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British Conquest of India

Q. What methods were adopted for this


conquest?
1. TrendWar Treaty (Break)
Wars Break Weakening of the EnemyWa
r
Reinforcing the Army for 2nd Phase

2.
Treaties
Policies Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of
Lapse
British Conquest of India
Q. What methods were adopted for this
conquest?
2. Policies
Treaties
ubsidiary Alliance

Doctrine of Lapse
Subsidiary Alliance
Q. What is it?
This treaty was signed by the British with almost every
native state of India
A device for establishing Indirect Control & British
hegemony on Indian states
Governor General Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) gave final
shape to it.
Q. Why it was introduced?
In context of the eminent dangers from France because of
Napoleonic wars & increasing hostility of Indian states
towards EIC
Under this system a treaty was signed between the native
states & EIC.
Subsidiary Alliance
Q. What is it?
According to this treaty, EIC would assume responsibility
of native states from Internal & External Dangers
The native states also agreed to give up their claim on:
Defenc External (Diploma
e Affairs cy)
Subsidiary Alliance
Native states agreed to:
1.Surrender their foreign affairs & all claims on other
Indian powers.
They had to accept the intermediation of East India Co.
2. All foreigners are to be
removed
From the services of the
3. A contingent of British
state
troops is to
be stationed in the capital of
the
native states
This troops @be
will theunder
cost of
native
command
state
of thethemselves
EIC
Native troops were
disbanded
Subsidiary Alliance
What is it?
Q. How to meet up the expenses?

To meet this cost of maintaining


troops,
native states were to surrender
a territory yielding an Income
equal iftothe states dont have money
Q. What
theto
cost
pay?borne by the troops
Smaller states were given an option
Cash/Kind
4. A British resident is to be appointed in the native
states court, who
was not to interfere in the internal matters of the native
states
Subsidiary Alliance
Q. How did the company benefitted from the
Subsidiary Alliance?
EIC was relived from the possible threat of the French as
the Indian
states which accepted the Subsidiary Alliance would not
at least employ
Losing
Europeanof Sovereignty
or enemy ofof Indian
the States. Not allowed to
Company
establish
Diplomatic ties
Expansion of company's military empire Army Stations
set up in every
Corner of the country that too at the cost of host princely
state
Q. How did this treaty was proposed stages of
development
Subsidiary Alliance
Stages of Development
Stage 1 EIC lends troop to the friendly Indian State

Stage 2 EIC +friendly Indian State will fight for a


common
In return thecause
native state will provide them with money

Stage 3 EIC asks no to supply of manpower from native


Now, only money is given to EIC. The soldiers of the EIC
states
will fight
Stage 4 On the pretext of defending Indian ally
Stationing of
Subsidiary
No force
money required. Land/Territory should be given for
maintenance of
troops.
Subsidiary Alliance
Stages of Development
Nawab of Awadh (1765) became the subsidiary ally in
initial form
Later on others followed
Mysore (1799) Wadeyar King
Awadh (1801)
Peshwa (1801) 2nd Anglo-Maratha War

Bhonsle, Scindia, Jodhpur, Jaipur etc.


Doctrine of Lapse
Tradition of Adoption Very Ancient
Adopted Son Inherited all rights/properties from his
patron Father
1825, EIC Every Ruler under
Hindu
laws, is free to nominate his
Successor
real or adopted son
1831 They government may accept or reject, according
to the
Situation, the application of Indian rulers to nominate his
adopted son
as his heir
Doctrine of Lapse
1848, Lord Dalhousie becomes the governor general
Started annexing the states which were dependant on the
British in
the absence of real heir the state would be merged into
British India
Application
Satara (1848)
Jaitpur & Sambhapur (1849)
Bhagat (1850)
Udaipur (1852)
Jhansi (1854)
Nagpur (1854)
Doctrine of Lapse
1848, Lord Dalhousie becomes the governor general
Started annexing the states which were dependant on the
British in
the absence of real heir the state would be merged into
British India
Application
Satara (1848)
Jaitpur & Sambhapur (1849)
Bhagat (1850)
Udaipur (1852)
Jhansi (1854)
Nagpur (1854)
Question UPSC Pre 2004
Q. Consider the following princely states of the British
rule in India
1. Jhansi
2. Sambalpur
3. Satara
The correct chronological order in which they were
annexed by the British is

a. 1,2,3
b. 1,3,2
c. 3,2,1
d. 3,1,2
Question UPSC Pre 2004
Q. Consider the following princely states of the British
rule in India
1. Jhansi1854
2. Sambalpur1849
3. Satara1848
The correct chronological order in which they were
annexed by the British is

a. 1,2,3 Answer:
b. 1,3,2 C

c. 3,2,1
d. 3,1,2
British Conquest of India
British
Conquest

European Indian Princely


Powers States
British Rule in India
British
Conquest

More of Military
Action

Political
Consolidation
Setting of British Rule
through Political
Structure
British Rule in India
Consolidation of
British Rule through
Political Structure
Development of
Administrative
Structure of up to
1858
Colonial Socio-
Cultural Policy & its
Impact
Introduction of
Modern Education in
India
Political Consolidation History
In 1600 AD Crown Charter to East India Company

Battle of Buxar
East India Company Diwani
Rights
Dual Government in Bengal
Political Consolidation History
East India
Company

Court of
Directors

Court of
Proprietors
Regulating Act
1773
Q. Why it was introduced?
ruption amongst the servants of the EIC
EIC making significant loss and officials making profit
The EIC applied for the loan of one million
pounds
ck in 1772
of proper judicial administration

Changes in
England
Raising of Voters Qualifications- Public opinion against the
co. gathered momentum in England
pointment of Parliament Committees

egulating Bill of Lord North


Regulating Act 1773
Changes in
England
Court of Directors was instructed to place all important
documents coming from India before two British cabinet
ministers- Chancellor of Exchequer and Secretary of State
for Political Affairs
Secretary of Chancellor of
State for Political Exchequer
Affairs

Court of
Directors
Regulating Act 1773
Changes in
India
Governor of Bengal Governor General of
Bengal(GGB)
Act/Function with 4 Council members ( Decision by
Majority)
GGB given power to supervise the other two councils in
time of war and peace

Estd. Of Supreme Court@Calcutta

prohibited the servants of the Company from engaging in


any private trade or accepting presents or bribes from the
natives
1st Governor General Lord
of Warren Hastings
Bengal-
Pitts India Act 1784
Why it was introduced?
Failure of Regulating Act
Changes in
England
Creation of Special Board of
Body Control
Made responsible for controlling and regulating affairs of
the EIC of Control
Board President+6
Commissioners
Set up Secret
Committee
Board of + 3 from Court of
Control Directors
Can bypass in times of
Emergency
Pitts India Act 1784
Changes in
India
Council Members decreased to 3
Supervisory Jurisdiction of GGB in council over
Presidencies of Bombay and Madras Clearly Defined
GGB made subordinate to British Government
GGB Cant declare war without permission
Distinguished between the commercial and political
functions of the EIC
EICs territories in India British possessions in India

Nature ofFoundation for Centralisati


Act:
Act of1786
Governor General of Bengal was given overriding powers
to his council
Lord Cornwallis appointed as Governor General

Charter Act of
1793
Government by Written law and Regulation Rule of Law

Recognized the Companys political functions and clearly


established that the "acquisition of sovereignty by the
subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in
its own right."
Charter Act of 1813
Background- 1808 Committee appointed by House
of Commons
Changes in
England
Ideological
Influences
1.Free Traders- Believed against Monopoly
Adam Smith- Wealth of
Nations

2. Utilitarian's- Maximum
Happiness to Maximum no. Of
people
Supported Direct rule by the
British Crown, also supported free
trade
Charter Act of 1813
Background- 1808 Committee appointed by House
of Commons
Changes in
England
3.Liberals Liberalism
British administrations
task was to civilise rather
than conquer

4. Evangelicals- Christian Missionaries


Charter Act of 1813
Changes in
India
1.EIC monopoly
abolished
Except tea
and with china
rade

2.Diluted monopoly extended to 20 years


Charter Act of 1813
Changes in
India
3.British subjects allowed to
come and settle in India

4.Christian Missionaries were


allowed to propagate, profess
Christianity in India

5.A sum of Rs.1 Lakh was


set aside for promotion of
education
Thank You