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CONCRETE

A mixture of water, cement, sand and gravel,


crushed rock, or other aggregates. The
aggregates are held together in a rocklike
mass with a paste of cement and mortar.

A stonelike material obtained by permitting


a carefully proportioned mixture of cement,
sand and gravel or other aggregate and
water to harden in forms of the shape and
dimensions of the desired structure.
Characteristi
cs
formed through chemical reaction of
cement and water
bulk of the material consist of fine and
coarse aggregates
needs addl water for workability

wide range of strengths/properties


through proportions of matls, special
aggregates, admixtures, special curing
methods
used since antiquity

plastic when still wet can fill forms or


molds
Materials:
1. Aggregates
fine aggregates (sand) passes thru No. 4
sieve (about 6mm)
coarse aggregates (gravel or crushed stone)
2. Water
should be clean and free from injurious
amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic
materials or other substances that may be
deleterious to concrete or reinforcement
3. Cement
Cementitious material which has adhesive and
cohesive properties

Water is needed for the chemical reaction


(hydration) in w/c the cement powder sets and
hardens into a solid mass
Portland Cement most common, patented in
England in 1824. composed of calcium and
aluminum silicates.
Pozzolan Cement cement with low heat heat
of hydration
High early strength cement reaches full
Concrete depend mostly on
properties
the proportions of the mix, thoroughness of
mixing, and the conditions of humidity and
temperature while hardening (curing)

Concrete shall be established to


workability and consistency
provideto: be worked
proportions
readily into forms and around reinforcement
under conditions of placement to be employed
resistance to special exposures
without segregation and excessive bleeding
conformance with test requirements
Each combination shall be evaluated for
every change in mixture. Proportions and
water-cement ratio shall be established based
on experience or trial mixtures for materials
to be employed.
Curing is the process of setting and
hardening of the concrete w/c takes place
rapidly w/n 2-4 hours then gradually. During
this process, heat is liberated known as heat
of hydration. For complete hydration water
needs approx. 25% water by weight and an
additional 10-15% for workability. The total
35-40% by weight ratio of water to the
cement is the water-cement ratio (4 - 4.5gal
To ensure good quality concrete, it should be
protected during curing by sprinkling or
ponding with water or by moisture retaining
materials or by special curing sprays. In hot
weather it should be kept moist for at leasts 3
Curing
days. is the process of setting and
hardening of the concrete w/c takes place
rapidly w/n 2-4 hours then gradually. During
this process, heat is liberated known as heat
of hydration. For complete hydration water
needs approx. 25% water by weight and an
additional 10-15% for workability. The total
35-40% by weight ratio of water to the
cement is the water-cement ratio (4 - 4.5gal
Adding more water increases the plasticity
and fluidity (workability) of the mix. However
this decreases the strength because of the
larger volume of voids created by the free
water.
Customary proportions of concrete mix is
either by volume or weight such as 1:2:4,
cement to sand to gravel.
Trial batch method - producing several small
trial batches with varying proportions with a
minimum of conc. Paste.
Admixtures additives that alter the
properties of concrete
Air-entraining agents, plasticizers, super
Special
Concrete:
1. Pozzolan - uses pozzolan cement, low heat
of hydration
2. High Early Strength - fast
setting/hardening concrete
3. Lightweight - 481 kg/cu m (30 lb/cu ft)
using lightweight aggregates and foaming
techniques
4. Heavyweight 4005 kg/cu m (250 lb/cu ft)
or more
5. Reinforced - uses steel for extra strength,
especially tension
6. Prestressed - prestressing concrete with
high strength reinforcement for more efficient