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Course Nuts and Bolts
Texts
± Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, Rhind — 
 
      2nd Ed. Wiley, 2005
±       Gorr and Kurland —
  
    ESRI Press 2005 (includes 9.1 software)
‡ or Ormsby, et. al, —      —
  2nd Ed. (ESRI
Press, 2004) (includes 9.2 software on latest version)
±   !   "  :
‡ Chang,
  —
 McGraw-Hill, 3rd ed. 2006 (used also
in GISC 6384)
‡ Lo, C.P. and Albert Yeung #       $   —
 Prentice
Hall, 2nd Ed. 2006 (best technical intro.)
‡ Worboys, Michael —
  #   %  ! Taylor & Francis,
2nd Ed 2004 (Computational focus)
Evaluation
± midterm exam (35%) (³T/F with explanation´)
± final exam (40%) (³T/F with explanation´)
± five lab exercises (25% total).

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
GIS--What is it?
K        &
‡ Geographic/Geospatial Information
± information about places on the earth¶s surface
± knowledge about ³what is where when´
(Don¶t forget time!)
± Geographic/geospatial: synonymous

‡ GIS--what¶s in the S?
± Systems: the technology
± Science: the concepts and theory
± Studies: the societal context
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Geographic Information    
‡ Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
± a system of earth-orbiting satellites which can provide precise
(100 meter to sub-cm.) location on the earth¶s surface (in lat/long
coordinates or equiv.)
‡ Remote Sensing (RS)
± use of satellites or aircraft to capture information about the
earth¶s surface
± Digital ortho images a key product (map accurate digital photos)
‡ Geographic Information Systems (GISy)
± Software systems with capability for input, storage,
manipulation/analysis and output/display of geographic (spatial)
information

—%   '          —


(
 —
 !          —%   ' (
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
GI  ,   and  
   )
‡ Systems
± technology for the acquisition and management of spatial information
     *—
# +,-. —
 /  0
‡ Science
± comprehending the underlying conceptual issues of representing data and
processes in space-time
± the theory and concepts behind the technology

                    
      
‡ Studies
± understanding the social, legal and ethical issues associated with the application
of GISy and GISc
         —
# +,-, *—
 1    

  02    —
# +,-. *—
 / 0    


  
          
 
        
         

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Defining Geographic Information Systems
(GIS)
‡ The     between information processing and
the many fields using spatial analysis techniques.
(Tomlinson, 1972)
‡ A powerful     for collecting, storing, retrieving,
transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real
world. (Burroughs, 1986)
‡ A computerised      for the
capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial
(locationally defined) data. (NCGIA, 1987)
‡ A     involving the    of
spatially referenced data in a problem solving
environment. (Cowen, 1988)

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
` 
     

         3  

  33
 
  * 2  2   !2  2
0     


    
       


  
     
‡ set of integrated tools for spatial analysis
‡ encompasses end-to-end processing of data
± capture, storage, retrieval, analysis/modification, display
‡ uses explicit location on earth¶s surface to relate data
‡ aimed at decision support, as well as on-going operations and
scientific inquiry

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Geographic Information System:
 !  
‡ A map with a database behind it.
‡ A virtual representation of the
real world and its infrastructure.
‡ A consistent ³as-built´ of the
real world, natural and manmade
Which is
‡ $   to support  3 
  
‡  4  to support  
      
 
‡  4  to support   
 $
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
á
    
‡ -typical MIS data base contains implicit but not explicit locational information
± city, county, zip code, etc. but no geographical coordinates
± is 100 N. High around the corner or across town from 200 E Main?
‡    i` --primarily two-dimensional display devices
± thematic mapping (choropleth,etc such as SAS/GRAPH, DIDS, business mapping
software) unable to relate different geographical layers (e.g zip codes and counties)
± automated cartography--graphical design oriented; limited database ability
‡      i --
± lack spatial analysis tools
‡ `` (computer aided design/drafting)--primarily 3-D graphic
creation (engineering design) & display systems
± don¶t reference via geographic location
‡ CAD sees the world as a 3-D cube, GIS as a 3-D sphere
± limited (if any) database ability (especially for non-spatial data)
‡      !  --sophisticated multi-dimensional graphics, but:
± lack database support
± lack two-dimensional spatial analysis tools

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Why Study GIS?
‡ 80% of      activities estimated to be geographically based
± plats, zoning, public works (streets, water supply, sewers), garbage collection, land
ownership and valuation, public safety (fire and police)
‡ a significant portion of     has a geographical component
± natural resource management
± highways and transportation
‡ "  use GIS for a very wide array of applications
± retail site selection & customer analysis
± logistics: vehicle tracking & routing
± natural resource exploration (petroleum, etc.)
± precision agriculture
± civil engineering and construction
‡    
± Battlefield management
± Satellite imagery interpretation
‡       employs GIS
± geography, geology, botany
± anthropology, sociology, economics, political science
± Epidemiology, criminology 10
4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Where Most UT-D Students Come From/Go To
 5    —
 
‡ Local Government
± Public works/infrastructure management (roads, water, sewer)
± Planning and environmental management
± property records and appraisal
‡ Real Estate and Marketing
± Retail site selection, site evaluation
‡ Public safety and defense
± Crime analysis, fire prevention, emergency management, military/defense
‡ Natural resource exploration/extraction
± Petroleum, minerals, quarrying
‡ Transportation
± Airline route planning, transportation planning/modeling
‡ Public health and epidemiology
‡ The Geospatial Industry
± Data development, application development, programming
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Examples of Applied GIS
‡ h" #  $   % ‡  &   h
#  ± Locating underground facilities
± Zoning, subdivision planning ± Designing alignment for freeways, transit
± Land acquisition ± Coordination of infrastructure maintenance
± Economic development ‡  
± Code enforcement ± Demographic Analysis
± Housing renovation programs ± Market Penetration/ Share Analysis
± Emergency response ± Site Selection
± Crime analysis ‡ &  `  
± Tax assessment ± Attendance Area Maintenance
‡ &      ± Enrollment Projections
± Monitoring environmental risk ± School Bus Routing
± Modeling stormwater runoff ‡ &
± Management of watersheds, ± Neighborhood land prices
floodplains, wetlands, forests, aquifers
± Traffic Impact Analysis
± Environmental Impact Analysis
± Determination of Highest and Best Use
± Hazardous or toxic facility siting
± Groundwater modeling and ‡ á
contamination tracking ± Epidemiology
‡ #    ± Needs Analysis
± Redistricting ± Service Inventory
± Analysis of election results
± Predictive modeling
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
±
`  '
  2  4 2   
‡ make possible the   of activities involving geographic data
± map production
± calculation of areas, distances, route lengths
± measurement of slope, aspect, viewshed
± logistics: route planning, vehicle tracking, traffic management
‡ allow for the   of data hitherto confined to independent domains
(e.g property maps and air photos).
‡ by tieing data to maps, permits the succinct        (
 (e.g environmental sensitivity).
‡ provides answers to )(how many elderly in Richardson live
further than 10 minutes at rush hour from ambulance service?)
‡ perform complex   (  scenarios for transportation
planning, disaster planning, resource management, utility design)

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals

 `      

Data Input

Geographic
Query Input
Database

Output: Display Transformation


and Reporting and Analysis

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Knowledge Base for GIS
Computer
Science/MIS
 Application Area:
!4
   (
 GIS   
   
 
 
  6
 
   
Geography   
and related: !   
    5
   !  
 
      !      
 (        (
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Take a Break!

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
The GIS Data Model

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Ä
' #
‡ allows the    in 
   to be digitally represented
and stored in a database so that they can be
abstractly presented in (analog) form,
and can also be worked with and
  to address some "

*    0
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
  3    

GIS Data Model

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Ä
'
  
— 
  
 
Administrative Boundaries
Utilities

Zoning
Buildings
Parcels
Hydrography
Streets
Digital Orthophoto

‡ Data is organized by layers, coverages or themes isynonomous


concepts)2              (
‡ Layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth¶s
surface,        4   .
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
The GIS Model: example
Here we have three layers or themes'
332
roads 33 * 02
33 *   ! 0
  They can be related because precise geographic
coordinates are recorded for each theme.

Layers are comprised of two data types


hydrology ‡  which describes location (where)
‡  specifing what, how much,when
 
Layers may be represented in two ways:
‡in !  format as points and lines
topography ‡in  *   0 format as pixels

  All geographic data has 4 properties:


projection, scale, accuracy and resolution22
4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Spatial and Attribute Data
‡ Spatial data *  0
± specifies location
± stored in a   2   or similar geographic file
‡ Attribute (descriptive) data *2  2  0
± specifies characteristics at that location, natural or human-
created
± stored in a data base 
GIS systems traditionally maintain spatial and attribute data
separately, then ³join´ them for display or analysis
± for example, in ArcView, the    7 table is used to
link a   (spatial structure) with a   
containing attribute information in order to display the attribute
data spatially on a map

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Representing Data with '  and   Models

‡ area is covered by grid with (usually) equal-sized, square cells
‡ attributes are recorded by assigning each cell a single value
based on the majority feature (attribute) in the cell, such as land
use type.
‡
 data is a special case of raster data in which the ³attribute´
is a reflectance value from the geomagnetic spectrum
± cells in image data often called 6  (picture elements)
‡ : 
The fundamental concept of vector GIS is that all geographic
features in the real work can be represented either as:
‡  i
: trees, poles, fire plugs, airports, cities
‡  i'streams, streets, sewers,
‡ i

'land parcels, cities, counties, forest, rock type
Because representation depends on shape, ArcView refers to files containing
vector data as   
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Concept of
Vector and Raster Real World

Raster Representation Vector Representation


ï        
ï


 
 










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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Smart Vector²Pavement polygons
Dumb Images
& Smart GIS Data

Smart Raster²5 feet grids

Images²dumb rasters
(although they look good!)
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
#*  $ $`   
        
‡ #*  ' the method by which the curved 3-D surface of the
earth is represented by X,Y coordinates on a 2-D flat map/screen
± distortion is inevitable
‡  ' the ratio of distance on a map to the equivalent distance on
the ground
± in theory GIS is scale independent but in practice there is an implicit range of
scales for data output in any project
‡ `  ' how well does the database info match the real world
± % : how close are features to their real world location?
± #  : do feature characteristics in database match those in real world
‡ is a road in the database a road in the real world?
± #   : are all real world instances of features present in the database?
‡ Are all roads included.
‡  ' the size of the smallest feature able to be recognized
± for raster data, it is the 6  size

       2     (


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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Examples

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
ã

 
" 

Street Network layer: lines Land Parcels layer: polygons

'  *  0 " 
Digital Ortho Photograph Layer:
4   


    
!      
      
2        (
#*  ' State Plane, North Central Texas Zone, NAD 83
 ' 0.5 meters
0 1500 3000 Feet `  ' 1.0 meters
 ' see scale bar 29
4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Š "     ã 

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
` 
Data Table

Scanned Drawing
Photographic Image

Parcels within a half mile buffer of Park and Central 31


4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
: ã
`"Ä"


ã

`   


"'

 
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Course Content
#
'Š  
#

'#  
‡ Fundamentals of GIS
‡ Data Input: preparation,
‡ Hands-on Intro to ArcGIS integration, and editing
± (lab sessions @ 1:00-4:00 or
7:00-10:00pm in GR 3.602) ‡ Data analysis and
modeling
‡ Data output and
#

'#  application examples


‡ Terrestrial data structures
± representing the real world
#
:'Ä
‡ GIS Data Structures
± representing the world in a
‡ Future of GIS
computer
‡ Data Quality
± An essential ingredient
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Hands-on Projects
‡ Locating a Day-care
± intro to GIS capabilities
± illustration of a major application: site selection
‡ Texas Demographic growth
± manipulation of data and mapping principles
± another major application: analysis of spatial patterns with polygon data
‡ Geocoding Housing Sales, or Analyzing Earthquake Locations
± techniques and data requirements for geocoding and point patterns
± another application: geocoding/address matching
‡ Creating a Census Tract layer, or a Geological Map
± editing and creating topologically consistent data
± how new data layers can be created
‡ Pipeline Routing
± data selection, buffering and spatial analysis
± another major application: corridor studies

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Appendix

GIS Software Packages

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Software for GIS:  1 % 
‡ &
$
+$Redlands, CA
± clear market leader with about a third of the market
± originated commercial GIS with their ArcInfo product in 1981 !   

± privately owned by Jack Dangermond, a legend in the field "  #$%&
± Strong in gov., education, utilities and business logistics 
  
‡ 
$Ä,+-+
± Aggressive newcomer in early 1990s, but now well-established.
± Strong presence in business, especially site selection & marketing, and telecom
‡
 (Huntsville, AL)
± origins in proprietary CAD hardware/software
± Older UNIX-based  & (Modular GIS Environment) evolved from CAD
± Current  was the first true MS Windows-based GIS
± strong in design, public works, and FM (facilities management), but weakening
‡   (Exton, PA)
±      $originally developed with Intergraph, is now their exclusive and
main product..
± Strong in engineering; advertises itself as ³geoengineering´
‡ `.(San Rafael, CA)
± Began as PC-based CAD, but now the dominant CAD supplier
± First GIS product ``( introduced in 1996
± Primarily small business/small city customer base
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Software for GIS: other players
: 
 

‡ &`
 
‡   
± long established leader
(Englewood, CO) ± acquired by Leica Geosystems in 2001
± first to use OO (early µ90s), ‡ &`##&
but failed to compete as ± aggressive newcomer originating in Australia
established vendors did same ‡ & $
± Purchased by GE in 2000 ± relative newcomer, radar specialization
± emphasis on FM & utilities ± acquired by Kodak in 2000
‡    ‡ #
--Geomatica
± long-term Canadian player
(CDA International Corp):
‡ `

± low cost, but low market ± newer Canadian entry
share
‡ ` (Rutgers Univ.)
‡  ± Classic old-timer originally developed by US
(Caliper Corp, Newton, MA): Army Construction Engineering Research
Lab(CERL) in Champaign, IL;
± another low cost one ± army ended dev. & support in 1996 but
assumed by Baylor University.
‡

(Clark Univ)
± pioneering, university-developed package
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
ESRI Product Line-up: —
 client products (Fall 2007)
` (³adobe acrobat´ for maps) & ` &((spatial data viewer)
± Free viewers for geographic data.
`
/+(.'two primary modules (MS only)
0+ ` ' for data display, map production, spatial analysis, data editing
1+ ` ' for data management and preview
` Ä"(, for specialized data conversions and analyses, available as a window in both
Available capabilities within these modules are ³tiered´ in three levels
‡ ` :' viewing, map production, spatial analysis, basic editing:
‡ ` &' ArcView, plus specialized editing:
‡ `
' ArcView & ArcEditor plus special analyses and conversions:
&(  ' for special apps.:   2 ,  2 — 2 8   2 (
` Š"* 'to build specialized capabilities within ArcMap or ArcCatalog using VB for Applications
`
±. (for UNIX and MS)
± the old command line ArcInfo 7.1
`
&  i,Ä12223#
± Set of embeddable GIS components (ArcObjects software objects) for use in building custom
applications
± Runs under Windows, Unix and Linux, with support for Java, C++, COM and .NET
± Replaces MapObjects which were based upon a previous generation of GIS objects
,'
ArcView 3.3 the only GUI option for UNIX.
ArcGIS 8 released 2000 to integrate two previous standalone products: ArcView and ArcInfo
ArcGIS 9 released 2004 providing the full capability that should have been in ArcGIS 8!!!
--full support for all data types (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases)
--full support for all previous geoprocessing analyses
--Modelbuilder for scripting and repetitive processing
--ArcEngine for building custom applications 38
4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
ESRI Product Line-up: —
 server products (Fall 2007)

`
 '   "
  '` &i"&  
‡ middleware to support spatial data storage in standard DBMS on server
‡ Supports all major industry databases:
± Oracle, SQL-Server, IBM DB2, Ingres
  '`
i
  
‡ Provides maps and simple query to a user without a desktop GIS
‡ Accessed via web interface
`    '
‡ Permits the creation of server-based specialized GIS applications
‡ Provides full range of GIS capabilities to a user without a desktop GIS
‡ Accessed via web interface

*  (9          0

`
Š    
± On-line services made available on the Internet with a subscription
± Normally charged on a ³per transaction´ basis, but can be flat fee
± built and operated by ESRI (or other others), usually based on ArcGIS Server

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
ESRI ArcGIS System
Consistent interface
c:\ ArcGIS Workstation a  Increasing capability

 #
 
 %& $  *
 $
&

ArcMap ArcMap ArcMap


ArcCatalog ArcCatalog ArcCatalog
ArcToolbox ArcToolbox ArcToolbox

` &       


 #  '
` Š"* 
  #  
!           ' ( ) '
# 4     
 

ArcPad
# 
   
   
 
   
 
 
   
   a
     !"    Source: ESRI with mods.
á  :      #$ $## 
Future Generic GIS Internet Enterprise

$
&    


±

±   $
+

 
  

,-  ." /  #
Dallas Delhi Durban
Source: Reza Wahadj, CSIG04, with mods.
   
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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
ð | ð 
ð
 '  ( #$% | 

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals
Ä .

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4/24/2010 Ron Briggs, UTDallas, GIS Fundamentals