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NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

NDT
www.metallurgydata.blogfa.com

NDT
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Examination of materials and components in
such a way that allows material to be
examinated without changing or destroying
their usefulness

NDT
Most common NDT methods:
Penetrant Testing (PT)
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

Mainly used for


surface testing

Eddy Current Testing (ET)


Radiographic Testing (RT)
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Mainly used for


Internal Testing

NDT
Which NDT method is
the best ?
Depends on many
factors and conditions

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic


Testing
To understand and
appreciate the
capability and
limitation of UT

History of Ultrasonic Testing (UT)


First came sonic testing
The piezo-electric effect discovered in
1880/81
Marine echo sounding developed from 1912
In 1929 Sokolov used vibrations in metals to
find flaws
Cathode ray tubes developed in the 1930s
Sproule made the first flaw detector in 1942

Ultrasonic Inspection
Sub-surface detection
This detection method uses high frequency sound
waves, typically above 2MHz to pass through a material
A probe is used which contains a piezo electric crystal to
transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses and display the
signals on a cathode ray tube or digital display
The actual display relates to the time taken for the
ultrasonic pulses to travel the distance to the interface
and back
An interface could be the back of a plate material or a
defect
For ultrasound to enter a material a couplant must be
introduced between the probe and specimen

Ultrasonic Inspection
Pulse echo
signals
A scan Display

Compression probe

UT Set, Digital

Thickness checking the material

Ultrasonic Inspection
defect
echo

initial pulse

Back wall
echo

Material Thk
defect

Compression Probe

10

20

30

40

CRT Display

50

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


The distance the sound traveled can be displayed on the Flaw Detector
The screen can be calibrated to give accurate readings of the distance
Signal from the backwall

Bottom / Backwall

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


The presence of a Defect in the material shows up on the screen of
the flaw detector with a less distance than the bottom of the material
The BWE signal
Defect signal

Defect

10

20

30

40

50

60

60 mm

The depth of the defect can be read with reference


to the marker on the screen

Thickness / depth measurement


The closer the reflector
to the surface, the signal
will be more to the left of
the screen

30

46

68

The thickness is read from the screen

C
B
A

The THINNER the material


the less distance the sound
travel

Ultrasonic Inspection
A Scan
Display

Angle Probe

UT Set

Ultrasonic Inspection
initial pulse

defect echo

Surface distance

defect

sound path
0

Angle Probe

10

20

30

40

CRT Display

50

Ultrasonic Inspection

Advantages

Disadvantages

Trained and skilled


Rapid results
operator required
Sub-surface detection
Requires high operator
Safe
skill
Can detect planar defect
Good surface finish
Capable of measuring the
required
depth of defects
Difficulty on detecting
May be battery powered
volumetric defect
Portable
Couplant may

contaminate
No permanent record

Ultrasonic Testing
Principles of Sound

What is Sound ?
A mechanical vibration
The vibrations create Pressure Waves
Sound travels faster in more elastic
materials
Number of pressure waves per second is
the Frequency
Speed of travel is the Sound velocity

Sound
Wavelength :
The distance required to complete a cycle
Measured in Meter or mm

Frequency :
The number of cycles per unit time
Measured in Hertz (Hz) or Cycles per second (cps)

Velocity :
How quick the sound travels
Distance per unit time
Measured in meter / second (m / sec)

Wavelength

Velocity

f
Frequency

Sound Waves

Sound waves are the vibration of particles in solids liquids or


gases
Particles vibrate about a mean position
In order to vibrate they require mass and resistance to
change

One cycle

Properties of a sound wave


Sound cannot travel
in vacuum
Sound energy to be
transmitted /
transferred from one
particle to another

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

Velocity
The velocity of sound in a particular material is CONSTANT
It is the product of DENSITY and ELASTICITY of the
material
It will NOT change if frequency changes
Only the wavelength changes
Examples:
V Compression in steel
: 5960 m/s
V Compression in water : 1470 m/s
V Compression in air : 330 m/s
5 M Hz

STEEL

WATER

AIR

Sound travelling through a material


Velocity varies according to the material
Compression waves

Shear waves

Steel5960m/sec

Steel3245m/sec

Water 1470m/sec

Water NA

Air

Air

344m/sec

Copper 4700m/sec

NA

Copper 2330m/sec

Ultrasonic
Sound : mechanical vibration

What is Ultrasonic?
Very High Frequency sound above 20 KHz
20,000 cps

Acoustic Spectrum
Sonic / Audible
Human
16Hz - 20kHz

10

100

1K

Ultrasonic
> 20kHz = 20,000Hz

10K 100K 1M 10M 100m


Ultrasonic Testing
0.5MHz - 50MHz

Ultrasonic : Sound with frequency above 20 KHz

Frequency
Frequency : Number of cycles per
second

1 second
1 cycle per 1 second =
1 Hertz

1 second
3 cycle per 1 second =
3 Hertz

1 second
18 cycle per 1 second
= 18 Hertz

THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY THE SMALLER THE


WAVELENGTH

Pg 21

Frequency
1 Hz = 1 cycle per second
1 Kilohertz = 1 KHz = 1000Hz
1 Megahertz= 1 MHz = 1000 000Hz

20 KHz =

20 000 Hz

5 M Hz =

5 000 000 Hz

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Very High Frequency
5 M Hz

Glass
High Frequency
5 K Hz
DRUM BEAT
Low Frequency Sound
40 Hz

Wavelength and frequency


The higher the frequency the smaller the
wavelength
The smaller the wavelength the higher the
sensitivity
Sensitivity : The smallest detectable
flaw by the system or
technique
In UT the smallest detectable flaw is

(half the wavelength)

High Frequency Sound

f
5MHz compression
wave probe in steel

5,900,000

1.18mm
5,000,000

Frequency

1 M Hz
LONGEST

5 M Hz

10 M Hz

25 M Hz
SMALLEST

=v/f

Which probe has the smallest wavelength?


Which probe has the longest wavelength?

Which of the following compressional


probe has the highest sensitivity?
1 MHz
2 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz

10 MHz

What is the velocity difference in steel compared with in


water?
4 times
If the frequency remain constant, in what material does
sound has the highest velocity, steel, water, or air?
Steel
If the frequency remain constant, in what material does
sound has the shortest wavelength, steel, water, or air?
Air
Remember the formula
=v/f

Sound Waveforms
Sound travels in different waveforms in
different conditions

Compression wave
Shear wave
Surface wave
Lamb wave

Compression / Longitudinal
Vibration and propagation in the same
direction / parallel
Travel in solids, liquids and gases

Particle vibration

Propagation

Shear / Transverse
Vibration at right angles / perpendicular to
direction of propagation
Travel in solids only
Velocity 1/2 compression (same material)

Particle vibration

Propagation

Compression v Shear
Frequency
0.5MHz
1 MHz
2MHz
4MHz
6MHZ

Compression
11.8
5.9
2.95
1.48
0.98

Shear
6.5
3.2
1.6
0.8
0.54

The smaller the wavelength the better the


sensitivity

Sound travelling through a material


Velocity varies according to the material
Compression waves

Shear waves

Steel5960m/sec

Steel3245m/sec

Water 1470m/sec

Water NA

Air

Air

344m/sec

Copper 4700m/sec

NA

Copper 2330m/sec

Surface Wave
Elliptical vibration
Velocity 8% less than shear
Penetrate one wavelength deep

Easily dampened by heavy grease or wet finger


Follows curves but reflected by sharp corners or
surface cracks

Lamb / Plate Wave


Produced by the manipulation of surface
waves and others
Used mainly to test very thin materials /
plates
Velocity varies with plate thickness and
frequencies

SYMETRIC

ASSYMETRIC

The Sound Beam


Dead Zone
Near Zone or Fresnel Zone
Far Zone or Fraunhofer Zone

Sound Beam
Near Zone
Thickness
measurement
Detection of defects
Sizing of large
defects only

Far Zone
Thickness
measurement
Defect detection
Sizing of all defects

Near zone length as small


as possible balanced
against acceptable
minimum detectable defect
size

N=

The Sound Beam


NZ

FZ

Main
Beam

Intensity
varies
Exponential Decay

Distance

The side lobes has multi


minute main beams
Two identical defects may
give different amplitudes of
signals

Near
Zone

Side Lobes

The main beam or the centre


beam has the highest
intensity of sound energy
Main Lobe

Main Beam

Any reflector hit by the main


beam will reflect the high
amount of energy

Near Zone
2

D
Near Zone
4
V

D f
Near Zone
4V

Near Zone
What is the near zone length of a 5MHz
compression probe with a crystal diameter
of 10mm in steel?
2

D f
Near Zone
4V
2
10 5,000,000

4 5,920,000
21.1mm

Near Zone
2

D
Near Zone
4

D f

4V

The bigger the diameter the bigger the


near zone
The higher the frequency the bigger the
near zone
The lower the velocity the bigger the near
zone

Which of the above probes has the longest Near Zone ?


1 M Hz
1 M Hz

5 M Hz

5 M Hz

Beam Spread
In the far zone sound pulses spread out
as they move away from the crystal
/2

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df

Beam Spread

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
Edge,K=1.22
20dB,K=1.08
6dB,K=0.56
Beam axis
or Main Beam

Beam Spread
What is the beam spread of a 10mm,5MHz
compression wave probe in steel?

KV
Sine
2
Df
1.08 5920

5000 10
o
0.1278
7.35

Which of the above probes has the Largest Beam


Spread ?
1 M Hz
1 M Hz

5 M Hz

5 M Hz

Beam Spread

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
The bigger the diameter the smaller the
beam spread
The higher the frequency the smaller
the beam spread
Which has the larger beam spread, a compression
or a shear wave probe?

Ultrasonic Pulse
A short pulse of electricity is applied to a
piezo-electric crystal
The crystal begins to vibration
increases to maximum amplitude and
then decays
Maximum
10% of
Maximum

Pulse length

Pulse Length

Natural Pulse, No Damping,


Long "Ring Time"

Pulse Length
The longer the pulse, the more
penetrating the sound
The shorter the pulse the better the
sensitivity and resolution

Short pulse, 1 or 2 cycles

Long pulse 12 cycles

Pulse Length

Short, Well Damped


Pulse

Long, Well Damped


Pulse

Ideal Pulse Length

5 cycles for weld testing

Resolution
RESOLUTION in Pulse Echo Testing is the ability
to separate echoes from two or more closely
spaced reflectors.
RESOLUTION is strongly affected by Pulse
Length:
Short Pulse Length - GOOD RESOLUTION
Long Pulse Length - POOR RESOLUTION
RESOLUTION is an extremely important property
in WELD TESTING because the ability to
separate ROOT GEOMETRY echoes from ROOT
CRACK or LACK OF ROOT FUSION echoes largely
determines the effectiveness of Pulse Echo UT
in the testing of single sided welds.

Resolution
90%
> 6dB
10%
Good resolution

Resolution
90%
< 6dB
50%

Poor resolution

Sound travelling through a material


Loses intensity
due to

Beam Spread

Attenuation

Sound beam comparable


to a torch beam

Energy losses due to


material

Reduction differs for small


and large reflectors

Made up of
absorption and
scatter

Scatter
The bigger the grain
size the worse the
problem
The higher the
frequency of the
probe the worse the
problem
1 MHz

5 MHz

Beam Spread
The sound beam
spread out and the
intensity decreases

Beam spread and Attenuation


combined
Repeat Back-wall Echoes Beyond The Near
Zone

80%

80%

40%

37%
20%

ZERO ATTENUATION

15%
ATTENUATION 0.02 dB/mm

Sound at an Interface
Sound will be either transmitted across
or reflected back
Reflected

Interface

Transmitted

How much is reflected and


transmitted depends upon the
relative acoustic impedance of
the 2 materials

Acoustic Impedance
Definition
The Resistance to the
passage of sound
within a material
Measured in
kg / m2 x sec

Formula

Z V
= Density , V = Velocity

Steel 46.7 x 106


Water 1.48 x 106
Air 0.0041 x 106
Perspex 3.2 x 106

% Sound Reflected at an
Interface
2

Z1 Z 2

100 % reflected
Z1 Z 2
% Sound Reflected + % Sound Transmitted = 100%
Therefore
% Sound Transmitted = 100% - % Sound Reflected

How much sound is reflected at a steel to water


interface?
Z1 (Steel) = 46.7 x 106
Z2 (Water) =1.48 x 106
2

46.7 1.48

100

%
reflected
46.7 1.48
2

45.22
48.18 100 % reflected

0. 93856 100 88.09% reflected


2

How much sound transmitted?


100 % - the reflected sound
Example : Steel to water
100 % - 88 % ( REFLECTED) = 12 % TRANSMITTED

The BIGGER the Acoustic Impedance Ratio


or Difference between the two materials:
More sound REFLECTED than transmitted.

Air

Steel
Steel

Large Acoustic Impedance


Ratio

Air
Large Acoustic Impedance
Ratio

Aluminum

Steel
Steel

Steel

No Acoustic Impedance
Difference

Small Acoustic Impedance


Difference

Interface Behaviour
Similarly:
At an Steel - Air interface 99.96% of
the incident sound is reflected
At a Steel - Perspex interface 75.99%
of the incident sound is reflected

Sound Intensity

2 signals at 20% and 40% FSH.


What is the difference between them in dBs?

H0
dB 20 Log..10
H1
40
dB 20 Log..10 20 Log..102
20
dB 20 0.3010
dB 6dB

2 signals at 10% and 100% FSH.


What is the difference between them in dBs?

H0
dB 20 Log..10
H1
100
dB 20 Log..10
20 Log..1010
10
dB 20 1
dB 20dB

Amplitude ratios in decibels

2:1=
4:1=
5:1=
10 : 1
100 : 1

6bB
12dB
14dB
= 20dB
= 40dB