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Study of Seerah of

Prophet Muhammad
PBUH as role model for
INDIVIDUAL
D I P LO M AT
E D U C AT O R
M I L I TA RY S T RAT E G I S T
P E AC E M A K E R

Introduction
1. He (PBUH) was not a Preceptor for a specific subject
2. Neither did he categorize any specific group to be his disciples,
Preceptor for all the human groups
3. His teaching comprises for mankind of all ages
4. His universal Prophet hood is described as Allah Almighty says:

And we have not sent you (O Muhammad (PBUH) except


as a giver of glad tidings and Warner to all mankind, but
most of men know not.
Say (O Muhammad (PBUH): O mankind! Verily, I am sent to
you all as the messenger of Allah

Multidimensional Teachings
1. All departments of life were touched by his inspirational
teaching
2. Ethical, matrimonial, socio-political and economic life, his
sayings for military, religion, management and health
3. His Seerah is as relevant to our dilemmas as it is for all the
times
4. He also gave psychological and legal guidance to humanity
5. Along with men he educated women, children and even slaves

Role Model as
Individual
Diplomat
Educator
Military Strategist
Peace Maker

As an Individual
1. Preceptor of Ethics
2. As a Social Preceptor
3. As Trader

As individual
In order to give ethics and purify all ethical ills, his
personality presents a complete, comprehensive and
safe pattern to be followed
He vividly described the purpose of his Prophethood in
these words: That I have been sent to complete good
morals

The basic purpose of his Prophethood was to show a


climax of good morals
As a moral Preceptor he himself was embodiment of lofty
moral values
Hazrat Abuzar Ghaffari (R.A) sent his brother to view his
Seerah and message and his brother told him: I saw Holy
Prophet
(PBUH) gives education of good morals

Individual in Social Life

Important rules of Social Life /


Education
1. Do not be jealous of others
2. Do not provoke each other to mutual opposition
3. Do not feel malice
4. Do not break relations with others
5. Do not make a bargain over someone elses bargain
6. Do not be cruel to one another
7. Do not leave each other helpless
8. Do not insult one another
9. Every Muslims blood, property, honor are unlawful to the other
Even to be virtuous or wicked depends upon the evidence of the neighbors. So, in social
education to consider the rights of relatives and neighbors was regarded a standard of
faith

As an individual in Politics
The Holy Prophet also educated humanity in the field of
politics
In political life he abolished sovereignty of man over
other men and established a system of the sovereignty
of Allah
He commanded:
There is no obedience of creature in the disobedience
to God

Principles of Political Life


1. Sovereignty of Allah
2. Human Rights
3. Equality before law
4. Social Justice
5. Consultancy in governance
6. Khalafat of Man Kind
7. Decision by Shura

Individual in Economic Life


1. Sacredness of lawful Earning
2. Obligations of Charity and Zakat
3. Prohibition of Interest
4. Determined the rights and duties of the employer
and the employed

Almida 03

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and


blood and swineflesh, and that which hath
been dedicated unto any other than Allah,
and the strangled, and the dead through
beating, and the dead through falling from a
height, and that which hath been killed by
(the goring of) horns, and the devoured of
wild beasts, saving that which ye make
lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which
hath been immolated unto idols. And
(forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining
arrows. This is an abomination. This day are
those who disbelieve in despair of (ever
harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear
Me! This day have I perfected your religion
for you and completed My favour unto you,
and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam.
Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to
sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

As a trader
1. Encouraged industrialization and trade
2. The biggest source of mans exploitation is interest and the
biggest evil that destroys mans morals and character is
wine/drinking
3. The income got from interest, wine, and adultery absolutely
unlawful
4. Excellent rules of marketing by prohibiting to make a bargain
over another bargain, to sell goods at the place from where
purchased, and to sell it before gaining its possession
5. He founded trade upon hard work, exchange of beneficial things,
services and mutual willingness instead of cheating or
coincidence

As Military
Strategist

Famous military Strategists


1. Sun Tzu defined 13 principles in his The Art of
War

A Chinese military general, strategist Born: 544-496


BC

2. Napoleons 115 maxims on war


3. General Nathan Bedford Forrest

Sun Tzu principles in his The Art


of War
The art of war is governed by five constant factors,
1.The Moral Law
2.Heaven
3.Earth
4.The Commander
5.Method and discipline

Napolon Bonaparte
1. Napolon Bonaparte had pioneered the "Principles of War
2. The armies of today are based on the organization created
by Napoleon
3. Originally concerned with strategy, grand tactics and
tactics,
4. The principles are largely applied to the strategic decisionmaking, and in some cases, to operational mobility of
forces

Principles of war in the Soviet Union


and Russia from (Soviet AirLand Battle Tactics.)
1.High combat readiness
2.surprise, decisiveness
and active seeking to
secure the initiative
3.full use of all means of
combat
4.coordination and
interaction of all types
and branches
5.decisive concentration

7. full use of morale-political


factor
8. firm and continuous
command and control
9. decisiveness during the
mission
10.security of combat operations
11.timely restoration of troop
combat readiness

General Nathan Bedford Forrest


American Civil War General had only one:
to "[get] there first with the most men

United States principles of war


(US Army Field Manual)

Objective early defined, decisive and attainable objective


Offensive Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative
Mass Mass the effects of overwhelming combat power at the decisive place
and time
Economy of Force Employ all combat power available in the most effective
way possible
Maneuver Place the enemy in a position of disadvantage Unity of Command
For every objective, seek unity of command and unity of effort
Security Never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage.
Surprise Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is
unprepared
Simplicity Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and concise orders

Holy Prophet as Military


Strategist

Strategy in Badar 624 AD


1. The Makkans had 3-1 superiority
-adequate for a breakthrough
2. The Muslims wanted to return to
Medina and fight there, but the holy
Prophet wished to stand and fight at
Badr and his desire prevailed
3. It is the considered view of historians,
both Muslims and others that the
battle of Badr was won by the Muslims
with Allah's blessings and owing to the

Analysis
It was the correct decision from the tactical and
political point of view
He was able to galvanize his small force and motivate
them with his personal courage and conviction to attain
victory
Holy prophet was knowing the train
Holy Prophet gave his followers two tactical
advantages
I. the choice of ground and time of attack; selected hard
ground for his force
II. and forced the Makkans to attack through soft sand with the

What is
important

War of Uhad 625 AD


1. A force of about 3,000 Makkans arrived near Medina to defeat
the Muslims
2. Holy Prophet wished to fight around the city itself but accepted
the advice of the elders to have the battle outside Medina
3. Holy prophet led a force of 1000 Muslims and the battle took
place near the hill of Uhad
4. Losses were heavy on both sides
5. Khalid bin Walid with his cavalry nearly turned the tide for the
Makkans
6. The holy Prophet PBUH successfully exhort his followers to hold
fast compelling the Makkan force to withdraw

War of Trench (khanqaq)/Battle of the


Confederates ( ) 627 AD
Makkans made yet another attempt to defeat and
destroy the Muslims in Medina
attacking force was 10,000 strong, the biggest force
ever seen in Arabia
3,000 Muslims for the defense of Medina, but he had a
large ditch dug around the vulnerable areas of the city
This was a revolutionary idea at the time
These defenses were able to halt the enemy advance,
punish his attempts to cross and eventually forced the
Makkans to withdraw with considerable losses

War of Khaiber
In September 628 the holy Prophet marched to Kheibar, 75 miles
north of Medina
Kheibar was an action against the Jews and consisted of a series
of battles against fortified positions had to be reduced
This was the first occasion when the Muslims came across fixed
defenses.
The holy Prophet PBUH took Wadi al Qura, also inhabited by
Jews
As war with Muslims seemed imminent, the Jews of Khaybar
entered into an alliance with the Jews of Fadak

Fattha E Makkah January 630


The holy Prophet occupied Makkah along with
10,000 followers
It was a peaceful capture of Makkah
Having taken Makkah the supreme triumph of
the career, the circle was complete
Muslims defeated the tribe of Hawazin east of
Makkah at Hunain

Battle of Tebook September 630


September 630 the Holy Prophet led an expedition to the
Byzantine frontier to the north as it was reported that a
large garrison of Byzantine troops had gathered at Tebook
The holy Prophet led an army of 30,000
At Tebook he signed an agreement with the local Christian
and Jewish leaders under which they were afforded
protection and in return they agreed to pay pool tax
This was the pattern followed later in all cases

Reason for war against the


Byzantine Empire/ Tabook
One of Muhammad's ambassadors was killed by
Sharhabeel bin Amr Al-Ghassani (the governor
of Al-Balqa).
This led to the Battle of Mutah
The emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Heraclius
was preparing a force to demolish the growing
Muslim power in the region Ar-Rahq alMakhtum by Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri

Holy Prophet as Military


Strategist
1. Before taking a final decision the holy Prophet always
consulted his companions
2. Occupying strategically locations
3. Disobeying the commander may reverse the result of
war
4. Consolidation after war was important too
5. Pre-emptive strike against emery
6. General immunity after war

As diplomat

Qualities of a diplomat
Ambassador Robert D. Blackwill
Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy

1. Passion for the art and


craft of diplomacy and
international relations
2. Ensure meticulous
attention to detail
3. Be a tough and effective
negotiator
4. Know History

5. Prudently speak your


opinion to power
6. Be loyal and truthful
7. Cultivate policy
flexibility
8. Know political ideology
9. Take advantage of luck
when you encounter it
.

Back Ground of Charter of


Madina
1. In last years in Mecca, a delegation from Medina, consisting of
the representatives of the 12 important clans of Medina, invited
Holy prophet as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as the chief
arbitrator for the entire community
2. There was fighting in Medina mainly involving its pagan and
Jewish i for around a hundred years before 620
3. The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting
claims,
4. it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and
an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one
man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases

Increasing influence of Qureshe-Makkah


1. The delegation pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to
accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him
as one of themselves
2. Charter of Medina, Established Federation" among the eight Medni
tribes and Muslim emigrants
3. And the threat to the life of both the Ansar and the Muslims was such
that they were reported as having to sleep by their weapons all night
4. Two Options
1. Gaining the control of Trade routes of Quresh with Syria
2. Peace treaty with neighbors

Major clauses of the Charter of Madina


622
1. Fidiya/Qasas shall continue
2. The mutual assistance of each other if one signatory were to be
attacked by a third party
3. Freedom to posses religion-The resolution that the Muslims
would profess their religion and the Jews theirs
4. The appointment of Muhammad as the leader of the state
5. No one shall protect the Quraish-e-Makkah
6. If a peace treaty is signed between one party other shall accept
( not in case of religious issues)

Analysis Charter of Madina 1/2


1. Constitution of Medina, to regulate the matters of governance of the
city
2. The extent and nature of inter-community relations
3. A signatories to it included theMuslims, theAnsarand the
variousJewishtribes of Medina
4. To end the bitter intertribal fighting between the rival clans of Banu Aws
and Banu Khazraj
5. To maintain peace and cooperation among all Medinan groups for
fashioning them into a social unity
6. To ensured freedom of religious beliefs and practices for all citizens
7. To assured that representatives of all parties, Muslim or non-Muslim,

Cont 2/2
8. No one should go to war before consulting the Prophet
9. It established the security of women
10.A tax system for supporting the community in times of conflict
11.A judicial system for resolving disputes
12.It declared the role of Medina as a aram (, sacred place"), where
no weapons can be carried and no blood spilled
13.Specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the
different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim
community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other
"Peoples of the Book"

Quotes
1. The constitution reveals Muhammad's great diplomatic
skills,It allows the ideal that he cherished of an Ummah
(community) based clearly on a religious outlook to sink
temporarily into the background and is shaped essentially
by practical considerations (Encyclopedia of Islam )
2. Constitution of Medina is the precious documents, it turned
in prostrating both the Roman and the Persian Empires in
two decades (In the shadow of the sword: The Battle
for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World,
Tom Holland)

Analysis
1. Bernard Lewis one important aspects was the inclusion of the
Jewish tribes in the Ummah because although the Jewish tribes
were "one community with the believers," they also "have their
religion and the Muslims have theirs."
2. The contract was built upon the concept of one community of
diverse tribes living under the sovereignty of one God
3. Muhammad T-U-Q argues that it is the first written charter, He
has published an e-book of the 63 constitutional articles
4. The Charter of Medina also instituted peaceful methods of
dispute resolution among diverse groups living as one people but
without assimilating into one religion, language, or culture

Rights of non-Muslims
The security of God is equal for all groups
Non-Muslim members will have the same political and cultural
rights as Muslims
They will have autonomy and freedom of religion
Non-Muslims will take up arms against the enemy of the Ummah
and share the cost of war
There is to be no betrayal between the two
Non-Muslims will not be obliged to take part in religious wars of
the Muslims

Treaty of Hudabia
628

Treaty of Hudabia-Back ground


1. In March 628 the treaty of Hudaibiya was signed
which showed the holy Prophet as a statesman who
could achieve his objective without resort to arms
2. To realize a dream the holy Prophet wished to
perform Umra and left Medina with about 1600
followers
3. When the Quresh heard of his journey they deployed
200 horsemen to prevent his advance
4. Many attempts of negotiation failed
5. Baiat-e-Rizwan

Treaty of Hudabia
The main points of the treaty
1.There would be peace between the two sides for 10
years
2.The Muslims would not perform Umra that year but
could return the following year and stay in Makkah for
three days
3.Muslims shall come without arm , next year
4.Madni Muslims cant take Makki Muslims with them, if
a Mandi muslim want to stay he shall be allowed
5.If any Makki went to Madina he shall be returned not
the Madni

Significance of the Ummah


1. Redefinition of ties between Muslims
2. It sets relationship of faith above blood-ties and emphasizes
individual responsibility
3. Tribal identities are still important, and are used to refer to
different groups, but the important relation for the newly
created ummah was religion In contrasts with the norms of preIslamic Arabia
4. This is an important event in the development of the small
group of Muslims in Medina to the larger Muslim
community and empire

Aftermath
1. In 629, the Muslims returned as promised in the treaty, for the first
pilgrimage
2. The next year, the clan of the Banu Bakr, allied with the Quraish,
attacked the Bedouin Khuza'a, Muslims allies
3. Muhammed considered the Banu Bakr attack a breach of the treaty,
citing one of the clauses of the treaty: "an attack on an ally of the
party, will be considered an attack on the party itself", and
offered the Quraish three alternatives:
Dissolve their alliance with the Banu Bakr
Compensate by paying money
Dissolve the treaty
4. The Quraish chose the third alternative, Muslims decided to march on

Analysis
1. As the subsequent events show, this treaty proved to be
beneficial for the cause of Islam
2. It ended the atmosphere of constant hostility and the nonbelievers of Makkah started coming to Madinah
3. Having free contacts with the believers, they got the chance
to study closely the Islamic way of life
4. Large number of unbelievers accepted Islam after this treaty
5. This was the turning point for the Muslims and thus proved
the victory later for Muslims

As peace Makers

Pre Prophethood
1. Half Al-fazool
2. Fixing Hijer-e-Aswad
3. Charter of Madina
4. Hudabiya Treaty
5. Kept the treaty of Shaib-e-Abi Talib
6. Did not opted curse for people of Taif

Al-Fudoul Confederacy
1. At the conclusion of herb-e-Fijar /wars peace was restored
2. People felt the need for forming confederacy at Makkah for
suppressing violence and injustice, and vindicating the rights
of the weak and the destitute
3. Representatives of Banu Hashim, Banu Al-Muttalib, Asad bin
Abd Al-Uzza, Zahrah bin Kilab and Taim bin Murra were
called to meet in the habitation of an honourable elderly man
called Abdullah bin Jadaan.

The Messenger of All [pbuh] witnessed this league and


commented
"I witnessed a confederacy in the house of Abdullah bin Jadaan.
It was more appealing to me than herds of cattle. Even now in
the period of Islam I would respond positively to attending such
a meeting if I were invited." [Ibn Hisham 1/113,135]
In fact, the spirit of this confederacy and the course of
deliberations therein marked a complete departure from the preIslamic tribal- pride. The story that led to its

As an Educator

1. Opted to teach the people around him


2. Addressing the gathering