometry

CONCEPTS
How to draw a LEWIS
structure
Octet rule
VSEPR (Valence-Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion)
theory
Determine the molecular
shape by VSEPR