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Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Eric G. Paterson
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005
Note to Instructors
These slides were developed1 during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid for the
undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two sections, one taught
by myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave common homework and
exams, we independently developed lecture notes. This was also the first semester that
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was used at PSU. My section had 93
students and was held in a classroom with a computer, projector, and blackboard. While
slides have been developed for each chapter of Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and
Applications, I used a combination of blackboard and electronic presentation. In the student
evaluations of my course, there were both positive and negative comments on the use of
electronic presentation. Therefore, these slides should only be integrated into your lectures
with careful consideration of your teaching style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson
Penn State, University Park
August 2005

1
These slides were originally prepared using the LaTeX typesetting system (http://www.tug.org/)
and the beamer class (http://latex-beamer.sourceforge.net/), but were translated to PowerPoint for
wider dissemination by McGraw-Hill.

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Pressure

Pressure is defined as a normal force


exerted by a fluid per unit area.
Units of pressure are N/m 2, which is called
a pascal (Pa).
Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures
encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa
= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106
Pa) are commonly used.
Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,
lbf/in2=psi.
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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Actual pressure at a give point is called


the absolute pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices are
calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,
and therefore indicate gage pressure,
Pgage=Pabs - Patm.
Pressure below atmospheric pressure are
called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

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Pressure at a Point

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same


in all directions.
Pressure has a magnitude, but not a
specific direction, and thus it is a scalar
quantity.

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Variation of Pressure with Depth

In the presence of a gravitational


field, pressure increases with
depth because more fluid rests
on deeper layers.
To obtain a relation for the
variation of pressure with depth,
consider rectangular element
Force balance in z-direction gives
F z maz 0
P2 x P1x g xz 0
Dividing by x and rearranging
gives
P P2 P1 g z s z
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Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure in a fluid at rest is independent of the


shape of the container.
Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal
plane in a given fluid.

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Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

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Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Pressure on diver at
1
100 ft?
kg m 1m
2
Pgage ,2 gz 998 3 9.81 100 ft
m s 3.28 ft
1atm
298.5kPa 2.95atm
100 ft 101.325 kPa
Pabs ,2 Pgage ,2 Patm 2.95atm 1atm 3.95atm

Danger of emergency
2 ascent?
1 1 PV
PV 2 2 Boyles law
V1 P2 3.95atm
If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung 4
V2 P1 1atm
volume would increase by a factor of 4, which
would result in embolism and/or death.

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Pascals Law
Pressure applied to a
confined fluid increases
the pressure throughout
by the same amount.
In picture, pistons are at
same height:

F1 F2 F2 A2
P1 P2
A1 A2 F1 A1
Ratio A2/A1 is called ideal
mechanical advantage

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The Manometer
An elevation change of
z in a fluid at rest
corresponds to P/g.
A device based on this is
called a manometer.
A manometer consists of
a U-tube containing one
or more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol,
or oil.
Heavy fluids such as
mercury are used if large
P1 P2 pressure differences are
anticipated.
P2 Patm gh

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Mutlifluid Manometer

For multi-fluid systems


Pressure change across a fluid
column of height h is P = gh.
Pressure increases downward, and
decreases upward.
Two points at the same elevation in a
continuous fluid are at the same
pressure.
Pressure can be determined by
adding and subtracting gh terms.

P2 1 gh1 2 gh2 3 gh3 P1


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Measuring Pressure Drops

Manometers are well--


suited to measure
pressure drops across
valves, pipes, heat
exchangers, etc.
Relation for pressure
drop P1-P2 is obtained by
starting at point 1 and
adding or subtracting gh
terms until we reach point
2.
If fluid in pipe is a gas,
2>>1 and P1-P2= gh

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The Barometer
Atmospheric pressure is
measured by a device called a
barometer; thus, atmospheric
pressure is often referred to as
the barometric pressure.
PC can be taken to be zero
since there is only Hg vapor
above point C, and it is very
low relative to Patm.
Change in atmospheric
pressure due to elevation has
many effects: Cooking, nose
bleeds, engine performance,
aircraft performance.
PC gh Patm
Patm gh
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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics deals with problems associated with


fluids at rest.
In fluid statics, there is no relative motion between
adjacent fluid layers.
Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid
trying to deform it.
The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress
Normal stress is due to pressure
Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the
fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of
gravity fields.
Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,
water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.
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Hoover Dam

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Hoover Dam

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Hoover Dam

Example of elevation
head z converted to
velocity head V2/2g.
We'll discuss this in
more detail in Chapter
5 (Bernoulli equation).

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Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

On a plane surface, the


hydrostatic forces form a
system of parallel forces
For many applications,
magnitude and location of
application, which is
called center of
pressure, must be
determined.
Atmospheric pressure
Patm can be neglected
when it acts on both sides
of the surface.

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Resultant Force

The magnitude of FR acting on a plane surface of a


completely submerged plate in a homogenous fluid
is equal to the product of the pressure PC at the
centroid of the surface and the area A of the
surface
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Center of Pressure
Line of action of resultant force
FR=PCA does not pass through
the centroid of the surface. In
general, it lies underneath
where the pressure is higher.
Vertical location of Center of
Pressure is determined by
equation the moment of the
resultant force to the moment
of the distributed pressure
force. I xx ,C
y p yC
yc A
$Ixx,C is tabulated for simple
geometries.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

FR on a curved surface is more involved since it


requires integration of the pressure forces that
change direction along the surface.
Easiest approach: determine horizontal and
vertical components FH and FV separately.
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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

Horizontal force component on curved surface:


FH=Fx. Line of action on vertical plane gives y
coordinate of center of pressure on curved
surface.
Vertical force component on curved surface:
FV=Fy+W, where W is the weight of the liquid in
the enclosed block W=gV. x coordinate of the
center of pressure is a combination of line of
action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and
line of action through volume (centroid of volume).
Magnitude of force FR=(FH2+FV2)1/2
Angle of force is = tan-1(FV/FH)

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Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy is due to the fluid displaced by a


body. FB=fgV.
Archimedes principal : The buoyant
force acting on a body immersed in a fluid
is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by the body, and it acts upward through
the centroid of the displaced volume.

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Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy force FB is equal


only to the displaced
volume fgVdisplaced.
Three scenarios possible
body<fluid: Floating body
body=fluid: Neutrally buoyant
body>fluid: Sinking body

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Example: Galilean Thermometer

Galileo's thermometer is made of a sealed


glass cylinder containing a clear liquid.
Suspended in the liquid are a number of
weights, which are sealed glass containers with
colored liquid for an attractive effect.
As the liquid changes temperature it changes
density and the suspended weights rise and fall
to stay at the position where their density is
equal to that of the surrounding liquid.
If the weights differ by a very small amount and
ordered such that the least dense is at the top
and most dense at the bottom they can form a
temperature scale.

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Example: Floating Drydock

Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock Resolute Submarine undergoing repair work on


(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

Using buoyancy, a submarine with a displacement of 6,000 tons can be lifted!

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Submarines use both static and dynamic depth


control. Static control uses ballast tanks
between the pressure hull and the outer hull.
Dynamic control uses the bow and stern planes
to generate trim forces.

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Normal surface trim SSN 711 nose down after accident


which damaged fore ballast tanks

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Damage to SSN 711


(USS San Francisco)
after running aground on
8 January 2005.

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Ballast Control Panel: Important station for controlling depth of submarine

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Stability of Immersed Bodies

Rotational stability of immersed bodies depends upon


relative location of center of gravity G and center of
buoyancy B.
G below B: stable
G above B: unstable
G coincides with B: neutrally stable.

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Stability of Floating Bodies

If body is bottom heavy


(G lower than B), it is
always stable.
Floating bodies can be
stable when G is higher
than B due to shift in
location of center
buoyancy and creation of
restoring moment.
Measure of stability is the
metacentric height GM. If
GM>1, ship is stable.

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Rigid-Body Motion
There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-
body motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical
container.

In these cases, no shear is developed.


Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of
motion for a fluid that acts as
r
a rigid body
r
P gk a
P P P
ax , ay , g ax
In Cartesian coordinates: x y z

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Linear Acceleration
Container is moving on a straight path
ax 0, a y az 0
P P P
ax , 0, g
x y z
Total differential of P

dP ax dx gdz
Pressure difference between 2 points

P2 P1 ax x2 x1 g z2 z1
Find the rise by selecting 2 points on
free surface P2 = P1
ax
zs zs 2 zs1 x2 x1
g
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Rotation in a Cylindrical Container
Container is rotating about the z-axis
ar r 2 , a az 0
P P P
r 2 , 0, g
r z
Total differential of P

dP r 2 dr gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0

dzisobar r 2 2 2
zisobar r C1
dr g 2g
Equation of the free surface
2 2
zs h0
4g
R 2r 2

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Examples of Archimedes Principle
The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of
Syracuse
Archimedes, 287-212 B.C.
Hiero, 306-215 B.C.
Hiero learned of a rumor where
the goldsmith replaced some of
the gold in his crown with silver.
Hiero asked Archimedes to
determine whether the crown was
pure gold.
Archimedes had to develop a
nondestructive testing method

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The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of
Syracuse
The weight of the crown and
nugget are the same in air: Wc =
cVc = Wn = nVn.
If the crown is pure gold, c=n
which means that the volumes
must be the same, Vc=Vn.
In water, the buoyancy force is
B=H2OV.
If the scale becomes unbalanced,
this implies that the Vc Vn, which
in turn means that the c n
Goldsmith was shown to be a
fraud!

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Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing
What is the best way to
measure body fat?
Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing
using Archimedes Principle!
Process
Measure body weight
W=bodyV
Get in tank, expel all air, and
measure apparent weight Wa
Buoyancy force B = W-Wa =
H2OV. This permits
computation of body volume.
Body density can be
computed body=W/V.
Body fat can be computed
from formulas.

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Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing in Air?

Same methodology as
Hydrostatic testing in water.
What are the ramifications of
using air?
Density of air is 1/1000th of
water.
Temperature dependence of
air.
Measurement of small
volumes.
Used by NCAA Wrestling (there
is a BodPod on PSU campus).

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