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Operational Amplifiers

An operational amplifier is a direct coupled high-gain


amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential
amplifiers an usually followed by a level translator and
an output.
The operational amplifier is a versatile device that can
be used to amplify dc as well as ac input signals and
was originally designed for performing mathematical
operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication,
and integration.
With the addition of suitable feed back components, the
modern day op-amp can be used for a variety of
applications, such as ac and dc signal amplification,
active filters, oscillators, comparators and others.
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Fig 15.1 A 741 operational


amp. (op-amp). (1)

Fig 15.1 A 741 operational


amp. (op-amp). (2)

Fig 15.2 Op-amp supply voltages.

Fig 15.3 Op-amp ID code.


Prefix

Designator

Suffix

MC

741C

Prefix

Manufacturer

Code Application

Temp.(C)

AD/OP

Analog Devices

Commercial

0 to 70

CA/HA

Harris

Industrial

-25 to 85

uA

Fairchild

Military

-55 to 125

LM

National Semiconductor

MC

ON Semiconductor

Code

Package Type

NE/SE

Signetics

D,VD

Surface mount package

OPA

Burr-Brown

Ceramic dual-in-line (DIP)

RC/RM

Raytheon

N,P,VP

Plastic DIP

SG

Silicon General

DM

Micro SMP

TI

Texas Instruments

Fig 15.4 Op-amp packages.

SSI, MSI, LSI, AND VLSI PACKAGES


Small scale integration SSI< 10
components
Medium scale integration MSI < 100
components
Large scale integration LSI > 100
components
Very large scale integration VLSI >
1000 components
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Input Offset Voltage, Vio


When the difference between the two input signals is
zero, ideally the output is zero also.
However, in a real op-amp, because of manufacturing
methods, this is not the case.
For a 741, the output voltage when vid =0 is about 2mV.
This can be measured by tying both inputs of the
amplifier to ground and measuring the output voltage.
This is the output offset voltage. This voltage is then
divided by the open-loop gain of the device to get the
input offset voltage.
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A battery representing the input offset


voltage.

Vio

Vout(offset)
Av

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Input Offset Current, Iio


Because the ideal op amp has an infinite input resistance, it
draws no current (it looks like an open circuit).
Each input draws a small amount of current.
The difference between the amount of current drawn into the
positive and negative input terminals is called the input offset
current (Iio = IB1 IB2).
This can cause errors in the output voltage.
The input offset current for the 741C is 200nA.
As the matching between the two input terminals is improved,
the difference between IB1 & IB2 becomes smaller, that is the Iio
value decreases.
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Input Bias Current

IB, is the average of the currents that flow into


the inverting and noninverting input terminals of
the op-amp.

By definition, the input bias current is


the average of the both input currents
and is calculated as.

IBIAS = (I

B1

+I

)/2

B2

IB = 500nA maximum for 741C.


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Differential Input
Resistance:
The input resistance that can be measured at
either the inverting and non inverting terminal
with the other terminal connected to ground.
For 741C the input resistance is relatively high
2M.
For FET input op amps this value is amazingly
large. For example 1000G for AF771 FET input.

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Offset voltage adjustment range


One of the feature of the 741 family
op-amp is an offset voltage null
capability.
The offset voltage adjustment range is
the range through which the input
offset voltage can be adjusted by
varying the potentiometer.
For 741C the offset voltage
adjustment range is 15mV.
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Input Voltage Range:


When the same voltage is applied to both
input terminal the voltage is called a
common mode voltage, and the op amp
is said to be operating in common mode
configuration.
For 741 the range of the input commonmode voltage is 13 V maximum.
Is the range of common-mode voltages
over which the offset specifications apply.
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COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO


The measure of an amplifiers ability to
reject common-mode signals is a parameter
called the common mode rejection ratio
(CMRR).
The Ideal Differential Amplifier provides
a very high gain for desired signals (single
ended or differential) and zero gain for
common mode signals.
Practical Diff Amps, however, do exhibit a
very small common-mode gain (usually much
less than 1), while providing a high
differential voltage gain (usually several
17
thousand).

COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO. . .


Mathematically, CMRR can express as:
EQ 1) CMRR = Av(d) / Acm
The higher the CMRR, the better.
A very high value of CMRR means that the
differential gain Av(d) is high and commonmode gain Acm is low.
The CMRR is often expressed in decibels
(dB) as
For741Cprecisionop
ampCMRRis120dB

EQ 2) CMRR = 20log(Av(d) / Acm )


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SupplyVoltageRejectionRatio
The changes in op-amps input offset voltage
(Vio ), caused by the variations in supply
voltage called supply voltage rejection ratio
(SVRR)
PSRR = Power supply rejection ratio
PSS= Power supply sensitivity

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Power Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio (PSRR): This tells


you how well the op-amp filters out noise coming through
the power pins.
Ex: You're using a 12V supply with 100mV of ripple at
120Hz. How will this affect your op-amp circuit? With a
PSRR of 96db (inv_log(96/20) = 63,000) the ripple seen by
the input will be reduced by a factor of 63,000. So, with a
100mV ripple and a PSRR of 96db the op-amp inputs would
see a ripple of 1.6mV. If you have a gain of 100 then the
output will have a ripple of 160mV even when there is no
input to the op-amp. This is why you want to filter you're
power supply well and have a good PSRR. Note: The PSRR
isn't constant with frequency. It's usually specified at 120Hz
but drops off at higher frequencies.
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LargeSignalVoltageGain
Sincetheopampamplifiesthedifference
voltagebetweenthetwoinputterminals,the
voltagegainoftheamplifierisdefinedas
Vo
A
Vid

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OutputVoltageSwing
Itisthemaximumpeakoutputvoltagethat
theoperationalamplifierproduceswithout
saturatingORclipping.Itistypicallytwo
diodesvoltagedropslessthanthe
correspondingsupplyvoltages.
For741Cbetween13Vto+13V

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OutputResistance
OutputresistanceRio,istheequivalent
resistancethatcanbemeasuredbetweenthe
outputterminaloftheopampandthe
ground.Itis75for741Copamp

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OutputShortCircuitCurrent
ItisthemaximumDCoutputcurrentthat
canbesuppliedtoaload.
Isc=25mAfor741C.

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Slew Rate
An ideal op-amp has an infinite frequency response. This means that
no matter how fast the input changes, the output will be able to keep
up. In a real op-amp, this is not the case.
If the input signal changes too fast then the output will not be able to
keep up. This is defined as slewing and it results in distortion of the
output waveform. Stated more formally,
Slew Rate = SR = dvo/dt maximum
or the maximum rate at which the output can change without distorting.
This can be measured by applying a high frequency square wave
signal. The frequency of the waveform should be increase until the
waveform becomes a triangular wave. The slope of the triangular
waveform is the slew rate. (SR = V/T)
One of the few drawbacks of 741C is low slew rate (0.5 V/us), which
limits its uses in high-frequency applications.
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Slew Rate
Slew rate is the measure of how fast the output
voltage can change in a response to a change at
either signal input.
Vout V pk sin t
dVout
V pk cos t
dt
slew rate V pk max
f max

slew rate

2 Vpk

V/s or V/s
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Slew rate = 0.5V/s


V pk 8V

f max

slew rate 0.5V /s

9.95kHz
2 Vpk
2 8V

V pk 100mV

f max

slew rate
0.5V /s

796kHz
2 Vpk
2 100mV

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Gain - Bandwidth Product


The
gain bandwidth product (GB) is the bandwidth of
the op-amp when the voltage gain is 1.
Approximately 1 MHz.
The frequency response of the open loop gain is such
that the frequency decreases with gain. By looking at
the graph in Figure , it can be seen that the op-amp
displays the property that the open-loop gain times the
frequency is a constant. This constant is defined as the
gain-bandwidth product and it is 1 x 10 6 for the 741
amplifier.
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InputOffsetVoltageDrift:
Also referred to as average Temperature Coefficient of
Input Offset Voltage ( and Current).
Vio / T = 0.5 V/C
Iio / T = 12pA/C
For precision 741C.
How much the input offset changes with temperature. For
the LM741A the worst case drift is 15uV/C. So, if your
circuit had to operate from 0-60C the input offset could
change by 15uV/C * 60C = 0.9mV over the 60C
temperature range.
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AverageInputOffsetCurrent
Drift:
The average of how fast the input current
changes with temperature (worst case about
0.5nA/C).

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ChannelSeparation
Itisthemeasurehowwellcrosstalkis
minimizedinpackageshavingmorethan
oneinternaloperationalamplifiers.
Thisparameterisspecifiedinthedata
sheetsofdualandquadopampssuchasthe
A772andAF774.

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Typical 741 op-amp curves. (1)

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Typical 741 op-amp curves. (2)

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KA741
Specification
sheet.

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The Ideal OP-Amp

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Ideal voltage curve

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Open-loop configurations
Differential Amplifier
Inverting Amplifier
Non-Inverting Amplifier

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Differential Amplifier

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Inverting Amplifier

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Non-inverting Amplifier

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