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PART A:Mechanical Design Process


Dr. Bibi Intan Suraya
Murat

Introduction to Mechanical Design Process


1. The Phase of Design
2. Problem Identification and
Definition
3. Product Design Specification
4. Concept Development,
Evaluation and Selection

Reference:
Dieter, G. Engineering Design A Materials and Processing Approach, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2009
2Ulrich, K. and Eppinger, S. Product Design and Development, McGraw-Hill, 2000

What is design?
To formulate a plan for human satisfaction
To accommodate particular need based on problem
based solutions
Examples:1.2..3
To produce a product
The process of identifying and deeply understanding a
problem or need, thinking creatively, using sound
decision-making processes to identify the best solution,
and using project management and teamwork skills to
drive the entire process, implement the solution, test it,
and modify it.

What is Mechanical Engineering Design?

Design of a thing / system / product


Integrates mathematics, basic sciences, engineering
sciences, economics and other subjects.
Examples.1.2.3..
Design sometimes begins when engineer recognizes a
need..
Specify Malaysia-based engineering problem..
A design problem summaries what is undesirable in a particular situation, and the
problem is considered solved when an improvement in the situation is achieved and
acceptable to all parties

Do you have the required skills? Yes? No?


REMEMBER, there will always be limitations or
constraints during the project!
Sometimes, great designs are invented, but have
been lost..or failed to work
REMEMBER, presentation is a selling job!
3 vital skills for a successful engineer:
->> ORAL, WRITTEN, GRAPHIC

Student Car Project

Chassis design
Steering system
Suspension system
Braking system
Power train
Final competition

Stage 1: First meeting


1. Choose a leader
2. List the team member
3. Please prepare yourself with these information (10
minutes class presentation):
- Define the part / define job-scope
- The working principle of the part
- Elements / components / types involved for the working
part
- Define the common problems with the part

Exercise 1
Think of a product.and thousands related questions
from your boss / groups members
How does it begin? And what needs to be done?

The Phase of Design


7 Phases of Design Process

Define
Problem

Gather
Informatio
n

Concept
Generatio
n

Evaluation
of
Concepts

Product
Architectur
e

Configurati
on Design

Phase II.
Embodiment
Design

Phase I.
Conceptual
Design

Phase III.
Detail Design

Phase VII.
Planning for
Retirement

Phase VI.
Planning for
Use

Phase V.
Planning for
Distribution
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Phase IV.
Planning for
Manufacture

Parametric
Design

Phase 1
7 Phases Design Process

Define
Problem

Gather
Informati
on

Concept
Generatio
n

Phase I.
Conceptual
Design

Evaluatio
n of
Concepts
Most important steps in the engineering
design process is identifying customer needs.
The customer needs can be gained from:
Interviewing customers
Focus group
Customer survey
Customer complaints
Tools to achieve this:
Benchmarking
QFD- Quality funtion deplyoment
PDS- Product Design Specifications

Identification of Customer Needs / Benchmarking


Benchmarking

Method for measuring company operation against the best company inside and outside of
the industries.

Select the product, process, or functional area that is to be benchmark.

Identify the performance metrics that will be measured and used for comparison.

Compare the best in class product or process with the in house equivalent using the
performance metrics.

Specified program and actions to meet an exceed the competition

Question to Ponder
Who are my customer?
What does the customer want?
How can the product satisfy the customer while generating profit?
Which needs are critical? Which are secondary? How well are these needs being
currently met?
How do customers use existing products to meet these needs? What other products are
out in the market?
How do customers perceive current products relative to meeting their needs?
Why do customers use the existing products? Practical and/or emotional reasons?

1
1

QFD / House of Quality

(customer
requirements)

5. Target values
7.
Competitive
technical
evaluation

1.1 customer rating

What
customer 1. What the
wants from customer
our product?Wants

2. How to satisfy
customer wants
(technical requirements)
Intersect both (1)
and (2)
3. Relationship
matrix

3.1 importance
ranking
Planned Tech. specs
We compare ourselves
with our competitors,
based on (2)

How we going to
meet the customer
requirements?

assessment

Customer
importance
ratings

4. Correlation matrix

Trade off
between our
ability (2),

6. Competitive

A planning and problem solving tool that is


finding growing acceptance for translating
customer requirements into engineering
characteristics of a product.

We
compare
ourselves
with our
competit
ors,
based on
(1)

Weighted
rating

Exercise 2

Think of the chosen product again (exercise 1),


then write the QFD document for that product.

PDS

Is a documented statement of what the product is to do.


List of customer needs and design specifications
A PDS specifies a problem not a solution.
It is dynamic rather than static can be improved, changed to suit design
requirements.
Sometimes it defines the constraints/boundary of the design.
Design specifications to consider:
-- >> functional, safety, quality, manufacturing, economic, ergonomic,
ecological,
aesthetics, life-cycle
Example of PDS:
1. What do you want the product or process to
be (goals)?
2. What do you want the product or process to
do (functions)?
3. What attributes might this new
product/process have to meet functional
requirements (features)?
4. What limitations must the design adhere to
(constraints/standards)?
5. Generate an specification list with
requirements, functions, and features
6. Financial requirements
7. Social, political & legal requirement

Example PDS: Portable Winch


Design Brief

Frominternalmarketresearch,ithasbeendecidedthatIWCneedtodesigna
generalpurposewinchtoselltothecableandpipelayingmarketsector.The
winch should be portable but have mounting points for the end user. It is
important that the winch sits within out current range of 'Excel General
Purposewinches'.

1.0 Performance

1.1Lift/loweraloadof2.5tones(+/-10%).
1.2Drawincableinatarateof0.2m/s.
1.3 The winch drive should cut out when the load exceeds 10% of the
specifiedload.
1.4 Drive to stop lowering load when only 1.5 meters of cable remains on
winchdrum.
1.5Winchshouldoperatewithforward,reverse,stopandinchfacility.
1.6Anybrakingsystememployed,shouldproduceabrakingtorqueof 150%
thefullloadtorque.
1.7Winchshouldhaveamanualdevicetocontrolthebrakereleaseandload
descentintheeventofapowerfailure.
1.8 In the event of the winch 'overrunning',a manual safetyrelay/braking
deviceshouldoperatewithin1secondorbeforetheloadexceedsaspeedof
3m/s.
1.9 The product should be portable but with the option for permanent
mounting.
1.10 The product must use a portable power source, preferably a diesel
engine.
1.11 The weight of the product must be sufficient to aid the stability of the
product.
1.12Efficiencyoftheunitshouldbehigh,preferablyintheareaof20-30%.
1.13Thedrumshouldhold50mofcable.

2.0 Environment

2.1Thewinchdriveandpowerunitshouldbepowerunit.
2.2TheunitwillbemainlyusedinEuropeanweatherconditions.Butwecould
expectsalesofabout2%unitvolumetotheFarEast.
2.3Temperatureranges:
-28degreeCEuropean
12-44degreeC-FarEast
2.4Theproductmayexperiencehumidconditions.
2.5Corrosionresistancemaybeconsideredbytheuseofspecialmaterialsor
surfaceprotectionmethods.
2.6Any noise from the equipment should not exceed 95 dB at a distance of
1.0m.
2.7Thewinchwillbestoredinsupplierswarehousesbeforesales.

3.0 Target Product Cost

3.1Theproductshouldhaveanend-usercostof5500withinBritain.
3.2Thecostofmanufactureshouldbelessthan2750.
3.3 The cost of packaging and shipping should be no more than 15% of the
manufacturingcost.

4.0 Competition

4.1 The winch will be operating against equivalent models which include the following
companies:
Swansom-England
Oholom-Sweden
Winderhock-Germany

5.0 Standards and Specifications

5.1Standardstobeadheredto:
BS5000part99MotorPerformance
BS6105andBSEN20898(1)Bolts
BS6322(2)&BS4320Nutsandwashers
BS7676andBS4517Gears
BS3019Welding
BS5989Bearings
BS2754ElectricalInsulation
BS5646pt4BearingHousing
BS4235KeysandKeyways
BS7664Painting
BS1399Seals
6.0 Testing

7.1Testingistobecarriedouton5%ofunits.
7.2AllcablesshouldbetestedtoBS3621.

Exercise 3

Think of the chosen product again (exercise 1), then write the PDS
document for that product.

Phase 1
7 Phases Design Process

Define
Problem

Gather
Informati
on

Concept
Generatio
n

Phase I.
Conceptual
Design

Evaluatio
n of
Concepts

Information from Internet


Engineering URLs
Patent Literature
Intellectual Property
Patents
Handbook

Phase 1
7 Phases Design Process

Define
Problem

Gather
Informati
on

Concept
Generatio
n

Phase I.
Conceptual
Design

Evaluatio
n of
Concepts

Brainstorming
Functional
decomposition
Morphological chart

Brainstorming
Most common method used by design teams for
generating ideas for design concepts in conceptual
design.
Think of all the possible limitations or shortcomings of
the product.

Functional decomposition (breakdown of functions)


Establish logical flow -describing the transformation
between the initial and final states of a system /
device.
Physical decomposition separating the product or
subassembly directly into its subsidiary subassemblies
and components (output = physical decomposition
block diagram).
Functional decomposition a general description of a
device is refined into more specific arrangements of
functions and subfunctions.

Morphological chart
It is a table based on the function analysis
It is a visual aid used to come up with different ideas
Example: http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~
haik/design/idea_generation.htm

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1.3.2 Functional decomposition

1.3.2 Functional decomposition


E.g.:

1. Physical decomposition
Urban Car

Suspensio
n system

Steering
system

Chassis

Braking
system

Power
train

2. Developing Functional decomposition from the physical decomposition


1. Suspension
system

1.1 Tires

1.2 Springs

1.1.1??

1.2.1 Single
coilfunction??
1.2.2 Air
spring..????

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1.3 Shock
absorbers

1.3.1 Mech
damper
1.3.2 Strut
1.3.3 Absorber

1.4 Linkage

1.4.1 Anti-sway
barsfunction???

1.3.3 Morphological chart

Morphological chart Concept explanation

Morphological chart Concept explanation

Exercise 4

Each team must develop a Functional Decomposition and


Morphological Chart for the chosen product. Work out the most
detailed Functional Decomposition that you can. For FD, remember
to stick to function and avoid defining form at this point!

Phase 1
7 Phases Design Process

Define
Problem

Gather
Informati
on

Concept
Generatio
n

Phase I.
Conceptual
Design

Evaluatio
n of
Concepts

How can a rough conceptual


idea evaluated?
Absolute comparison
concept is compared to a set
of requirements
Relative comparison
concepts are compared to
each other
Tools to use:
1.4.1 Comparison Based on
Absolute Criteria
1.4. 2 Pughs Concept
Selection Method
1.4.3 Weighted Decision Matrix

1.4.1 Comparison Based on Absolute Criteria

Strongly dependent on the expertise of the design team.


Comparing the concepts to a series of absolute requirements
Evaluation based on judgment of feasibility of the design
Overall evaluation:
- definitely will not work
- conditionally will work
- yes it will work
Evaluation based on assessment technology readiness
The technology used must be matured enough to be used in the product
without additional research needed.
Evaluation based on go/no-go screening of customer requirement
Question back customer requirement either being addressed by concept
or not
Answer should range from (yes-go, maybe-go, no-no go).
If a concept has a few no-go responses, modify the concept rather

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1.4.2 Pugh Concept Selection Method

This method compares each concept relative to a reference or datum concept.


Each criterion determines whether the concept is better than, poorer than or about the
same as the reference concept.
Steps in this Pugh concept selection method:
1. Choose the criteria by which the concepts will be evaluated
- Can refer to QFD (House of Quality).
2. Formulate the decision matrix
- Concepts on the row headings and criteria on the column headings.
3. Clarify the design concepts
-Make sure every team member understand every developed concept.
4. Choose the datum concept
- Choose a good concept, and mark as the datum concept. Concepts are
compared.
5. Run the matrix
- Concept is compared to the datum for each criterion.
- Use a three-level ratings, better (+), worse (-) or same (S).
6. Evaluate the ratings
-Sum up the ratings.
7. Establish a new datum and rerun the matrix
- Choose the best-rated concept as the DATUM.
- Eliminate the lowest rating concepts.
8. Examine the selected concept for improvement opportunities
- Objective: improve on the best existing.

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In Pughs selection method one concept may turn out to be better than
another concept.

Do we know how apart how apart they really are?

We may actually need more quantitative results to make a better


selection.

We need a way to rank ideas in a scaled manner

Weighted Decision Matrix

Rank the design criteria design criteria with a weighting factor.

It is preferred to choose criteria that is measurable such that for each concept a
numerical value can be considered against the criteria.

Score each concept against each design criteria using a ratio scale

Use 5 point (0-4) scale when information regarding criteria is not very detailed
Use 11 point (0-10) scale when criterion information is complete

Multiply the scores for each concept for corresponding weighting factor of
the criteria being considered.

Add up the weighted ratings of concepts.

Declare the concept with highest score, winner.

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Example. Ref book: Dieter


Objective tree for the design of a steel
crane hook.

E.g.: Crane hook


Proposed concepts :
Concept 1 : Steel plates welded together
Concept 2 : Steel plates riveted together
Concept 3 : Cast-steel hook (monolithic)

Step 1 Identify the design criteria :

Material cost

Manufacturing cost

Time to produce

Durability

Reliability

Reparability

Step 2 Determine the weighting factor for each design criteria

Construct hierarchical objective tree

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Step 2: Determine
the design criteria

Crane hook

Cost
Mat.
Cost

Manuf.
Cost

Quality in service

Reparability

Durabilit
y

Reliabilit
y

O1= 1.0

O11= 0.6

O111=
0.3

O112=
0.5

Step 3: Determine
the weighting factor
for each of design
criteria.
O12= 0.4

O113=
0.2

O121=
0.6

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Time to
produce

O122=
0.3

The weights of
individual
categories at each
level of the tree
must add to 1.0
O123=
0.1

Step- Form
3
the decision matrix

Concept 1
Design
Criterion

Weight
factor

Concept 2

Concept 3

Units
Magnitude

Score

Rating

Magnitude

Score

Rating

Magnitude

Score

Rating

Matcost

0.18

RM/kg

60

1.44

60

1.44

50

1.62

Manuf.Cost

0.3

RM

2500

2.1

2200

2.7

3000

1.2

Reparability

0.12

Experience

Good

0.84

Excellent

1.08

Fair

0.6

Durability

0.24

Experience

High

1.92

High

1.92

Good

1.44

Reliability

0.12

Experience

Good

0.84

Excellent

1.08

Fair

0.6

0.04

Hours

40

0.28

25

0.36

60

0.2

Timetoprod.

Step 4: Calculate the


weighting factor. Multiply
the weight as you go up
the chain.
Mat cost:
0.3 x 0.6 x 1.0 = 0.18

7.42

Step 5: Give the


score based on
the 0-10
(inadequateexcellent) list

8.58

5.66

Step 6: Total
ratings

The Phase of Design


7 Phases of Design Process

Preliminary Design.
Decisions are made in this design phase: strength,
material selection, size, shape, and spatial
compatibility.
Any major changes beyond this design phase become
very expensive.

Product
Architectur
e

Configurati
on Design

Parametric
Design

3 major activities:
Phase II.
1.Product architecture
Embodiment
Arrangement of the physical functions
Design
Dividing the overall system into subsystem module
How the physical components of the design are to be arranged and combined?
2.Configuration design
Preliminary selection of materials, modelings and sizing of parts
What features (e.g., holes, ribs, splines and curves) will be present and those
features are to be arranged in space relative to each other?
3.Parametric design
Involves the information on the part configuration and aims to establish its exact
dimensions and tolerances
Important aspect of parametric design is to examine the part, assembly and system
for design robustness
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Phase II

Embodiment Design: the process in which a structured development of the


preferred concept is carried out

Common Questions to Ask:


Will it Work?
Is it safe?
What function does it serve?
Will it be made from scratch, bought in, or made
from a semi-finished material?
How does it fit in with the rest of the design?
What development will be required?
How long will it last?
How might it fail in practice?

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The Phase of Design


7 Phases of Design Process

Arrangement of the physical elements to carry


out its required function.
Relationship among the components in the
product and the function the product
performs.
i.e. defining the building blocks of the product
in terms of what they do and their interfaces
Design for Human Factor
Creating user-friendly Design
2 types:
Integral architecture
Modular architecture

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Product
Architectur
e

Configurati
on Design

Phase II.
Embodiment
Design

Parametric
Design

Integral Architecture
The implementation of function uses only
one or few chunks.
Component perform multiple function: so
called function sharing
E.g., wrench, screw driver
1 physical element save large number of
function
Changes made to any component tend to
propagate to other (or many physical
elements)
Often adopted when there is a constraint of
weight, space or cost

Modular Architecture
The chunk implement only one or a few
function.
Accomplish overall function through
combination of building block/modules
Interaction between chunks are well defined
E.g., computer
Advantages:
Components can be manufacture in
higher quantity (reduce cost)
Shortening product development cycles
(mod. develops independently)
Easier to evolve over time
To adapt to needs of different customers
To replaced components as they wear
out or used up

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Design for human factor


Designing something and considered the
interaction between human and product
Deals with the characteristics, abilities and
need of human and the interfaces between
human and product technical
Related with ergonomics and anthropometric
data
4 ways human interact with a product:
as an occupant of workspace
as a power source (muscle power)
as a sensor (looking for warning light)
as a controller (control pedal)

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Creating user-friendly design


Fit the product to the users physical
attributes and knowledge (from ergonomics
and anthropometric data)
Simplify tasks-straightforward
make the controls and their functions
obvious (place the control for function
adjacent to the device)
Provide feedback (sound or flashing
dashboard light)
Good displays (digital/analog)
Make controls easy to handle
Standardize (arrangement of brake and
clutch)
Anticipate human errors (provide warning or
emergency button)

The Phase of Design


7 Phases of Design Process

Establishing the shape and general


dimensions of the components.
Preliminary selection of materials, parts,
sizing, etc
Components include special purpose parts,
standard parts, standard assemblies or
modules.
Develop from function.
Configuration depending on:
1. Available materials and production
methods
2. Spatial constraints
3. Product architecture

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Product
Architectur
e

Configurati
on Design

Phase II.
Embodiment
Design

Parametric
Design

Modeling
Represent physical appearance of the design
ideas
Engineers use model for thinking,
communicating, predicting, controlling, and
training
various types (e.g., scale models, prototype,
equtions, CAD/CAE modeling)

Simulation
Model subject to various input or
environmental condition
To observe how they behave

Explore the result has might be obtained form


the real-world system
Manipulation of the model
Usually involves computer performance
E.g., prototype model, simulator

Analysis
Involves calculation form understanding of
mathematical and engineering fundamental
Ensuring the design concept are able and
reliable to performed and manufactured
Finite-element analysis solves wide range of
engineering problems area such as stress,
thermal, flow, etc
Several type of software (Nastran, Abacus,
Lusas, Ansys)
*However, understanding the fundamentals
are important

Materials Selection
An important aspect of design for mechanical,
electrical, thermal, chemical or other
application is selection of the best materials
Systematic selection of the best material for a
given application begins with properties and
costs of candidate materials.

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The Phase of Design


7 Phases of Design Process

Final Dimensions, Design for Manufacturing,


Structural analyses
Set the dimensions and tolerances in order to
maximize quality and performance and minimize
cost.
Objective : to set values for the design variables
that will produce the best possible design
considering both performance and
manufacturability.
A few established method in designing to
maximize performance and quality :
FMEA (Ratings for severity, occurrence and
detection of failure)
Design for reliability
Robust design
Design for Assembly (DFA)
Design for Manufacture (DFM)

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Product
Architectur
e

Configurati
on Design

Phase II.
Embodiment
Design

Parametric
Design

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)


FMEA is designed to assist the engineer improve the quality and reliability of design
Properly used FMEA provides the engineer several benefits such as:
Improve product/process reliability and quality
Increase customer satisfaction
Early identification and elimination of potential product/failure modes
Prioritize product/process deficiencies
Capture engineering/organization knowledge
Emphasizes problem prevention
Documents risk and actions taken to reduce risk
Provide focus for improved testing and development
Minimizes late changes and associated cost
Catalyst for teamwork and idea exchange between functions.

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Design for Assembly (DFA)/Design for Manufacture


(DFM)
Principle of DFA/DFM
Minimize part count
Use standardize part
Correct assembly tolerances

ssembly Guidelines
y-minimize part number, part variety, simplify assembly sequences and component handling and inse
dize-On material usage
widest possible tolerance
material that suit function and production process
e non value added operations
ork
number of parts
hat the remaining parts are easy to assemble

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Design for Assembly Outcomes


Shorten product design time
Reduce assembly time
Simplify assembly process
Reduce total material cost
Improves quality and reduce defects
Reduce labour content

Guidelines for Manual Assembly


- Handling

Divided into 2 areas:


- Insertion and fastening
Design Guidelines for Insertion and Fastening

Provide chamfers

Provide clearance

Standardize

Design a part which can be locate before it is released

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Design Guidelines for Part Handling


Avoid tangling part
Part should have end to end symmetry
Avoid part that stick together, small slippery and dangerous to the handler

Factors that will affect handling

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Design feature that will help assembly process

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Design to avoid adjustment during assembly

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Design concept that will provide easier access during assembly

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Design for Manufacture (DFM)

Design for ease of manufacture of the collection of parts or product


More as a philosophy
It is a way of thinking that can be applied to component or product
DFM 3 key element
Process selection
Reducing the number of process stages
Designing of the process

Process Selection

Analysis of material and processing methods for individual component based


on:
Tolerance requirement
Production volume
Component complexity requirement
Critical performance criteria

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Reducing Process Stages


Eliminate unnecessary process stages through:
Component minimization
Elimination of finishing process
Combining processes

Basic Principles of Designing for Economic Production

Standard material and component

Standardized design of product itself

Liberal tolerance

Design part so that many operation can be carried out without reposition it

Simplicity

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Relationship between relative cost and surface roughness

Surface symbol designation

Surface roughness (um)

Approximate relative cost


%

Rough machine

250

100

Standard machining

125

200

Fine machining, rough


ground

63

440

Very fine machining,


grinding

32

720

Fine grinding shaving and


honing

16

1400

Very fine grinding, shaving


honing

2400

Lapping, burnishing
polishing

4500

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Relationship between relative cost and dimensional tolerance

Process

Dimensional Tolerance
(in)

Approximate relative cost %

Rough machining

0.03

100

Standard machining

0.005

200

Fine machining/ Rough grinding

0.001

300

Very fine machining/ ordinary


grinding

0.0005

600

Fine grinding, shaving honing

0.0002

1000

Lapping, burnishing, super


honing

0.00005

3000

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Design of the Process


To ensure design of component will satisfy the specific production process
Exploit the benefits and limitation of the process
Design for machining
Design for casting
Design for injection moulding
Design for Powder Metallurgy

Design for Machining


Choose raw materials that will result in minimum component cost
Try to design component that can be machined by one machine tool only
Utilized standard pre shaped workpiece
Avoid bent holes and dogleg Avoid internal feature for long components
Provide base for work holding and references
Employ standard machine features wherever possible
Specify the widest tolerance and the roughest surface that will give the
required performance

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The Phase of Design Process


7 Phases of Design Process

Creation of final drawings and specifications


Any missing or incomplete information are
added arrangement, form, dimensions,
tolerances, surface properties, materials and
manufacturing of each part
Activities to be completed in the detail design
phase (documentation):
Detail engineering drawing.
Verification testing of prototype.
Assembly drawings and instruction,
BOM.
A detailed product specification.
Decisions either to fabricate each part
or to buy it
A detailed cost estimation.
A design review as a conclusion of the
detail design phase before being passed
to manufacturing.

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Final Phase- Detail design


Waiting for final decision to be
manufacture
The design is brought to the stage of a
complete engineering description of a
tested and producible product.

Phase III.
Detail Design

Phase III

Detail Design : the process in which the precise shape, dimension, and tolerances are specified,
the material selection is confirmed, and the method of manufacture is considered for every
individual component of the product
Detail Engineering Drawing - First task to be complete in detail design
Gives details of product specification in size and layout/views
Should also be understandable to production or customer
Drawing of each:
Component
Subassembly
Assembly
Information on details drawing include:
Standard views of orthogonal projection (top, front, side views)
Auxiliary views such as section, enlarge views or isometric views that aid in
visualizing the component and clarifying the details
Dimensions (Presented according to the standard)
Tolerances
Materials specification, and any special processing instructions
Manufacturing details; such as parting line location, draft angle, surface finish
Title block-with drawing title, scale, type of projection, name, logo, file location,
etc.

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Bill of Materials (BOM)


is a list of each individual component on the product
It lists the part description, quantity needed for a complete assembly, part number,
sources of the part and purchased order number
also lists the name of responsible person

NOTE: While many consider that the engineering design process ends with detail
design, there are many issues that must be resolved before a product can be shipped
to the customer. These additional phases of design are often folded into what is
called the product development process.

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The Phase of Design


Phase IV: Planning for manufacture
Design of tooling and fixtures, designing the process sheet and the production line,
planning the work schedules, the quality assurance system, and the system of
information flow.
Phase V: Planning for distribution
Planning for packaging, shipping, warehousing, and distribution of the product to the
customer.

Phase VI: Planning for use


The decisions made in phases I through III will determine such important factors as
ease of use, ease of maintenance, reliability, product safety, aesthetic appeal, economy
of operation, and product durability.
Phase VII: Planning for product retirement
Again, decisions made in phases I through III must provide for safe disposal of the
product when it reaches its useful life, or recycling of its materials or reuse or
remanufacture.

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