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Arc Welding Paulian Cambridge CRC Press

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control Presentation

Pan Jiluan

Cambridge

Theoretical analysis

Introduction

Although arc welding was invented approximately 100 years ago, many

aspects lack systematic theoretical analysis. In modern publications, there

is only a limited qualitative description of its static process and no scientific

analysis of its dynamic process. On the basis of control theory, the arc

welding process is viewed by the author as a control unit. The steps are to

define the mathematical expression of each element of the control unit, and

then take Laplace transform of the equations. By synthesising these Laplace

equations to obtain the interconnections of all the elements and the full

picture of the control unit, the mathematical representation of the dynamic

behaviour of the control unit can be easily derived.[1,2] Applying this theory,

a deeper understanding of the physical essence of the arc welding process

can be obtained; both the static and dynamic arc-length response due to

load disturbance can be analysed, and the direction and method for

improvement of the welding process can be established.

In this category of welding the wire-feed rate remains unchanged and the

arc length is regulated by the change of arc current induced by the change

of the arc length itself. In accordance with the assumption that the melting

rate is continuous and neglecting the effect of wire extension, the dynamic

equations of all the elements of the control unit may be established as

follows:

For the electrical circuit of the welding process

Self-regulation ability

During arc welding, there are many factors that disturb the arc length. How

does the system respond to these disturbances? How does the rate at

which

the arc length is restored to its normal value determine the stability and

quality of the welding process? Three causes of disturbance to the arc

length

are fluctuation of the line voltage, uneven wire-feed rate and fluctuation of

the torch-to-plate distance. The influence of the first cause can be easily

eliminated by proper design of the power source. Therefore, in the

following

text, the response of the arc length to the latter two causes of disturbance

are discussed.

According to Fig. 1.2, the response of the arc length due to wire-feed rate

disturbance may be expressed as:

From Eq. [1.8] it can be seen that the slope of the output

characteristic will

influence the damping factor. In the case of 1.2mm wire diameter,

ka = 0.716, kp = 0.0245, R = 19mW, and L = 0.3mH, the effect

may be shown

as in Table 1.3. It can be seen that the larger the slope, the smaller

the

damping factor will be. It is known that too small a value of z will

result in

overshoot during a transient process. According to control theory,

the

optimum value of z is 0.7 and thus the slope of the output

characteristic can

be derived as

overshoot are kept unchanged, then wn will decrease and the transient time

will increase. From Eq. [1.11], it is seen that the attenuation factor is

inversely proportional to L; therefore an increase of inductance is

detrimental

to the dynamic characteristics of the system. According to Eq. [1.8],

a decrease of L makes it possible to increase the slope of the output

characteristic of the power source while keeping z unchanged, which can

increase the attenuation factor and shorten the transient time. Furthermore,

according to Eq. [1.15], the effect of a disturbance to the arc length can be

reduced by increasing the slope of the output characteristic. It can be seen

that an increase of inductance is detrimental to the improvement of the

control characteristics of the welding system. In the case of short-circuiting

metal transfer, however, appropriate inductance is necessary to limit the

rate of the rising short-circuit current to reduce the degree of spatter

generation.

In this system, changing the wire-feed rate

regulates the arc length; the wirefeed

motor used is generally a DC

servomotor.The mathematical equation

describing its dynamic function may be

expressed

Effect of wire-feed

mechanism

the time

constant of the wire-feed mechanism, Tm. The greater the value of

Tm, the

smaller the damping factor z will be, and the greater the overshoot;

the

system is likely to oscillate. Additional increase of Tm makes wn, wd

and s

smaller and the transient time longer, and thus worsens the

dynamic characteristics.

Decreasing the value of Tm improves the dynamic characteristics

of the system, or increases the control accuracy by increasing the

open-loop gain while the dynamic characteristics remain

unchanged.

constant, Tm, a motor

having a small time constant, or rational design of the

mechanical parts are

effective. Decreasing the moment of inertia, J, and

increasing the viscosity

coefficient, f, also can decrease Tm. In addition, by using

a negative feedback control loop for the wire-feed motor, plus appropriate

compensation

elements and a brake mechanism, the time constant of

the wire-feed mechanism

may be greatly reduced.

When the wire diameter is decreased, the diameter of the arc column

decreases, ka increases, the damping factor z decreases, overshoot increases,

and oscillation may occur. In conventional systems having a regulated wirefeed

rate, the time constant is usually large; therefore, they can be used only

for large gauge wire. It can be seen, however, that if Tm is reduced significantly,

ka may be increased greatly, keeping z unchanged, so that the wire

diameter can be considerably decreased. wn, wd and s will increase and the

dynamic characteristics of the system will be greatly improved. Therefore,

the traditional idea that a regulated wire-feed system can be used solely

with large-gauge wire is correct only under certain conditions. In situations

where the time constant of the wire-feed mechanism can be reduced, the

system can be quite suitable for small-gauge wire.This can be realised easily

with the application of modern control techniques.

and self-regulation

system does

not have a completely perpendicular drooping characteristic

(constant

current). Simultaneous with regulation by feedback-control

functions, selfregulation

also plays a role in arc-length change. Therefore, analysing the

cross-coupling interrelationship between two regulation actions is

meaningful.

Of course, in practical applications only one regulation action

normally

is dominant. In this section, the interrelationships of these two

regulation actions and the possibility for using both actions in one

system

are discussed.

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