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FLUID

MECHANICS
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22ndndsemester,
semester,SY
SY2014-2015
2014-2015

Images from:http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html

Solids

tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern


retains a fixed volume and shape
not easily compressible
doesnt easily flow

Liquids

close together with no regular arrangement


assumes the shape of the part of the container which it
occupies
not easily compressible, flow easily

Gas

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well separated with no regular arrangement


assumes the shape of the part of the container
easily compressible, flow easily

Classification
Classificationof
ofmatter
matter

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Fluid statics
Density
Pressure
Buoyancy

Fluid dynamics
Continuity equation
Bernoullis equation

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Whats
Whatsin
instore
storefor
forus?
us?

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FLUID PROPERTIES

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Density, (rho)

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Density

V
Units :

Material
Air (1 atm, 200 C)

Density, kg/m3
1.20

Water (1 atm, 40 C) 1.000 x 103


Ice

0.917 x 103

Blood

1.060 x 103

Seawater

1.024 x 103

Styrofoam

1 x 102

Gold

19.3 x 103

Density may vary from point to point

1 kg/m3 = 10-3 g/cm3

Higher sinks under lower


Solids and liquids: independent of T & P
Gases: strongly dependent on T & P

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Specific weight (unit weight),


(gamma)

Unit weight of Water (1 atm, 40 C)

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9810 N/m3

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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Specific gravity/relative density

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Specific gravity/relative density


Specific gravity is dimensionless.
S > 1 object sinks under water
S < 1 object floats over water

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Ideal Gas Law

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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10

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Viscosity of Water (200 C)

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10-3 N.s/m2

Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Temperature Dependency

The effect of
temperature on
viscosity is different for
liquids and gases.
The viscosity of liquids
decreases as the
temperature increases,
whereas the viscosity
of gases increases
with increasing
temperature; this trend
is also true for
kinematic viscosity

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Kinematic Viscosity of Water (200 C)

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10-6 m2/s

Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Bulk modulus of elasticity, Ev

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Vapor pressure
The pressure at which a liquid will vaporize, or
boil, at a given temperature.
Vapor pressure increases with temperature.

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Problem 1.
Calculate the density and specific weight of
nitrogen at an absolute pressure of 1 MPa and
a temperature of 40C. (Gas constant, R, for
nitrogen = 297 J/kgK)

Answer:

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= 10.75 kg/m3
= 105.4 N/m3

Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Problem 2.
A reservoir of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has a
mass of 500 kg and a volume of 0.35 m 3. Find
the carbon tetrachlorides weight, mass density,
specific weight, and specific gravity.
(CCl4=15.57)

Answer:

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W = 4905 N
= 15.57 kN/m3

= 1587 kg/m3
s = 1.59

Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Principles of Hydrostatics

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Fluid
FluidStatics
Statics

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Pressure

F
p
A

Useful Units :
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 atm = 101,325 Pa
= 760 Torr
=1,013 mbar

Fluid exerts a force at each point on the surface of an object in


contact with it.
Force is perpendicular to the object surface
Pressure has no preferred direction (scalar)

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Fluid
FluidPressure
Pressure

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At equilibrium, the pressure in a fluid of uniform density depends


only on the depth,
depth NOT THE SHAPE, of the container.

p2 p1 h
p2 = pressure at some depth h2
p1 = pressure at some depth h1
= unit weight of the fluid
h = difference in depth between h2 and h1.
* With the assumption that g is uniform all throughout the fluid.
Pressure below > Pressure above
Pressure is the same at all points at the same depth of the fluid.

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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure

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For a homogeneous fluid in an open container, the pressure is


the same at a given depth independent of the containers shape.

y
p(y)

Differences in fluid pressure at the same elevation will arise


only if the densities are different.

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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure

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Example:
A U tube contain immiscible liquids of density
1 and 2. Compare the densities of the
liquids.
h
At the bottom, both liquids have the same pressure.
At the top, both are in equilibrium with the atmosphere.
At the interface, both have the same pressure as well.
So from the Pressure-Depth relation:

p p0 2 gh p p0 1 g h d
p0 2 gh p0 1 g h d
hd h

hd
2 h 1 h d 2 1
2 1
h
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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure

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Pascals Principle

Pressure applied to an
enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every portion of
the fluid and to the walls of the
containing vessel.

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By adding more weight at


the top, the pressure also
increases proportionally
within the fluid.

Pressure
Pressureapplied
appliedto
tofluid
fluid

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Application: Hydraulic lift


Small applied
force, F1

F1
p
A1

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A1

Larger than
F1

A2
F2
F1
A1
p is transmitted
through the larger
piston

Pascals
Pascalsprinciple
principle

F2 F1
p

A2 A1
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Problem 3.
A hydraulic jack has
the dimensions
shown. If one exerts
a force F of 100 N on
the handle of the
jack, what load, F2,
can the jack
support? Neglect
lifter weight.
Answer: F2=12.2 kN

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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure

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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
1.Barometer A mercury
barometer is made by
inverting a mercury-filled
tube in a container of
mercury.

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
2.Bourdon-tube gage measures pressure by
sensing the deflection of
a coiled tube.

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
3.Piezometer - is a vertical
tube, usually transparent, in
which a liquid rises in
response to a positive gage
pressure

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments for measuring
pressure:
4.Manometer - often shaped like the letter U, is a
device for measuring pressure by raising or
lowering a column of liquid

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments for measuring
pressure:
5.Transducer - is a device that converts pressure to
an electrical signal. Modern factories and systems
that involve flow processes are controlled
automatically, and much of their operation involves
sensing of pressure at critical points of the system

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Problem 4.

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
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Pressure Measurements
Pressure measurements are always done with
respect to the pressure of the surroundings.

Pgauge Pabsolute Patm


Pabsolute = total pressure
Patm

= atmospheric pressure

Pgage

= pressure excess of atmospheric

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Uniform Pressure Distribution


A plane surface or panel is a flat surface of arbitrary

shape.
A description of the pressure at all points along a
surface is called a pressure distribution.
When pressure is the same at every point, the
pressure distribution is called a uniform pressure
distribution.

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Uniform Pressure Distribution

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Measuring
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Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution


-

is produced by a fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium


is linear and that the arrows representing
pressure act normal to the surface

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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure

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Problem 5.
Determine the force acting on one side of a
concrete form 2.44 m high and 1.22 m wide that is
used for pouring a basement wall. The specific
weight of concrete is 23.6 kN/m3.

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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure

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Problem 6.
An elliptical gate covers the
end of a pipe 4 m in diameter.
If the gate is hinged at the top,
what normal force F is
required to open the gate
when water is 8 m deep
above the top of the pipe and
the pipe is open to the
atmosphere on the other
side? Neglect the weight of
the gate.

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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure

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Forces on Curved Surfaces


Fx = FAC
Fy=W+FCB

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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure

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Problem 7.
Surface AB is a circular arc with a
radius of 2 m and a width of 1 m into
the paper. The distance EB is 4 m.
The fluid above surface AB is water,
and atmospheric pressure prevails
on the free surface of the water and
on the bottom side of surface AB.
Find the magnitude and line of
action of the hydrostatic force acting
on surface AB.

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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure

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Buoyancy
A buoyant force is defined as the upward

force that is produced on a body that is


totally or partially submerged in a fluid when
the fluid is in a gravity field.

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyancy
Apparent weight loss of an object when totally/partially

immersed in a fluid
Lower Pressure

mg

FB

Higher Pressure

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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids

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Question:
Based on the summation of forces, therefore, what makes an
object sink, float or hover?

Sink

FB Wobj

f obj

FB Wobj

f obj

FB Wobj

f obj

(accelerate downwards)

Float
(accelerate upwards)

Hover
(stay at the same level)
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Example:
What fraction of the iceberg afloat in seawater is visible from
the surface?
Viceberg = total volume of iceberg
Vfluid,disp. = equal to the submerged portion of the iceberg
= Vsub

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyant Force equation

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyant Force equation

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyant Force equation

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyant Force equation

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Buoyant Force equation

Hence, the buoyant force equals the weight of liquid that would be
needed to occupy the volume . This volume is called the displaced
volume.

If the body is totally submerged, the displaced volume is the volume of


the body.

If a body is partially submerged, the displaced volume is the portion of


the volume that is submerged.

For a fluid of uniform density, the line of action of the buoyant force
passes through the centroid of the displaced volume.

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Archimedes Principle
When a body is fully or partially submerged in a fluid, a
buoyant force from the surrounding fluid acts on the
body.
The buoyant force is directed UPWARD and has a
magnitude equal to the WEIGHT of the displaced FLUID
by the body.
The line of action of FB passes through the CG of the displaced fluid,

which doesnt necessarily coincide with the CG of the submerged


object

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Immersed Bodies
When a body is completely immersed in a liquid, its stability

depends on the relative positions of the center of gravity of the


body and the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid, which is
called the center of buoyancy.
If the center of buoyancy is above the center of gravity, any tipping
of the body produces a righting couple, and consequently, the body
is stable.
If the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy, any tipping
produces an increasing overturning moment, thus causing the body
to turn through 180.
If the center of buoyancy and center of gravity are coincident, the
body is neutrally stablethat is, it lacks a tendency for righting or
for overturning

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Immersed Bodies
Conditions of Stability

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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Floating Bodies
Consider the cross section of a ship. Here the center of gravity G is above

the center of buoyancy C. Therefore, at first glance it would appear that


the ship is unstable and could flip over. However, notice the position of C
and G after the ship has taken a small angle of heel.
The center of gravity is in the same position, but the center of buoyancy
has moved outward of the center of gravity, thus producing a righting
moment. A ship having such characteristics is stable.

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Buoyancy
Buoyancy

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