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TRAINING

&
DEVELOPMENT

Difference between
training and education
Training :
Application
Orientation
Job experience
Specific task

Education:

. Theoretical
. Classroom learning
. General concepts

PURPOSE OF TRAINING

TRAINING NEED ARISES


WHEN-

ADVANTAGES OF
TRAINING

DISADVANTAGES OF
TRAINING

ISSUES IN EMPLOYEE
TRAINING

Training is a useful tool for an employee to


bring to a position where he can do his job
Correctly he can apply whatever he has been
taught.
Effectively he may be in a position where he can
perform to the expected level
Conscientiously the behaviour of the trainers can
bring the trainees to the position where they can
put their max effort at the right time

Important concepts and meaning in


training:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Learning
KSA
Training and education
Competency

1.

Learning

Its a permanent change in behaviour ,


understanding ,and thinking that results from
experience and that directly influences
behaviour.

2.

KSA

K Knowledgeis a familiarity with


someone or something, that can include
facts, information
or/and skills acquired through experience or
education.
a. Declarative knowledge
b. Procedural knowledge
c. Strategic knowledge

S Skills can be described as the


capacity needed to perform, a set of
tasks that are developed as a result
of training and experience.
skills are dependent on knowledge
in the sense that a person must know

what to do
when to do
Skill is a proficiency (technique) at
doing something beyond just
knowing about it.

Level of skill acquisition :

Compilation when a person is


learning a particular skill or recently
learned
eg: learning to play tennis.
Automaticity a person who
masters the skill & uses it often ,
then it reaches the automaticity
stage.

Attitude - Attitudes are employees beliefs &


opinions that support or exhibit (show)
behaviour.
Eg : If the employees have positive feeling
about their superior , those feelings are likely
to be associated with their job.
If the employees learn from a coworker that
the superior said negative things about him, job
satisfaction decreases but nothing about the job
actually changed , what changed is employees
belief about the superiors opinion of him.

3.

Competency

It a broader grouping of knowledge ,


skills and attitude that enables a
person to be successful at a no. of
similar tasks.

4.

Training and
education

Training is often described as focusing on the


acquisition of KSAs needed to perform more
effectively on ones current job.
(Training is a set of activities and
development is the desired result of those
activities.)
Education can be differentiated from training
by the types of KSAs developed. Training
focuses more on job specific KSAs and
education focuses more on the general KSAs

RATIONALE OF TRAINING
Staff training is an element in raising morale
because it sounds out people for possible future
promotions. The aim should be to train and
develop each employee so far as possible even if
that means running the risk of losing them to
other organizations.
Technological developments and organizational change
have gradually caused some employers to realize that
success lie in the skills and abilities of their
employees thus this means considerable and continuous
investment in training and development.

TRAINING PROCESS

Its an open system model i.e


dynamic relation with the envt.

A training process begins with some


kind of triggering event. This
triggering event is the recognition of
an OPD.
When actual org perf is less than
expected org perf OPD exists.
AOP

<

EOP

OPD

Analysis phase:
Find out the perf. deficiencies and determine if
they are caused because of inadequate KSAs
(training becomes a way to satisfy the needs) or
lack of motivation or faulty equipment.
This process of analysis and gathering data to
determine which performance problem should
be
satisfied by training is termed as TNA ( training
need analysis).

Design phase :
Identifying the factors needed in
training prog.
to facilitate the learning and its
transfer back to
the job.
Development phase :
Its the process of formulating a
strategy to meet
a set of training objectives. All
elements of

Implementation phase :
All aspects of training program comes
together .
Evaluation phase:
Process evaluation determining how
well a particular process achieved its
objective (o/p).
Outcome evaluation determine the
effect of training on the trainee , the
job , org. using training objectives as
the standard.

ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN
TRAINGING
Participants

participate n contributes to all


training
activities.

Degree to which participant is


willing to
invest in the prog is related to the
benefits

Organization a sponsoring org


has a crucial role in all phases of
training . Some of the tasks are Identification of training needs
Selection of participants
Communicating its expectations from
the prog
Monitoring the progress of its
participants
Transfer of training to the field

Training agency
Provide proper envt to employees.
Coordination of professional n
administrative inputs.
Maintaining communication with org.
Consistency in what is advocated n
practiced.
Assisting professional growth of
training staff
Maintaining the training team.
Keeping pace with developments in
the field of training.

Trainers - key elements in the


delivery of the training.
Training department
Coordinates with training agency n
trainers to conduct training.
Provide infrastructure and organize
training prog.
Evaluation of training prog.

TRAINING NEED
ASSESSMENT/ANALYISIS
TNA is a systematic method for
determining what caused perf. to be
less than expected.
Its aim is to find out whether the
perf problem actually exists and if so
is it worth fixing and what is its
cause.

2 approaches to TNA :
Proactive (focuses on anticipated
performance problem).
Reactive (focuses on performance
problem in present).

Performance discrepancy may occur


because of Performance Discrepancy

YES
Is it worth fixing?
YES
Reward/
KSA
Deficiency Punishment
problems
YES

Choose
Appropriate
Remedy

YES

Change
possibilities

Inadequate
Feedback
YES

Provide
Proper
Feedback

Obstacles in
the System
YES

Remove
Obstacles

FRAMEWORK FOR CONDUCTING TNA

Input

Process

Output

Organizational
Analysis
Training
Needs
TRIGGER
Actual Organizational
Performance
(AOP) < Expected
Organizational
Performance (EOP)

Operational
Analysis

Person Analysis

Identify
Performance
Discrepancy (PD)
PD = AP < EP
n Causes of PD
Non
Training
Needs

Organizational Analysis
Looks at the internal envt. Influence that can
affect employees perf.
It provides info about

.
.
.

resources n allocation of resources

impact of above factors .

mission n strategies of org

factors in internal envt that may cause


prob

Operational Analysis
It performs Job/Task analysis.
Determine KSA required to do each job.
Analyzing the job
what is the job
Where to collect the data
Whom to ask
Who should select task holders
How many to ask.
How to select.

What to ask about a. worker oriented approach ( KSAs


required)
b. task oriented approach (work
activities
required to perform the job).

Person Analyisis
It examines those who occupy the jobs
to see whether they posses the
required KSAs to do the job.
Measure the actual performance to
check if they are performing at an
acceptable level.
Expected perf

Actual perf
PD

Where to collect data from to


check actual performance

Performance appraisal
Supervisor rating
Interviews
Questionnaires
Self rating
360 degree performance review.

COMPETENCY MAPPING
Competency is a cluster of related
knowledge , skills and attitude that
differentiate high perf from average
perf.
competency mapping is about
identifying preferred behaviour and
personal skills which distinguish
excellent and outstanding
performance from the average.

Use of Competencies can include Assessment during recruitment .


Org development analysis.
Assessment during further
development.
During promotions.
Techniques used to map
competency
Critical incident analysis
Repertory grid

Critical incident technique


Respondents are asked to relate
specific incidents , which highlighted
exemplary behaviour in critical
situations.
Repertory grid analysis
Identify +ve attribute and establish
a scale with different characteristics.
( its used in market research ,
quality control , decision making)

How to develop competencies


Meet with upper mgmt. to determine goals,
and generate tentative competencies.

strategies

Identify specific goals.


Meet with high performers of those jobs n there supervisor.
Determine the competencies that overlap with upper mgmt
competencies.
Verify above info with another group of high performers
and their superiors .
Link this info to job analysis info obtained from the job to
determine KSAs that make p the competencies.