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Arc

welding
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
ARC COLUMN
CONDITION FOR MAX.UTILISATION OF POWER
METAL INERT GAS WELDING (M.I.G)
TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING (T.I.G)
RESISTANCE WELDING
STUD WELDING
SOLDERING & BRAZING
INTRODUCTION

Welding is the process of joining two


materials with or without application
of heat, pressure or filler material.
ARC WELDING EQUIPMENTS
AC or DC machine
Electrode
Electrode holder
Cables, cable connectors
Cable lug
Chipping hammer
Earthlings clamps
Wire brush
Helmet
Safety goggles
Hand gloves
Aprons, sleeves.
ELECTRODES FOR ARC WELDING

Basically electrodes are classified into

1. consumable electrode
a. Bare electrode
b. Coated electrode

2. Non-consumable electrode
Specification of electrode

% ELONGATION

STRENGTH OF ELECTRODE

CURRENT CONDITIONS

WELDING POSITION

TYPE OF COATING
ARC COLUMN
The arc column is generated between an anode, which is the
positive pole of D.C.power supply and the cathode.

ELECTRICAL THEORY OF ARC COLUMN


Approximately 1Kw-hr of electricity will create 3413 Btu,
i.e.3.6MJ of heat will be liberated.

Three areas of heat are liberated in the arc stream.


Cathode area
Plasma area
Anode area
Of the above anode area is the high heat area.
INITIATION OF ARC
TYPES OF WELDS
METAL INERT GAS WELDING
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Metal inert gas welding or Gas metal-arc
welding is a gas shielded metal-arc welding process,
which uses the high heat of an electric arc between a
continuously fed, consumable electrode wire and the
material to be welded in the presence of an inert gas.
CURRENT RANGE: 100 to 400A
Welding wire : citofil of diameter of 0.9 to 1.6mm
Block Diagram of MIG welding
Working Principle
MIG welding is done in combination of
For welding aluminium/copper, argon or
argon-helium mixtures are used.
For stainless steel, argon-oxygen or helium-
argon gas mixtures are used.
Titanium requires pure argon gas shielding.
Copper-nickel and high-nickel alloys use
argon-helium mixture.
ADVANTAGES OF MIG

No flux required.

High welding speed.

Increased corrosion resistance.

Easily automated welding.

Welds all metals including aluminium and stainless steel.

High economy.

Up to 25-30 mm plates can be welded in single pass.


TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING
WORKING PRINCIPLE
This process uses the intense heat of an electric arc between a non-
consumable tungsten electrode and the material to be welded. The
shielding is obtained from an inert gas such as helium or argon or a
mixture of two.
ELECTRODE: Tungsten
FLUX : Argon or Helium ( Inert gas)
The TIG process lends itself able to the fusion welding of aluminium and
it's alloys, stainless-steel, magnesium alloys, nickel base alloys, copper
base alloys, carbon steels. TIG welding can also be used for the combining
of dissimilar metals, hard facing, and the surfacing of metals. But this
process is not used, as often on plate over 6.4 mm thick, but it is easier
than MIG welding for thin plates and small parts.
In general, an AC power source is best for TIG welding non-ferrous alloys
except deoxidized copper. For ferrous alloys the DC power with straight
polarity is better.
ADVANTAGES OF TIG WELDING
It produces high quality welds in non-ferrous
metals.
Practically no weld cleaning is necessary.
The arc and weld pool are clearly visible to the
welder.
Developed for most reactive materials.
DISADVANTAGES OF TIG WELDING
DISADVANTAGES

The flux needs preplanning of the same on the


joint that is not always possible.
The process is limited to welding in flat
position and on metal more than 4.8 mm thick.
Flux is subject to contamination that may
cause weld porosity.
Coated electrodes serve several purposes

To facilitate the establishment and maintenance of the


arc, coating of potassium compounds is provided.
To protect the molten metal from the oxygen and
nitrogen.
To provide the formation of slag so as to protect the
welding seam from rapid cooling. For this, rutile
coating is provided.
To provide a means of introducing alloying elements
not contained in the core wire.
Shielding gas protection, for this, cellulose coating
will be applied.
MERITS

Because of high heat concentration, considerably


higher welding speeds can be used.
Because of high heat concentration and faster welding
speeds distortion is much less.
Welding is carried out without sparks, smoke, flash
and spatter.
Weld metal deposited possesses uniformity, good
ductility, corrosion resistance and good impact
strength.
SOLDERING
For soldering temperature should be either less than 427oC or
less than melting point of metals to be joined, whichever is
minimum.
Air-acetylene is used as heat source for soldering earlier but

now electrical resistance is used as heating source.


Filler material: Lead + Tin Soft solder
If percentage of tin increases weld ability and joint strength

but cost is high.


Lead + Tin + Silver Hard soldering
By using this joint is much more but cost is very high.

For space and aircraft industries it is used.


BRAZING

For Brazing, temperature should be either


greater than 427oC or less than melting point
of metals to be joined.
FILLER MATERIAL: Copper + zinc

Due to capillary action, molten metal pass

through joint is known as Brazing.


Due to gravity action, molten metal pass

through joint is known as Braze welding.


WELDABILITY
Melting point of material.
Thermal conductivity.
Thermal expansion.
Electrical resistance.
Surface condition.
Reactiveness with Oxygen.
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