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Signal Conditioning Elements

(SCE)

1. Voltage dividers

R2
Vo
Vs
R1 R2

Example :Potentiometer circuit

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Measurement & Transducers

Deflection bridges
Deflection bridges are used to convert the output of resistive,
capacitive and inductive sensors into a voltage signal
Amplifiers
Amplifiers are necessary in order to amplify low-level signals, e.g.
thermocouple
or strain gauge bridge output voltages, to a level which enables them
to be further
processed
Oscillators and resonators

Thvenin equivalent circuit for a deflection bridge

Bridge Parameters
a. Range of output

1
1

Z4
Z3
1
1 Z
Z2
I min

V
S

Vmin

1
1

Z4
Z3
1
1 Z
Z2
I max

V
S

Vmax

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b. Sensitivity

Vout
Z

c.Maximum power dissipation

VS2

Z1

w
2
Z1 Z 4

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d. Non linearity

Vmax
Vmax
I -
I min
I max I min
I max I min

Videal

E th Videal

100 N
Vmax

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Design of resistive deflection bridges


Output voltage for resistive deflection bridge

R1 = RI, and R2, R3 and R4 are fixed resistors

Relationship between resistances in a balanced Wheatstone


bridge
Often we require V = 0, i.e. the bridge to be balanced when I =
MIN

IMIN;

Output voltage for single-element strain gauge bridge

Four-element strain gauge bridge

strain-gage arrangements in a Wheatstone bridge

Case 1.
-utilizing a single active gage in position R1
- it is often employed for both static and dynamic strain-gage
measurement if temperature compensation is not required.
-The resistance R1 = Rg and the other three resistances are selected to
maximize the circuit sensitivity while maintaining the balance condition
R1R3 = R2R4.

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The sensitivity Ss of the strain-gageWheatstone bridge system is


defined as the product of the sensitivity of the gage Sg and the
sensitivity of the bridge circuit S. Thus,

S s S g Sc

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R g R g

Vo
R R
g
g

Vo

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-the dummy gage is inserted in arm R4 of the bridge instead of


arm R2.
-The active gage remains in arm R1
- fixed-value resistors are used in arms R2 and R3.
- With this positioning of the dummy gage
-the system sensitivity is the same as that given by case 1.
- Temperature compensation is achieved in the same manner that
was illustrated in Case 2, but without loss of circuit efficiency.
- When a dummy gage is to be used to effect temperature
compensation, arm R4 of the bridge is the preferred location for
the dummy gage.
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Case 4.
- Four active gages are used in this Wheatstone bridge
arrangement: - - it is used to measure transverse and axial strain

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Load Cell : Force measurement


Link-type Load Cell

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Beam-type load cells

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Ring-type load cell.

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Output voltage for single-element Thermoresistor


bridge

Output voltage for double -elements Thermoresistor


bridge

Output voltage for cantilever and torque elements

Output voltage for Pillar load cell

Design of reactive deflection bridges


Bridge for capacitive level sensor

Output voltage for capacitance level bridge

Thus in order to get :ETh = 0 at minimum level hMIN, we require C0 = ChMIN(R3 /R2),
giving:

if R3 /R2 is made large compared with 1, this approximates to the linear form:

Output voltage for capacitance push-pull bridge

This gives:

Output voltage for inductive push-pull bridge

This gives:

Amplifiers

Why do we need Amplifiers?


Signal Amplification (I,V,,P)
Signal processing
Inverting
Buffering
Filtering
Compression
Integration
Differentiation
Converters * (How)

Ideal operational amplifier characteristics

typical operational amplifier characteristics (Ideal vs. OPA27)

Transfer characteristics of Op Amp

Inverting amplifier

The output voltage of inverting Amplifier


Since V+ = V = 0
Also
giving

Non-inverting amplifier

The output voltage of Non-inverting amplifier


Since i+ = 0, V+ = VIN

Also since V+ = V

we have

, RF and R1 form a potential divider, we have

Voltage follower.

Differential amplifier

Strain gauge bridge connected to differential amplifier

Instrumentation amplifier
High input impedance
High common mode rejection ratio
Low input offset voltage
Low temperature coefficient of offset voltage.

Voltage adder.

Parameters influence the d.c. performance of the amplifier


Input offset voltage VOS
The existence of input offset voltage VOS means that VOUT is unequal to zero
when both V and V+ = 0 volts, i.e.

Where
AOL -D.C. open-loop gain
Some operational amplifiers have facilities for adjusting VOS to zero, i.e. for
obtaining VOUT = 0 when V+ = V = 0.

The effect of VOS on inverting amplifier

Appropriate temperature coefficient


VOS is dependent on the temperature TE C of the amplifier environment
Example
If VOS is set to zero at TE = 15 C; then if TE subsequently increases to 25 C, the
resulting input offset voltage is (25 15), i.e. 6 V, which causes a change of
approximately 0.6 106 V, i.e. 0.6 V in the output of the open-loop operational
amplifier

Common mode voltage

Common mode voltage affects on Vout

where ACM is the common mode gain

Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)

The equivalent circuit for an open-loop amplifier

a.c. performance of a practical operational amplifier

Gainfrequency relation for open-loop amplifier

where f B = 1/2 is the 3 dB cut-off frequency

Typical gainfrequency characteristics for operational amplifier

Instrumentation amplifiers

High input impedance


High common mode rejection ratio
Low input offset voltage
Low temperature coefficient of offset voltage.

Oscillators and resonators


Oscillators
Inductive Oscillators

Capacitive Oscillators

resonator

Mathematical model of resonator

Examples of resonators
Vibrating plate element

Vibrating tube element.

Other types of Op. Amps

Example Find vo for the following circuit.

It follows that

and

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Therefore

From KVL, we have


and

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Example. Find vo for the following circuit.

With the noninverting input connected to ground, we have vp = 0 = vn.


From KVL
and it follows that

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Since no current flows into the op amp, iC = iR.With

and

we have

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Logarithmic amplifiers
- When a sensors output dynamic is of a high amplitude (10 mV to 10 V, for
example), it can be useful to compress the signal by using a logarithmic amplifier.
- After amplification and digitization, the signal can be easily transmitted across a
transmission line.
At reception, it is enough to carry out the reverse operation to restore the
measurement signal.
This principle allows us to lower noise sensitivity.
- Logarithmic amplifiers also help us linearize sensors, carry out multiplications,
divisions, elevations in the square, and extractions of the root squared.
To construct this type of amplifier , we use the feature of a P-N junction with an
equation (Ebres-Moll equation) in the following form:
where
q is the electron charge
k the Boltzmanns constant
T is the absolute temperature
U is the direct voltage and i0 is the flow of reverse current

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Schemata of logarithmic amplifier principle

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