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What is WELDING

in engineering, any process in which


two or more pieces of metal are
joined together by the application of
heat, pressure, or a combination of
both.
Master chart of Arc Welding and Related Methods
Common Welding Types
Arc Welding (AW)

Oxyfuel Gas Welding(OFW)

Resistance Welding
Types of Arc Welding

Consumable Electrodes Arc


Welding
Non Consumable electrodes Arc
welding
Types of Consumable
Electrode AW Processes
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW)
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or
MIG)
Types of Non consumable
Electrodes AW Processes
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(GTAW)
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Carbon Arc Welding (CAW)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Sheilded Metal Arc
Welding
It is performed by striking an arc
between a coated-metal electrode
and the base metal.
Flux- the coating of the metal
electrode will form as shield to the
molten metal.
SMAW OPERATION
Arc Welding MAchines
Electrode and Holder
Advantages of SMAW
High quality welds are made rapidly
at a low cost.
Can be used easily even to thick and
wide work piece to be joined.
Can be used from thinner to thicker
materials.
Disadvantages SMAW

Consumes bigger electric current


Dirty work finish
Root pass is lower than TIG and MIG
Prone to slag inclusions
Weld deposits is prone to blue holes
SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
(SAW)
Is a process in which welding is
done by an automatic electrode
feeding machine wherein the tip of
the electrode is submerged into a
granular flux which shields the arc
and the molten metal.
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
SAW Welding Machine
SAW block diagram
SAW APPLICATIONS
widely used in heavy steel plate
fabrication work.
welding of structural shapes.
longitudinal seam of larger diameter pipe.
manufacture of machine components for
all types of heavy industry.
manufacture of vessels.
pressure and storage tanks.
Advantages of SAW
high quality of the weld metal.
extremely high deposition rate and speed.
smooth, uniform finished weld with no spatter.
little or no smoke.
no arc flash, thus minimal need for protective
clothing.
high utilization of electrode wire.
easy automation for high-operator factor.
normally, no involvement of manipulative skills.
Disadvantages of SAW
used only to weld mild and low-alloy
high-strength steels.
Unseen arc and puddle can cause poor
penetration.
high-heat input, slow-cooling cycle can be
a problem when welding quenched and
tempered steels.
limited-position welding process only flat
and horizontal
FLUXED CORED ARC
WELDING
Flux Cored Arc Welding
(FCAW)
is an automatic or semi-automatic
electric arc welding process that
uses an arc between a continuously
fed flux-filled electrode and the weld
pool. The process is used with
shielded gas from a flux contained
within the tubular electrode with or
without additional shielding from an
externally supplied gas.
FCAW flux filled
electrode and torch
NO shielding gas (FCAW)
With Shielding Gas (FCAW)
Two Types of FCAW

no shielding gas
- using flux core in the tubular consumable
electrode
uses a shielding gas
- gas that must be supplied by an external
supply. This is known informally as "dual shield"
welding.
Uses of FCAW
Mild and low alloy steels
Stainless steels
Some high nickel alloys
Some wear facing/surfacing
alloys
Advantages of FCAW
FCAW may be an "all-position" process with the
right filler metals (the consumable electrode)
No shielding gas needed making it suitable for
outdoor welding and/or windy conditions
A high-deposition rate process (speed at which
the filler metal is applied) in the 1G/1F/2F
Some "high-speed" (e.g., automotive
applications)
Less pre cleaning of metal required
Metallurgical benefits from the flux such as the
weld metal being protected initially from
external factors until the flux is chipped away
Disadvantages of FCAW

Melted Contact Tip happens when the electrode actually


contacts the base metal, thereby fusing the two metals.
Irregular wire feed typically a mechanical problem
Porosity the gases (specifically those from the flux-core)
dont escape the welded area before the metal hardens,
leaving holes in the welded metal
More costly filler material/wire as compared to GMAW
Less suitable for applications that require painting, such as
automotive body works.
Cannot be used in a rugged environment limited to shop
use only.
FCAW Equipment set up
METALINERT GAS
WELDING
GMAW or MIG
is an electric arc welding process which joins
metals by heating them with an arc established
between a continuous filler metal (consumable)
electrode and the work.

Shielding of the arc and molten weld pool is


obtained entirely from an externally supplied
gas or gas mixture both inert and reactive
gases.
GMAW Welding Operations
MIG Machine with Spool
feeder
GUN used in GMAW
MIG Torch
GMAW Weld Diagram
Advantages of GMAW
Produced High quality welds & much faster than with
SMAW and TIG welding.

No flux is used no slag entrapment in the weld metal.

Very little loss of alloying elements as the metal


transfers across the arc.

Minor weld spatter is produced, and it is easily removed.


Advantages of GMAW

Versatile and can be used with a wide variety of metals


and alloys, such as Aluminum, Copper, Magnesium,
Nickel, Iron and many of their alloys.
The process can be operated in several ways, including
semi- and fully automatic.

MIG welding is widely used by many industries for


welding a broad variety of materials, parts, and structures.
Disadvantages of GMAW

IT cannot be used in the vertical or overhead welding


positions due to the high heat input and the fluidity of
the weld puddle.

Has complex equipment compared to equipment used


for the shielded metal-arc welding process.
NON
CONSUMABLE
ELECTRODES
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an AW


process that
uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and
an inert gas for arc shielding. The term TIG
welding (tungsten inert gas welding) is often
applied to this process (in Europe, WIG
welding is the termthe chemical symbol for
tungsten is W, for Wolfram).
Temperature and shelding
gases
Tungsten is a good electrode
material due to its high melting
point of 3410C (6170F).
Typical shielding gases include
argon, helium, or a mixture of these
gas elements.
APPLICATION

GTAWisapplicable tonearly allmetals


in a wide range of stock thicknesses.
It can also be used for joining
various combinations of dissimilar
metals.
Its most common applications are
for aluminum and stainless steel.
LIMITATIONS

Cast irons, wrought irons, and of


course tungsten aredifficult to weld
by GTAW.
In steel welding applications, GTAW
is generally slower and more costly
than the consumable electrode AW
processes, except when thin
sections are involved and very-high-
quality welds are require.
ADVANTAGES

Advantages of GTAW in the


applications to which it is suited
include high-quality welds, no weld
spatter because no filler metal is
transferred across the arc, and little
or no post weld cleaning because no
flux is used.
PLASMA ARC
WELDING
Plasma Arc Welding

Plasma arc welding (PAW) is a special


form of gas (TAW) in which a constricted
plasma arc is directed at the weld area.
In PAW, a tungsten electrode is
contained in a specially designed nozzle
that focuses a high-velocity stream of
inert gas (e.g., argon or argonhydrogen
mixtures) into the region of the arc to
form a highvelocity,intensely hot plasma
arc stream
TEMPERATURES

Temperatures in plasma arc welding


reach 17,000C (30,000F) or greater,
hot enough to melt any known
metal.
The reason why temperatures are so
high in PAW (significantly) higher
than those in GTAW) derives from
the constriction of the arc.
ADVANTAGES

its advantages in these applications


include good arc stability,better
penetration control than most other
AW processes, high travel speeds,
and excellent weld quality.
The process can be used to weld
almost any metal, including
tungsten.
LIMITATIONS

Difficult-to-weld metals with


PAWinclude bronze, cast irons, lead,
and magnesium.
Other limitations include high
equipment cost and larger torch size
than other AW operations,which
tends to restrict access in some joint
configurations.
Carbon arc welding
Carbon arc welding (CAW) is an arc-
welding process in which a non
consumable carbon (graphite)
electrode is used.
It has historical importance because
it was the first arc-welding process
to be developed, but its commercial
importance today is practically nil.
APPLICATIONS
The carbon arc process is used as a
heat source for brazing and for
repairing iron castings.
It can also be used in some
applications for depositing wear-
resistant materials on surfaces.
Graphite electrodes for welding have
been largely superseded by
tungsten(in GTAW and PAW).
GAS WELDING
AND ITS TYPES
Oxygen Fuel Gas Welding
(OFW)

is a group of welding processes


which join metals by heating with
a fuel gas flame or flares with or
without the application of
pressure and with or without the
use of filler metal.
Types of Oxy-fuel Gas Welding
Oxy-Acetylene or Oxygen- Acetylene Gas
Welding
Oxy-Hydrogen or Oxygen- Hydrogen Gas
Welding
Methylacetone-Propadiene Gas Welding
Pressure Gas Welding.
Advantages of Oxy-fuel
Gas Welding
Easy to use both welding and cutting

Controlled heat input

Controlled bead size

Convenient to use in welding thin sheets, tubes


and small diameter pipes
Disadvantages of Oxy-Fuel
Gas Weldinmoo

Cannot be use to weld on thick work


piece.

Expensive gas
Oxy-Acetylene Diagram
Welding Equipment
Complete Oxy-Acetylene
Welding Equipment
Resistance Welding
is a process in which the fusing temperature is generated
at the joint by the resistance to the flow of an electrical
current.

is accomplished by clamping two or more sheets of


metal between copper electrodes and then passing an
electrical current through them. When the metals are
heated to a melting temperature, forging pressure is
applied through either a manual or automatic means to
weld the pieces together.
Two common types are Spot and Seam welding
2 Types of Resistance
Welding

SPOT WELDING

SEAM WELDING
SPOT WELDING

The metal to be joined is


placed between two
electrodes and pressure
is applied.

A charge of electricity is
sent from one electrode
through the material to
the other electrode.
SEAM Welding

is
like spot welding
except that the
spots overlap each
other, making a
continuous weld
seam.