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Arc Welding

By Ryan Saucier

History of Arc Welding


Arc welding dates back to the late 1800s
First developed following the invention of
AC electricity
Pioneered when a man was welding with a
bare metal rod on iron, the sparks from
the welding caught a stack of newspapers
on fire near him and while welding, he
noticed that his welds started looking a lot
better. The reason for this was the smoke
took the oxygen out of his welding
environment and decreased porosity.

What is Arc Welding?


The fusing of two or more pieces of
metal together by using the heat
produced from an electric arc welding
machine.

Basics of Arc Welding


The arc is struck between the
electrode and the metal. It then heats
the metal to a melting point. The
electrode is then removed, breaking
the arc between the electrode and the
metal. This allows the molten metal to
freeze or solidify.

How an arc is formed?


The arc is like a flame
of intense heat that is
generated as the
electrical current
passes through a
highly resistant air
gap.

Welding Processes

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)


GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)
GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)
Oxygen/ Fuel Welding

SMAW
Also referred to as Stick Welding
Used for everything from pipeline
welding, farm repair and complex
fabrication.
Uses a stick shaped electrode.
Can weld: steel, cast iron, stainless
steel, etc.
Can also hardface with correct
electrode.

Examples of
SMAW Welds

GMAW
Also referred to as MIG welding
Uses a shield gas and a
continuous wire electrode
Used for all types of fabrication
Great for thin metals up to
Excellent speed of deposition
Used for metals such as: steel,
aluminum and stainless steel.

GMAW
Welds

MIG Welding Benefits


All position capability
Higher deposition rates than
SMAW
Less operator skill required
Long welds can be made without
starts and stops
Minimal post weld cleaning is
required

GTAW
Also referred to as TIG Welding
Uses a shield gas, a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and
a hand fed filler rod
Excellent for welding thin metals,
pipeline welding and exotic metals
Highly skilled labor needed for this
process

GTAW Welding Benefits


Superior quality welds

Welds can be made with or


without filler metal
Precise control of welding
variables (heat)
Free of spatter
Low distortion

Oxygen/ Fuel Welding


Utilizes oxygen and a fuel gas to
heat metal until it is in a molten
state and fuse multiple pieces of
metal together. Can be used with
or without a filler rod.
Great for brazing dissimilar metals
together.
Older technology that can be
replaced by GTAW

Types of SMAW
Machines

AC Welding Machine
Most common
type found in
homes, farms,
etc.
Good for farm
repairs, light
jobs.
Low cost

DC Welding Machines
Often generator
type machines
Diesel or gasoline
engine driven
Portable
Expensive

AC/DC Welders
Can weld in AC
or DC polarity
Less expensive
than DC
machine
Quieter than DC
machine

Arc
Welding
PPE