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Implementing NFPA

70E Electrical Safety


Standards
St Louis, MO
May 26, 2010

Topics

Electrical hazards/injuries
OSHA 1910 Subpart S
NFPA 70E requirements
Qualified Worker?
Electrical Safe Work Practices
Understanding arc flash hazard categories & PPE
Understanding approach boundaries
Implementing 70E and qualifying employees

Why its important

1,213 electrical related


workplace fatalities from 2003
to 2007*
13,150 severe injuries*

*Electrical Safety Foundation International 2008 Survey

Injuries
Injuries Electrical
from Electric
Shock

Electrocution
Electrical burns
Muscle,
Cardiac
Secondary
nerve,
arrest and
Thermal
Burns
burns
Nerve, muscle,
tissue
tissue
respiratory
injuries
destruction
failure
damage
Internal bleeding
Secondary injuries
Falls

Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0912

Electric Shock
Entrance

Received when current passes


through the body
Severity of the shock depends
on:
Path of current through the
body
Amount of current flowing
through the body
Length of time the body is
in the circuit

LOW VOLTAGE
DOES NOT MEAN
LOW HAZARD

Ground

Exit

Electrical Safety Standards

OSHA Standards 29 CFR 1910

OSHA Standards

1910 Subpart S Electrical


1910.301

.308 = Safe installation


1910.309 .330 = Reserved
1910.331
1910.336

.335 = Work practices

.398 = Reserved
1910.399 Definitions
Appendix A Reference Documents

1910.331 - Scope

Applies to qualifed and unqualified employees


performing work on:
Premises

wiring
Connecting to supply
Other wiring
Optical fiber cable

Does NOT apply to generation, distribution, or


communication (specific standards for these)
Refers to 1910.399 for definition of qualified
persons.

Qualified Person OSHA 1910.399

One who has received training in and has


demonstrated skills and knowledge in the
construction and operation of electrical
equipment and installation and the
hazards involved.

1910.332 Training
Employees who face a risk of electric
shock that is not reduced to a safe level
installation requirements must be trained.
Occupations in Table S-4 must be trained.
Other employees if they face a risk of
shock.

Table S-4

Blue collar supervisors


Electrical and electronic engineers
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers
Electrical and electronic technicians
Electricians
Industrial machine operators
Material handling equipment operators
Mechanics and repairers
Painters
Riggers and roustabouts
Stationary engineers
Welders
Footnote(1) Workers in these groups do not need to be trained if their work
or the work of those they supervise does not bring them or the employees
they supervise close enough to exposed parts of electric circuits operating
at 50 volts or more to ground for a hazard to exist.

1910.332 Training

Training focused on:


Recognizing

live parts
Determining voltage of live parts
Clearance distances specified in 1910.333

1910.333 Selection and Use of


Work Practices

Focused on work near exposed energized


or potentially energized parts.
Locking

and tagging
Deenergization
Verifying deenergized condition
Reenergizing
Overhead power lines (clearance distances)
Illumination
Several other tasks

1910.333 Selection and Use of


Work Practices

"Deenergized parts." Live parts to which an


employee may be exposed shall be deenergized
before the employee works on or near them,
unless the employer can demonstrate that
deenergizing introduces additional or increased
hazards or is infeasible due to equipment design
or operational limitations. Live parts that operate
at less than 50 volts to ground need not be
deenergized if there will be no increased
exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due
to electric arcs.

1910.334 Use of Equipment

Covers things like:


Portable

equipment
Plugs and cords
Reclosing circuits
Inspection of equipment

1910.335 Safeguard for Personnel


Protection

Personal Protective Equipment


Must

use when exposed


Maintenance
Inspection

Insulated hand tools


Guarding of exposed parts during work

NFPA 70E

Electrical Hazards

NFPA 70E A dangerous condition such


that contact or equipment failure can result
in:
Electric

Shock
Arc flash burn
Thermal burn
Arc blast

Arc Flash & Arc Blast

Arc Flash electrical


short circuit that occurs
when air flashes from an
exposed live conductor,
to either another
conductor or to ground.
Arc Blast pressure
wave caused by the arc
flash.

Arc Flash/Blast

Concentrated energy
explodes outward
High intensity flash
Temperatures can reach
35,000
Pressure wave can reach
200lbs/sq. inch
Vaporize conductors and
copper and explode
particles like buckshot.

Arc Flash Effects

Severe burns
Broken bones
Vision damage
Hearing loss
Brain/internal injuries
Punctures and
lacerations
Death

Causes of Arc Flash

Improper training
Improper work procedures
Dropped tools
Accidental contact with electrical
systems
Installation failure
Inadequate SCCR
Voltage testing with inappropriate
equipment

Causes of Arc Flash (cont.)

Buildup of dust, corrosion


on insulating surfaces
Improper maintenance
Sparks produced during
racking of breakers,
replacement of fuses and
closing into faulty lines.
Inattentiveness/Overconfi
dence

Were in Missouri, so show me!


Racking a Breaker
Breaker Box Demonstration

Qualified Person NFPA 70

One who has the skill and knowledge related to


the construction and operation of the electrical
equipment and installations and has received
safety training to recognize and avoid the
hazards involved.
May

be considered qualified with respect to certain


equipment & method but still unqualified for others.

Qualified Persons
Training Requirements

Understand specific electrical hazards


Knowledgeable of the construction and
operation of the equipment
Identify & understand the relationship between
electrical hazards and possibly injury
Distinguish exposed live parts
Able to determine voltage of live parts
Understands and complies with arc flash and
shock hazard boundaries.

Qualified Persons
Training (cont.)
Proper

use of precautionary
techniques
PPE, including arc-flash &
shock protection
Insulated tools
Demonstrate how to select
and use a voltage meter
Decision-making process used
to determine the degree and
extent of the hazard

Justification for Work


NFPA 70E 130.1

Energized electrical conductors and circuit parts to which


an employee might be exposed shall be put into an
electrically safe work condition before an employee
works within the Limited Approach Boundary of those
conductors or parts.
Unless the employer can demonstrate that deenergizing introduces additional hazards or is infeasible.

Interruption of life support systems


Deactivation of emergency alarm systems
Shutdown of hazardous location ventilation systems
Circuits and conductors that operate at less than 50 volts

Justification for Work


NFPA 70E 130.1 (cont.)

Other work that may be performed within


the limited approach boundary of exposed
energized electrical conductors or circuits:
Testing
Troubleshooting
Voltage

measuring

Safe Work Practices


De-energize-Lockout

Policy
Dont wear conductive apparel
Work area must be illuminated
Never reach into blind spots
Dont allow conductive liquids near electrical work or
equipment
Buddy system (over 1,000 volts, work in pairs)
Do not defeat electrical interlocks
Use nonconductive ladders

Steps to NFPA 70E Compliance


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Have an arc hazard survey completed.


Implement any recommendations to
reduce the hazards.
Develop and implement a labeling system.
Determine what tasks will be performed
and at what hazard category.
Train (qualify) employees and provide
PPE.

Arc Hazard Survey

Conducted by an engineering firm


Survey includes:
Single

line diagram of electrical system


Incident energy levels
Current limiting device coordination
Calculates a hazard risk category and approach
boundaries
Develops recommendations to reduce high hazard
risk categories

Reduce the hazards!

Some examples:
Change

fuses
Develop a maintenance program
Adjust circuit breakers
Install additional disconnects

Arc Flash Label

Arc Flash Label

Arc Ratings
Hazard/Risk
Category

Incident Energy
(cal/cm2)

0 - 1.2

1.2 - 4

4-8

8 - 25

25 - 40

Dangerous

Over 40

NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(11)

NFPA 70E Approach Boundaries

NFPA 70E Approach Boundaries


(cont.)

The qualified
worker is
responsible
for ensuring
physical
barriers are
in place and
all approach
boundaries
are enforced
during work.

WARNING

Arc Fla sh a nd S ho c k Ha za r d
App ro p r ia te P PE Re quir e d
34 i nch

Flash Hazard Bounda ry

3.46

cal/cm^2 Fl ash Hazard at 18 inches


VR Gloves- Tool s, Proper C l othes, Safety Glass es,

Class 1
480 VAC
42 i nch

Hardhat
Shock Haz ard when cove r i s removed
Lim ited A ppr oach

12 i nch

Restri cted Approach

1 i nch

Prohibit ed Approach

Bus Nam e: PP-MCC-G81, Prot D evi ce: PP-PD P-G7 1-6

Warning label
provides
boundary
information

Flash Boundary 4 ft. or calculated

Limited

Restricted

Prohibited

Specific Tasks

Troubleshooting only! NO WORK!


Checking

/ replacing fuses
Checking motor starters
Checking amp draw
Checking relays

Train.Train.Train.Train

3-step process.
Controls

101
Arc Flash Hazard Training
Equipment Specific Training

Hands on!

Arc Flash Hazard Training


Labeling system
Glove selection and testing

Shock

protection

Arc flash rated clothing


Arc

flash protection

Glove Labeling Chart


Choose the right glove by voltage rating

Voltage-rated Gloves

First line of defense


Choose the right size
Leather protectors must be worn over the rubber gloves
Gloves must be tested

Before first issue and every 6 months


If tested, but not issued for service, glove may not be put into
service unless tested within previous 12 months.

Checked before use

Roll-up test
Inflator test

Salisbury
video

Arc-Rated FR Clothing & PPE

Layering
Outer

layers must be flame resistant


Under layers must be non-melting

Fit Clothing shall fit properly (loose), w/ least


interference
Coverage Clothing must cover potentially
exposed areas (wrist, neck)
Care & Maintenance
Inspect

before use
Launder according to mfgs instructions

*Photo courtesy of Salisbury

PPE - Hazard Risk Category 0


0-1.2 cal/cm2

100% cotton long


sleeve shirt
Long pants
Safety glasses
Hearing protection
Leather and insulated
gloves (as required)
Leather work boots

PPE - Hazard Risk Category 1


1.2 - 4 cal/cm2

4+ cal long sleeve shirt &


long pants (or) coveralls
Hardhat
Safety glasses
Arc rated faceshield
Hearing protection (inserts)
VR gloves
Leather gloves
Leather work boots

PPE - Hazard Risk Category 2


4 - 8 cal/cm2

8+ cal long sleeve shirt &


long pants (or) coveralls
Hardhat
Safety glasses
Arc rated faceshield
Hearing protection (inserts)
VR gloves
Leather gloves
Leather work boots

PPE - Hazard Risk Category 3


8 - 25 cal/cm2

25+ flashsuit w/ hood


over long sleeve shirt and
long pants
Safety glasses
Arc rated faceshield
Hearing protection
(inserts)
VR gloves
Leather gloves
Leather work boots

PPE - Hazard Risk Category 4


25 - 40 cal/cm2

40+ flashsuit w/ hood over FR


long sleeve shirt and long
pants
Safety glasses
Arc rated faceshield
Hearing protection (inserts)
VR gloves
Leather gloves
Leather work boots

Hands-On Training
How to use a multi-meter
Set up a safe scenario

Lockout

upstream before class!

Trainee performs
Unacceptable performance = NOT qualified!

Qualification

All steps completed


Survey
Calculations
PPE

determination
Training

Employees qualified