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Eric G. Paterson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Note to Instructors

These slides were developed1 during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid for the

undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of Mechanical

and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two sections, one taught

by myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave common homework and

exams, we independently developed lecture notes. This was also the first semester that

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was used at PSU. My section had 93

students and was held in a classroom with a computer, projector, and blackboard. While

slides have been developed for each chapter of Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and

Applications, I used a combination of blackboard and electronic presentation. In the student

evaluations of my course, there were both positive and negative comments on the use of

electronic presentation. Therefore, these slides should only be integrated into your lectures

with careful consideration of your teaching style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson

Penn State, University Park

August 2005

1

These slides were originally prepared using the LaTeX typesetting system (http://www.tug.org/)

and the beamer class (http://latex-beamer.sourceforge.net/), but were translated to PowerPoint for

wider dissemination by McGraw-Hill.

Pressure

exerted by a fluid per unit area.

Units of pressure are N/m 2, which is called

a pascal (Pa).

Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures

encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa

= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106

Pa) are commonly used.

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,

lbf/in2=psi.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 3 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

the absolute pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices are

calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,

and therefore indicate gage pressure,

Pgage=Pabs - Patm.

Pressure below atmospheric pressure are

called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Pressure at a Point

in all directions.

Pressure has a magnitude, but not a

specific direction, and thus it is a scalar

quantity.

Variation of Pressure with Depth

field, pressure increases with

depth because more fluid rests

on deeper layers.

To obtain a relation for the

variation of pressure with depth,

consider rectangular element

Force balance in z-direction gives

F z maz 0

P2 x P1x g xz 0

Dividing by x and rearranging

gives

P P2 P1 g z s z

ME33 : Fluid Flow 7 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Variation of Pressure with Depth

shape of the container.

Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal

plane in a given fluid.

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Pressure on diver at

1

100 ft?

kg m 1m

2

Pgage ,2 gz 998 3 9.81 100 ft

m s 3.28 ft

1atm

298.5kPa 2.95atm

100 ft 101.325 kPa

Pabs ,2 Pgage ,2 Patm 2.95atm 1atm 3.95atm

Danger of emergency

2 ascent?

1 1 PV

PV 2 2 Boyles law

V1 P2 3.95atm

If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung 4

V2 P1 1atm

volume would increase by a factor of 4, which

would result in embolism and/or death.

Pascals Law

Pressure applied to a

confined fluid increases

the pressure throughout

by the same amount.

In picture, pistons are at

same height:

F1 F2 F2 A2

P1 P2

A1 A2 F1 A1

Ratio A2/A1 is called ideal

mechanical advantage

The Manometer

An elevation change of

z in a fluid at rest

corresponds to P/g.

A device based on this is

called a manometer.

A manometer consists of

a U-tube containing one

or more fluids such as

mercury, water, alcohol,

or oil.

Heavy fluids such as

mercury are used if large

P1 P2 pressure differences are

anticipated.

P2 Patm gh

Mutlifluid Manometer

Pressure change across a fluid

column of height h is P = gh.

Pressure increases downward, and

decreases upward.

Two points at the same elevation in a

continuous fluid are at the same

pressure.

Pressure can be determined by

adding and subtracting gh terms.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 13 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Measuring Pressure Drops

suited to measure

pressure drops across

valves, pipes, heat

exchangers, etc.

Relation for pressure

drop P1-P2 is obtained by

starting at point 1 and

adding or subtracting gh

terms until we reach point

2.

If fluid in pipe is a gas,

2>>1 and P1-P2= gh

The Barometer

Atmospheric pressure is

measured by a device called a

barometer; thus, atmospheric

pressure is often referred to as

the barometric pressure.

PC can be taken to be zero

since there is only Hg vapor

above point C, and it is very

low relative to Patm.

Change in atmospheric

pressure due to elevation has

many effects: Cooking, nose

bleeds, engine performance,

aircraft performance.

PC gh Patm

Patm gh

ME33 : Fluid Flow 15 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics

fluids at rest.

In fluid statics, there is no relative motion between

adjacent fluid layers.

Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid

trying to deform it.

The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress

Normal stress is due to pressure

Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the

fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of

gravity fields.

Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,

water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 16 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hoover Dam

Hoover Dam

Hoover Dam

Example of elevation

head z converted to

velocity head V2/2g.

We'll discuss this in

more detail in Chapter

5 (Bernoulli equation).

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

hydrostatic forces form a

system of parallel forces

For many applications,

magnitude and location of

application, which is

called center of

pressure, must be

determined.

Atmospheric pressure

Patm can be neglected

when it acts on both sides

of the surface.

Resultant Force

completely submerged plate in a homogenous fluid

is equal to the product of the pressure PC at the

centroid of the surface and the area A of the

surface

ME33 : Fluid Flow 21 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Center of Pressure

Line of action of resultant force

FR=PCA does not pass through

the centroid of the surface. In

general, it lies underneath

where the pressure is higher.

Vertical location of Center of

Pressure is determined by

equation the moment of the

resultant force to the moment

of the distributed pressure

force. I xx ,C

y p yC

yc A

$Ixx,C is tabulated for simple

geometries.

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

requires integration of the pressure forces that

change direction along the surface.

Easiest approach: determine horizontal and

vertical components FH and FV separately.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 23 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

FH=Fx. Line of action on vertical plane gives y

coordinate of center of pressure on curved

surface.

Vertical force component on curved surface:

FV=Fy+W, where W is the weight of the liquid in

the enclosed block W=gV. x coordinate of the

center of pressure is a combination of line of

action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and

line of action through volume (centroid of volume).

Magnitude of force FR=(FH2+FV2)1/2

Angle of force is = tan-1(FV/FH)

Buoyancy and Stability

body. FB=fgV.

Archimedes principal : The buoyant

force acting on a body immersed in a fluid

is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced

by the body, and it acts upward through

the centroid of the displaced volume.

Buoyancy and Stability

only to the displaced

volume fgVdisplaced.

Three scenarios possible

body<fluid: Floating body

body=fluid: Neutrally buoyant

body>fluid: Sinking body

Example: Galilean Thermometer

glass cylinder containing a clear liquid.

Suspended in the liquid are a number of

weights, which are sealed glass containers with

colored liquid for an attractive effect.

As the liquid changes temperature it changes

density and the suspended weights rise and fall

to stay at the position where their density is

equal to that of the surrounding liquid.

If the weights differ by a very small amount and

ordered such that the least dense is at the top

and most dense at the bottom they can form a

temperature scale.

Example: Floating Drydock

(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

control. Static control uses ballast tanks

between the pressure hull and the outer hull.

Dynamic control uses the bow and stern planes

to generate trim forces.

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

which damaged fore ballast tanks

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

(USS San Francisco)

after running aground on

8 January 2005.

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Stability of Immersed Bodies

relative location of center of gravity G and center of

buoyancy B.

G below B: stable

G above B: unstable

G coincides with B: neutrally stable.

Stability of Floating Bodies

(G lower than B), it is

always stable.

Floating bodies can be

stable when G is higher

than B due to shift in

location of center

buoyancy and creation of

restoring moment.

Measure of stability is the

metacentric height GM. If

GM>1, ship is stable.

Rigid-Body Motion

There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-

body motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical

container.

Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of

motion for a fluid that acts as

r

a rigid body

r

P gk a

P P P

ax , ay , g ax

In Cartesian coordinates: x y z

Linear Acceleration

Container is moving on a straight path

ax 0, a y az 0

P P P

ax , 0, g

x y z

Total differential of P

dP ax dx gdz

Pressure difference between 2 points

P2 P1 ax x2 x1 g z2 z1

Find the rise by selecting 2 points on

free surface P2 = P1

ax

zs zs 2 zs1 x2 x1

g

ME33 : Fluid Flow 36 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

Container is rotating about the z-axis

ar r 2 , a az 0

P P P

r 2 , 0, g

r z

Total differential of P

dP r 2 dr gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0

dzisobar r 2 2 2

zisobar r C1

dr g 2g

Equation of the free surface

2 2

zs h0

4g

R 2r 2

Examples of Archimedes Principle

The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of

Syracuse

Archimedes, 287-212 B.C.

Hiero, 306-215 B.C.

Hiero learned of a rumor where

the goldsmith replaced some of

the gold in his crown with silver.

Hiero asked Archimedes to

determine whether the crown was

pure gold.

Archimedes had to develop a

nondestructive testing method

The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of

Syracuse

The weight of the crown and

nugget are the same in air: Wc =

cVc = Wn = nVn.

If the crown is pure gold, c=n

which means that the volumes

must be the same, Vc=Vn.

In water, the buoyancy force is

B=H2OV.

If the scale becomes unbalanced,

this implies that the Vc Vn, which

in turn means that the c n

Goldsmith was shown to be a

fraud!

Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing

What is the best way to

measure body fat?

Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing

using Archimedes Principle!

Process

Measure body weight

W=bodyV

Get in tank, expel all air, and

measure apparent weight Wa

Buoyancy force B = W-Wa =

H2OV. This permits

computation of body volume.

Body density can be

computed body=W/V.

Body fat can be computed

from formulas.

Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing in Air?

Same methodology as

Hydrostatic testing in water.

What are the ramifications of

using air?

Density of air is 1/1000th of

water.

Temperature dependence of

air.

Measurement of small

volumes.

Used by NCAA Wrestling (there

is a BodPod on PSU campus).

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