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What is nitrogen?

is one of the building blocks of life:


all living things need nitrogen to live
Nitrogen compounds are present in organic materials, foods,
fertilizers, explosives and poisons.
Nitrogen is crucial to life, but in excess it can also be harmful to the
environment.
EARTH ATMOSPHERE:
Nitrogen 78 %
Oxygen 21 %
History
Uses and economics
Synthetic ammonia
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium phosphates
Urea
Nitric acid
Sodium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
cyanamide
History
Frank-Caro process
(1805) - nitrogen fixation
reaction of calcium
carbide with nitrogen gas
in a reactor vessel at
about 1,000C

Haber-Bosch process (1908)
History N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
an industrial process for producing
ammonia from nitrogen and
hydrogen through which we can
fix reactive nitrogen--has allowed
food production to keep up with
the growing human population, but
at a cost to the environment.
History

Uses and economics


Synthetic ammonia
Ammonium nitrate
Urea
Nitric acid
Sodium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Synthetic ammonia

Refers to ammonia or (azane) that is produced artificially as


distinguished from biosynthetic or natural ammonia.
Haber- Bosch process is a method of directly
synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen,
Haber Bosch
Process
Industrial method
to produce
ammonia from
hydrogen and
nitrogen
Manufacturing Procedure
(Ammonia)
1.Manufacture of reactant gases
2.Purification
3.Compression
4.Catalyticreaction
5.Recovery of Ammonia formed
6.Recirculation/Recycling
1. Manufacture of Reactant
Gases there are two main
reactants for making
ammonia: hydrogen gas
and nitrogen gas
2. Purification of reactant of
gases Hydrogen gas and
Nitrogen gas will be
isolated from the
other gases (CO, CO2,
O2, H2O, and other
impurities)
3. Compression
The purified N2 and
H2 mixture at 200atm
is further compressed
to 300atm mixed
with recycling gas at
the same pressure
(300atm) and passed
through oil filters.
4. Catalytic Reaction
N2 and H2 flows
through the catalyst
bed and a catalytic
reaction takes place
producing NH3
N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
5. Recovery of Ammonia
Formed Mixtures of NH3
and unreacted N2
and H2 is cooled
by cold water and
liquid ammonia
will form and
recover
6. Recirculation/Recycling

The unreacted N2
and H2 at 300 atm
will be mixed with
the purified gas
Lack of ammonia
Kellogg ammonia process- modern type
Operation:
Why is ammonia is so important?
Used in fertilizer
Household cleaning
products
Starting material for
explosives and many
pharmaceutical products
Nitrogen/Ammonia Derivatives
Ammonium
Nitrate

Urea
Nitric Acid
Sodium Nitrate
Potassium
Nitrate
Ammonium Nitrate
Uses:
Very common artificial fertilizer
- high nitrogen content (33%)
- simple, cheap manufacture
Explosives
NH4NO3 2N2 + 4H2O + O2
Manufacture:

Made by reacting nitric acid (made from the oxidation of ammonia) and ammonia
NH3(g) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq)
operation
Urea (carbamide)
Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-
containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-
containing substance in the urine of mammals.
Nitric acid
A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and
organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye
intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals.

4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O


Manufacture:
SODIUM NITRATE
This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile
saltpeter
Uses: Fertilizer, Explosives, heat treating mixes,
tobacco additive.
Production:
- The largest accumulations of naturally occurring sodium
nitrate are found in Chile
- NaOH + HNO3 -> NaNO3 + H2O
POTASSIUM NITRATE
(Saltpeter) is a crystalline salt, KNO3; white to dirty gray
crystalline solid. Water soluble. a strong oxidizer
PRODUCTION:
1. HNO3 + KCl with a Cl2 by-product
2. Crystallizing salt out of NaNO3 + KCl
USES: FERTILIZERS, explosives, ceramics, heat-
treating salts
summary Synthetic Ammonia
Application
fertilizers, plastics, fibers,
explosives
Ammonium Nitrate fertilizers, explosives
Potassium Nitrate fertilizers, explosives, ceramics,
heat-treating salts
Urea fertilizers, protein food supplement
for ruminants, melamine
production, manufacturing of resins,
plastics, adhesives, coatings, textile
anti-shrink agents, and ion-
exchange resins

Nitric Acid ammonium nitrate production,


photoengraving, metal pickling,
passivating, acidulation

Sodium Nitrate fertilizers, fluxes, fireworks,


pickling, heat- treating mixes,
tobacco additive
Air Liquide Phils., Inc., Mother of Perpetual Help
School of Taguig, No. 19 Sambong St. Manggahan,
Taguig, 1630 Metro Manila
Producer of ammonia in philippines

Producer of Ammonia
23rd Floor One Corporate Center, Meralco corner Julia Vargas Ave, Ortigas Center,
Pasig City, Philippines
The liquid nitrogen is also used by the oil industry to build up pressure in wells to force
crude oil upward. In the semi-conductor industry which demand a high volume of ultra
high purity gas. It is used as an inert protective material and other industrial gases
Liquid nitrogen icecream
References:

Shreves Chemical Process Industries by G.T Austin


Industrial Chemistry by Dr. H.K.L. Vaid