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Welcome

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Product diversification in floriculture

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Introductio
n
Introduction of greenhouse technology, new

cultivars
and
support
for
postharvest
handling have led to a new wave in growth of
floriculture in the Country. Consumption of flowers
in most countries
is rising, associated with
income development.
Among all forms of horti -business activities,
floriculture has been identified as one of the
possible sector for diversification.

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Value addition of flowers also includes dry


flowers, floral ornamentals, pot pourri, floral
arrangements etc. These ensures high premium
to the grower, while providing more acceptable

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4
(NHB
Database,

Need for Diversification


The major components of floriculture industry in the country
are production of cut flowers, cut foliages, loose flowers and
potted plants.
However , the statistics about cut flower production is not
very much encouraging, the only way to make a dent in the
floriculture industry both in the domestic and export market,
is to think in terms of our opportunities.

Identification of crop specific


zones
Utilization of native flowers
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product diversification
In floriculture, value addition takes place at every
step to cater the needs of the highly heterozygous
consumer.
To improve
quality

To enhance selling

To gain higher profit

0bjectives

To minimize post harvest loss


Use of unsold flowers

To increase export
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Table1. Tools for diversification


Flower arrangements

Speaking flowers

Gulkand, Pankuri

Value added
packaging

Aromatherapy

Rose hips

Flower ornaments

Essential oil, hydrosol

Jasmine tea

Dry flower and plants

Absolute and
Concrete

Lotus products

Skeletenizing

Rose water and attar

Hibiscus syrup, vodka

Pot pourri

Pigments

Flower butter

Addition of fragrance

Insect repellants

Candied flower

Tinting of flowers

Edible products

Flower honey

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Case studies
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Value added packaging


Efficient and timely packing helps to maintain quality and
extended vase life in addition to imparting better
appearance and attraction.
The pack house should be covered, to prevent moisture
loss.
Packaging should prevents flowers from physical damage,
water loss and external factors problem during transport.
Popular Packing materials are cellophane paper, Kraft
paper, sleeves or corrugated cardboard sheet etc.
The packaging material should be attractive to attract the
customers.
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Table2. Effect of wrapping material and storage duration on vase life of rose
cv. First Red cut flowers
Storage
duration
(days)

Vase life (day)


Wrapping material
News paper

Cellophane
paper

Kraft paper

mean

17.67

17.67

17.67

17.67

13.58

16.36

14.72

14.89

12.14

13.61

12.22

12.66

10.00

11.67

10.94

10.87

12

7.00

9.78

8.22

8.33

mean

12.08

13.82

12.76

C.D.(p=0.05) for
wrapping material - 0.05
storage duration
- 0.64
wrapping material x storage duration

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( Jain et al., 2006)

10

Table 3. Effect of packaging films and cold storage durations on total water
uptake in gladiolus spikes .
( Singh et al.,2007)

Treatment
(Packaging
film)

Water uptake (ml)


Storage duration (days)
5

10

15

Mean

Cellophane

33.8

24.0

19.4

25.8

Polypropylene

45.7

43.8

41.7

43.7

News paper

34.8

30.1

19.2

28.0

Butter paper

34.0

31.2

22.7

29.3

Brown paper

29.8

26.0

17.8

24.6

Plastic coated
paper

41.7

39.8

37.7

39.3

Control

24.5

5.6

0.3

10.2

Mean

34.8

28.6

22.6

CD (P=0.05), Treatment=0.6, Storage duration= 0.2 and Interaction = 1.7


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Table 4. Effect of packaging films and cold storage durations on total water
uptake in gladiolus spikes .
( Singh et al.,2007)

Treatment
(Packaging
film)

Floret opening (%)


Storage duration (days)
5

10

15

Mean

Cellophane

21.8 (27.83)

18.7(25.55)

2.5(8.37)

14.33(20.58)

Polypropylene

68.7(55.98)

62( 51.96)

42 (40.39)

57.6 (49.45)

News paper

22.5 (28.28)

21.3 (27.49)

2.5 (8.79)

15.3 ( 21.52)

Butter paper

31.8 (34.33)

26.7 (31.07)

2.3 (8.47)

20.3 (24.62)

Brown paper

21.8 (27.83)

18 (25.07)

2.8 (9.5)

14.2 (20.72)

Plastic coated
paper

46.1 (42.80)

41.7 (40)

31.8(34.33)

39.9 (39.05)

Control

15.3 (23.01)

6 ( 13.17)

0.9 (5.11)

7.4 ( 13.76)

Mean

32.60 (34.30)

(27.7630.62)

12.13 (16.39)

CD (P=0.05), Treatment=0.6, Storage duration= 0.2 and Interaction = 1.7


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Figures in parenthesis are arc sine


transformed values

12

Floral ornaments
Garlands : are prepared by
using one type of flower or
combination of different
flowers.
Veni : Used to decorate
long plaits of hair in
marriages
or
dance
ceremonies. Made on hard
cardboard
or
tough
leathery leaves of 90 cm
long and 5-10cm breadth.
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Floral wreath, bangles


and crowns :
Floral bangles made out of
fragrant flowers like Jasmine
or Tuberose. Floral crowns
are used in ceremonies.
Gajara :
Most common in South
India.
Flowers
like
Crossandra and Barlaria are
generally used in Gajara.
Made into mini-garland like
short chains. Used as hair
adornment.
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Boutonnieres and
Corsages :
Flowers are worn by both men and
women on special occasion such as
weddings,
parties
and
holiday
celebration.
Flowers worn by woman - Corsages.
A Corsage is a cluster of flowers, foliage
and accessories that accents women's
dress.
Flower worn by men Boutonnieres.
It is usually consists of single flower
with a foliage, but recent trend is using
of multiple flowers.
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Flowers used: Rose, Orchids, Carnation,

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Flower Arrangements
Art of arranging flowers in different styles.
Two types : Japanese and Western style.
Essential factors in flower arrangements :
Vase
Proportion
Balance
Japanese
Depth and Rhythm
style
Emphasis
Contrast
Colour
Space
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Western
style

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Main components of flower arrangements :


Lines, Fillers and Points.
Western styles : Triangular shape, Round, Oval, Lshape, S-shape and Crescent shape.
Japanese styles : Ikebana, Moribana, Nageire,
Jiyubana and Morimono.
Filler
Line
Points

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Floral Bouquet
A flower bouquet is a collection of
flowers in a creative arrangement.
Flower bouquets can be arranged for the
decor of homes or public buildings, or may
be handheld.
Handheld bouquets are classified by
several different popular shapes and
styles, including nosegay, crescent, and
cascading bouquets.
Bouquets arranged in vases or planters for
home decoration. They can be
arranged
in
www.flower
heaven.
co.uk
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traditional or modern styles.

Floral rangoli

Selected design is drawn on the ground, after that petals,


the whole flowers and foliage are arranged with proper
colour combination.
Water floral rangoli : simple and elegant look
Flowers used for rangoli :Flower petals of varied colors
like Bougainvillea, Jasmine, Marigold, Rose, Crossandra,
Cocks comb , Gerbera etc.

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Dry flower and Plants


Form of artistic expression that was
very popular during the Victorian age
and has once again gained popularity.
100 crores industry, globally accepted
as natural, ecofriendly, long lasting
and inexpensive.
Potpourri- main segment (55 crores).
60 % raw materials from natural forest
and 40% from cultivated flowers.

Product segmentation

Dried flower and plants,


Potpourris, Arrangements, Floral handicrafts, Main blooms,
Fillers, Liners and Exotics.
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(Murugan et al.,
2007)

Drying methods
Air drying
Sun drying
Oven drying
Embedded drying
Water drying
Microwave oven drying
Glycerin drying
Freeze drying
Press drying
Bleaching, sulphuring, Potpourri and Skeletenizing.
Flowers suitable for drying : Helichrysum, Rose,
Zinnia, Orchids, Daisy, Carnation, Celosia, Gomphrena,
Calendula, Pansy, Gypsophilla, wood rose, Corn flower,
Hydrangeas, salvia , tulip, chrysanthemum etc.
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(Sangama, 2001)

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Methods of
dehydration:

Air
drying

Oven
Method
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Press
drying

Microwave
oven

statice flower
embedded in silica
gel

Freeze
drying

Glycerine
24
drying

Table 5 . Effect of different duration of microwave drying on flower weight


change(g) in carnation var. Cano and Kristina
Treatment

Weight of flower (g)


Cano
Fresh

Dried

Kristina
% Decrease

Fresh

Dried

% Decrease

2 minutes(T1)

6.68

2.31

65.42

6.31

2.08

67.04

3 minutes(T2)

6.87

2.05

70.16

6.61

1.88

72.01

4 minutes(T3)

7.13

1.57

77.98

6.33

1.35

78.67

C.D. (P=0.05)

0.133

0.058

2.071

0.169

0.077

2.842

Table6. Effect of different duration of microwave drying on change in


moisture content(%) in carnation var. Cano and Kristina
Treatment

2 minutes(T1)
3 minutes(T2)
4 minutes(T3)
C.D. (P=0.05)
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Moisture content (%)


Fresh
91.12
91.09
91.21
NS

Cano
Dried
20.42
16.98
13.08
2.514

% Decrease
77.59
81.41
85.66
3.519

Fresh
90.96
90.13
90.96
NS

Kristina
Dried
19.06
16.13
12.64
2.366

% Decrease
79.05
82.25
86.10
3.731

(Biswas and Dhua, 2010)

Table7. Effect of different duration of microwave drying on decrease in


flower diameter (%) in carnation var. Cano and Kristina
Treatment

Flower diameter (cm)


Cano
Fresh

Dried

Kristina
% Decrease

Fresh

Dried

% Decrease

2 minutes(T1)

6.47

6.30

2.63

5.63

5.40

4.09

3 minutes(T2)

6.40

5.90

7.81

5.90

5.30

10.17

4 minutes(T3)

6.17

5.33

13.61

5.63

4.83

14.21

C.D. (P=0.05)

0.097

0.158

1.443

0.117

0.169

2.124

Table8. Effect of different duration of microwave drying on change in


carotene content (g/g) in carnation var. Cano and Kristina
Treatment

2 minutes(T1)
3 minutes(T2)
4 minutes(T3)
C.D. (P=0.05)
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Carotene content(g/g)
Fresh
3.88
3.84
3.87
NS

Cano
Dried
3.51
3.15
3.02
0.261

% Decrease
9.54
17.97
21.96
3.308

Fresh
3.78
3.76
3.78
NS

Kristina
Dried
% Decrease
3.32
12.17
2.78
26.06
2.33
38.36
0.228
3.697

(Biswas and Dhua, 2010)

Table9. Effect of different duration of microwave drying on quality


parameters in carnation var. Cano and Kristina
Treatment

Visual quality parameters


Cano
Colour

Texture

Kristina
Appearance

Colour

Texture

Appearance

2 minutes(T1)

3.31

2.81

3.08

3.47

3.38

3.42

3 minutes(T2)

2.66

2.32

2.79

2.79

3.14

2.46

4 minutes(T3)

2.31

2.17

2.22

2.36

2.54

2.44

C.D. (P=0.05)

0.289

0.480

0.575

0.524

0.648

0.648

(Biswas and Dhua, 2010)


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Table 10. Effect of dehydration methods on weight loss (%) of rose cultivars
after one month of dehydration.
( Dhatt et al.,2007)
Dehydration
method

Cultivar
Gold
Medal

Christian
Dior

Rio Samba

Lord Robbie

Queen
Elizabeth

Mean

Microwave 3min

78.10
(62.07)

75.57
(60.35)

76.39
(60.91)

75.01
(59.98)

77.38
(61.58)

76.49
(60.98)

Microwave 4min

78.41
(62.30)

71.81
(57.90)

78.03
(62.05)

77.39
(61.62)

70.30
(56.99)

75.19
(60.17)

Microwave 5
min

78.69
(62.49)

75.23
(60.14)

74.72
(59.81)

75.80
(60.50)

75.47
(60.29)

75.98
(60.65)

Inverted
hanging

79.40
(63.05)

80.72
(61.28)

76.95
(59.81)

79.75
(63.24)

80.68
(63.92)

79.50
(63.08)

Silica gel
embedding

83.61
(66.10)

79.74
(63.24)

87.26
(69.15)

75.68
(60.42)

60.80
(51.23)

77.42
(62.03)

Mean

79.64
(63.20)

76.71
(61.11)

78.67
(62.64)

76.72
(61.51)

72.92
(58.80)

LSD (P=0.05) Cultivar=1.61; Treatment= 1.61; Cultivar x


Treatment =3.61.
11/11/15 Figures in parenthesis are transformed values.

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Table11. Effect of dehydration methods on colour of rose cultivars after one


month of dehydration.
(Dhatt et
al.,2007)
Dehydration
method

Cultivar
Colour retention score
Gold
Medal

Christian
Dior

Rio Samba

Lord
Robbie

Queen
Elizabeth

Mean

Microwave 3min

2.00

3.33

1.00

1.33

1.00

1.73

Microwave 4min

2.66

3.33

1.33

1.00

2.00

2.06

Microwave 5
min

2.33

3.0

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.66

Inverted
hanging

2.00

3.00

1.33

1.00

1.00

1.66

Silica gel
embedding

4.00

4.00

3.00

1.00

1.00

2.60

Mean

2.33

3.33

1.53

1.06

1.20

LSD (P=0.05) Cultivar=0.20; Treatment=0.20; Cultivar x


Treatment =0.46.
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Table 12. Effect of dehydration methods on shape retention of rose cultivars


after one month of dehydration.
( Dhatt et
al.,2007)
Dehydrati
on
method

Cultivar
Shape retention score

Gold
Medal

Christia
n Dior

Rio
Samba

Lord
Robbie

Queen
Elizabeth

Mean

Microwave
3-min

2.00

3.00

2.00

1.33

1.66

2.00

Microwave
4-min

3.00

4.00

1.33

1.33

2.00

2.33

Microwave
5 min

2.00

3.00

1.66

1.33

1.66

1.93

Inverted
hanging

2.00

4.00

2.66

1.00

1.66

2.26

Silica gel
embeddin
g

4.00

4.00

3.66

3.33

1.73

3.33

2.60
3.60
2.26
1.66
1.73
Mean
LSD (P=0.05) Cultivar=0.29; Treatment= 0.29; Cultivar x
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Treatment =0.65.

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Table 13. Effect of


different temperatures and embedding media on
moisture content (%) in the zinnia flowers.
(Singh
et al.,2004)

After 24 h
Embedding media
Moisture content (%)

Drying temp.
M1
(Sand)

M2
(Borax)

M3
(Silica gel)

T1 (400 C)

12.2
(20.5)

11.53
(19.8)

10.6
(19.1)

T2 (450 C)

11.8
(20.1)

11.1
(19.4)

9.8
(18.3)

T3 (500 C)

11.4
(19.8)

8.2
(16.6)

6.2
(14.4)

T=0.908,

M=0.908 and

TXM= 1.573.

CD @ 5%
Figures in parenthesis are arc sine transformed values.
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Skeletenizing
Leathery leaves /
Fibrous leaves

Boil leaves 40 min


+1 quart water + 2 table
spoon of lye

Rinse in cold water+


scrape the green pulp +
dry
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(Murugan et al.,
32
2007)

Pot pourri
A mixture of dried, sweet scented
plant parts including flowers, leaves,
seeds, stems and roots.
Principle: presence of aromatic oil
within the plant.
It is a special floral arrangement and
it is very popular as decorative cut
pieces and natural room fresheners.
Two types : dry and moist.
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Addition of fragrance

Fragrance is added to
dry flowers when used
in pot pourri.
Natural materials :
crushed clove, all spice,
orange peel.
Synthetic perfumes.

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Tinting of flower
Flowers used :Jasmine , Tuberose, Lily ,White
rose,
Gladiolus and Carnation.
Edible colours are: Red, green and yellow.
Chemical dyes concentration : 0.025-0.3%.
Boromocersol green
Bromophenol blue
Phenol red
Erythrosin red
Ammonium purpurate
Eosin
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(Rajeevan and
Valsalakumari, 2001)

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Tinting

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Effect of different edible dyes on flower


colouring of tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa ).
Cv. Single Local and Double Local
Dhaduk and Naik , 2003

Four different time of immersion, viz., 3, 6,9 and 12


hours
Three different dye concentration, viz., 0.20, 0.25
and 0.30 % .
Dye: Carmosine Red, Tartrazine Yellow and Phalsa
Blue
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Table14. Number of florets opened per day in tuberose on 3 rd day of


immersion in colouring edible dyes
Red
Treatments

Single
Local

T1C1
T1C2
T1C3
T2C1
T2C2
T2C3
T3C1
T3C2
T3C3
T4C1
T4C2
T4C3
Control
S.Em
CD at 5%

10.48
11.49
10.70
11.95
11.34
10.39
11.54
11.50
11.35
11.85
10.79
10.99
10.99
0.072
NS

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Yellow

Double
Local
3.79
3.62
3.79
3.69
3.82
3.70
3.80
3.85
3.64
3.31
3.51
3.27
3.50
0.088
NS

Single
Local
9.97
11.29
9.93
11.09
11.34
9.82
9.61
11.42
11.11
10.76
9.55
9.99
10.10
0.080
NS

Blue

Double
Local
8.39
8.29
7.31
8.06
8.07
7.03
7.07
6.96
8.65
7.10
6.97
8.28
7.99
0.100
NS

Single
Local
9.21
9.22
9.27
9.20
9.30
9.02
9.27
9.08
9.19
9.26
9.05
9.73
9.20
0.019
NS

Double
Local
8.57
8.68
8.62
8.33
8.27
8.36
8.66
8.63
8.65
8.53
8.57
8.50
8.50
0.017
NS

(Dhaduk and Naik , 2003)

Value Addition by Speaking


Flowers
It is the most recent method to convey the
message.
The message conveyed is printed on the flowers
itself
The message is printed on flowers by using floral
printers.
Flowers cost very high price (25-50 Rs/flower)

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Aroma therapy
Use of volatile plant oil,
including essential oil for
the
physiological
well
being is called as aroma
therapy.
Methods: Inhalation and
application of diluted oil
to the skin.

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Flowers : Rose, Jasmine,


Lavender, Salvia, Viola
etc.
40

Flowers for aromatherapy

Table
15

Crop

Species

Source

Aromather
apy class

Medicinal
uses

Geranium

Pelargonium
graviolens

Leaves,
stems, flowers

Soothing

Skin refresher,
astringent

Jasmine

Jasminum
sambac

Flowers

Soothing,
balancing

Antiseptic

Lavender

Lavendula
angustifolia

Flowering
tops

Calming,
balancing,
soothing

Antiseptic, anti
inflammatory,
muscle
relaxant, skin
conditioners,
astringent

Rose

Rosa
damascena

flowers

Cooling,
balancing,ca
lming,
toning

aphrodisiac,
astringent

Salvia

Salvia
officinalis

Leaves, flower

Stimulating

Soothing agent

Viola

Viola odorata

leaves

Calming,
balancing

Soothing41
agent, skin

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Essential oil
Essential oil is a concentrated
hydrophobic
liquid
containing
volatile aroma compounds from
plants. Essential oils are also known
as volatile oils.
Uses :Aromatherapy, Medicines,
Perfumes, Soaps, Cosmetics and
Confectionary etc.
Methods : Solvent extraction,
Distillation,
SCFE,
Maceration,
Enfleurage and Expression.
Suitable flowers : Jasmine, Rose,
Tuberose,
Marigold,
Lavender,
Champaka, Scented geranium etc
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(Rajamani,
2003)

Table16. Effect of species and methods of extraction on yield of oils


Species

Yield (%)
Method

Method

II

Mean

Rosa damascena

0.045

0.024

0.035

Tagetes minuta

0.745

0.345

0.545

Tagetes erecta

0.347

0.147

0.247

Mean

0.379

0.172

CD(p=0.5)
Method -0.0178
Species - 0.0218
M X S- 0.030
Method I-hydro distillation, method IISteam distillation
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(Verma et al., 2001)


44

Concrete
An extract of fresh plant part by the use of a
hydrocarbon solvent.
It is rich in hydrocarbon soluble compounds and
devoid of water soluble components.
It is generally a waxy semi solid dark coloured
material.
250-350 gm of concrete is obtained from 100 kg of
Jasmine flowers.
Concrete recovery in famous crops :
Jasmine :0.28 -0.34%.
Tuberose- 0.06-0.09%
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Hydrosols
Hydrosol : Water that remains
after producing an essential
oil via steam or water
distillation.
Uses : Facial toners, skin care
products and even used in
finger bowls for special
dinners.
Commonly available hydrosols :
Lavender, Jasmine, Rose etc.
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Rose water
Water
distillation of
flowers

Storage (2-3
months) for
maturation

Dilute with
distill water
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Hydrosol portion of the


distillate of rose petals.
Uses: Cosmetics, medical
preparations, preparation of
rose syrup, bakery products
and religious purposes.
phenyl ethyl alcohol is
responsible for the typical odour
of rose water
(Khouzani 47
et

Gulkand and Pankuri


Gulkannd : It is prepared by mixing equal quantities of rose petals
and sugar.
Considered as ayurvedic medicine, mainly used to control eye
inflammation and redness, acidity, nose bleeding and vomiting.
- National Institute of Ayurvedic
Medicine, 2008.
Pankuri : Dried rose petals .They are used for preparation of cool
drinks.

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48

Floral natural
colours
Natural colours are the colours which are
derived from natural edible vegetables, flowers,
fruits, spices etc..
E.g. Anthracenes, Carotenoids and Flavonoids.
Flowers can be used to extract dye, which can
be used as natural floral dye for colouring textile
fiber , lipstick, soaps, fabrics, paints,
varnishes, Inks, papers, food, drinks,
cosmetics, medicines and toothpaste.
These natural dye are cost effective, ecofriendly
and has no allergic action on skin.

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(Rajamani, 2003)

Flowers for natural dyes


Table
17.
Flower

Colour of the dye

Anthemis nobilis

Deep yellow

Bougainvillea sps

Yellow/orange /brown

Butea monosperma

Yellow/ orange red

Calendula officinalis

yellow

Chrysanthemum sps

yellow

Cosmos sulphureus

Orange red

Crocus sativus

Deep yellow

Dahlia sps

Orange/ peach

Impatiens balsamiana

Brown/orange

Solidogo odora

yellow

Tagetus sps

Yellow , brown

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(Rajamani,2003)

Screening of African Marigold


cultivars for flower yield and
Carotenoid pigments

(Chandrashekara et al. ,2005)

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51

Table 18. Carotenoid content in different African


marigold cultivars.
Cultivar

Total carotenoids(mg/g of
fresh petals)

Pusa Narangi Gainda

2.69

Orange Double

2.66

Hybrid local Sel.-1

1.07

Pusa Basanti Gainda

1.37

African Tall Double Orange

1.87

Hybrid local Sel.-2

0.20

Hybrid local Sel.-3

0.64

Hybrid local Sel.-4

0.32

Yellow Double

0.87

Lemon Yellow

0.55

CD @ 5%

0.03

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(Chandrashekara et al. ,2005)

52

Table 19 . Dyeing of cotton with Marigold flower (using


different Mordant)
Mordant 1-Alum,

Mordant 2-

Mordanting samples are


immersed in dye bath
Temp 80oC for 2
hr

Dried and allowed to


aged for a fixed time
coppersulphate,
Soaped with 2g/l non ionic soap
at room temp. for 10 minutes
Mordant 3-ferrous

Rinsing and line


dying
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sulphate,

(Papita and Siddhartha


, 2004)

Value added poultry feed

Carotenoid (Xanthophylls)
pigment is used in feed for
intensification of yellow colour
of egg yolks and broiler skin.
Dry petals of marigold- 60 %
Carotenoid.
The dried petals are finely
ground into powder form and
added to the poultry feed.
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54

Insect repellants from flower crops


Table 20
Crops

Species

Principle
constituen
t

Effect

Marigold

Tagetus minuta,
Tagetus patula

Limonene

Repellent for flies


and mosquitoes

Chrysanthem
um

Dendranthemum
cinerarifolium,
Dendranthemum
coccineum

Pyrethrum

Effective on
Lepidoptera
insects

Periwinkle

Catheranthus roseus

Rotenone
type

Caterpillar and
beetles

Sabadilla lily

Schoenocaulon
officinale

Sabadilla

Contact and
stomach poison
for caterpillars,
Leaf hoppers,
thrips and bugs,

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55

Edible products

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56

Rose hips
Ripe berries of rose.
Important food for all native tribes.
Rich in vitamin C , Vit-A and anti -oxidants.
Used for preparation
soup,
beverages,
marmalade.

of jam,
bread,

jelly, syrup,
wine
and

Used to treat
cold, Influenza and
rheumatoid arthritis ( because of its anti
oxidant property)
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57

Jasmine tea

Green tea leaves are mixed


with fresh jasmine flowers.
Most
Japan.

popular

drink

of

It reduces cholesterol level.


Flowers
used
for
preparation:
Jasminum
officinale and J. sambac
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58

Lotus products
Rhizomes are consumed as vegetable either
roasted or in curry form.
Frozen rhizomes Pickle
Dry rhizome slice curry or fried chips.
Tender leaves,
vegetables.

petioles

and

flowers

nuts embedded in the fruit receptacle are


edible and nutritious.
Fresh rhizomes: protein 2.7%, fat 0.11%,
reducing sugars 1.10% and Ca 0.06 %.
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59

Hibiscus products
Hibiscus preserve : It contains anti- oxidant, that helps to control
cholesterol level, liver problems, hypertension and heart diseases.

Hibiscus
vodka

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Hibiscus syrup

Hibiscus
preserve

60

Flower flavours
Carnation spicy
Daisy-crisp and sweet
English
daisy-grassy
and tangy
Orchids-warm- peppery
Primrose-sweet
Tulip-crisp
and
cucumber
Violets- sweet
Chrysanthemum- bitter
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61

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62

Utility

8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

Flower colours
Blue
Blue and yellow
All three colours

Yellow
Blue and Orange

Orange
Yellow and Orange

Consumer preference for edible flower (Pansy)


colours
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(Kelly,
2001)

63

Other edible products from


flowers

Flower honey.
Flower butter.
Candied flower.
Floral liquor
Flowers used : Rose,
Pansy, Scented
geranium, Orchids,
African violets etc.

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64

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65

Table
21

Conclusion

Sl
no
.

Particulars

Name of best method/


cultivar/ factor

1.

Wrapping material for Rose

Cellophane paper for 3 days


storage

2.

Wrapping material for Gladiolus

Polypropylene packing (10 days


storage)

3.

Drying method (Carnation)

Silica gel embedding method ( 2


min)

4.

Drying method for Rose ( cv.


First Red)

Silica gel embedding ( cv. Christan


Dior)

5.

Drying method for Zinnia

Silica gel embedding ( 40 degree


C)

6.

Essential oil extraction yield


from rose and marigold

Hydrodistillation method (0.74 %


oil yield)

7.

Highest xanthophyll content

cv. Pusa Narangi Gainda

8.

Dyeing of cotton with marigold


flower

Alum mordant best result

9.11/11/15
Consumer preference for pansy

66
All three colours ( blue, orange

Conclusion
Value added floriculture is a process of increasing the

economic value and consumer appeal of floriculture


commodity.

Value additition ensures high premium to the


grower, while providing more acceptable quality
products for the domestic and export market, and it
provides the most important aspects of marketing and
gives the customers a reason to buy such products

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67

11/11/15

Thank
you

68