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Why threaded fasteners?

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Tensile Load vs. Shear
Load
Tensile Load

Clamping force

Shear Load

Shear Load

Tensile Load

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This must be avoided!
Tensile Load

Shear Load

Shear Load

Tensile Load

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Measuring the tighteming

We measure the
applied torque

We WANT to measure
the clamping force

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Torque T=Fxr F

Ta
2r

F
Ta=2Fr
Tb=Fr
which gives Ta= 2 Tb
Tb

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Relationship between applied Torque
and resulting Clamp Force

Clamp Force

Friction under the


bolt head
10 %
Friction in the threads

40 %
50 %

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Relaxation

Time

The material relaxes and you


risk to loose clamping force!

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Torque
< 30 deg
X Nm Hard Joint
< 30 deg (ISO 5393)

Angle
Snug level

Torque
> 720 deg
Soft Joint
X Nm > 720 deg (ISO 5393)

Angle
Snug level

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Hard and Soft joints
Torque

Over Shoot

Mean Shift
Target
Hard

Soft

Snug Angle
level

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Mean Shift compensation
This difference gives
Torque
Mean Shift and the
need for a quality
control station

Target torque

Hard joint Soft joint

Time or
Angle

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Torque OK
Torque

Torque = OK

Angle

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Torque and Angle OK
Torque Torque = OK

Angle = OK

Angle

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Torque OK, Angle Low
Torque Torque = OK Torque = OK

Angle = Low Angle = OK

Angle

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Torque OK, Angle High
Torque = OK
Torque Angle = OK
Torque = OK Torque = OK
Angle = Low Angle = High

Angle

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Static Torque
Power
Tool Static T (Nm)
Output Torque
Torque Static torque
(Nm) (Nm)
120
92 103 110
94 106 100 Tool output
91 103
92 100 80
94 100 60
92 103 The initial (static)friction is higher
40
92 100 than the dynamic
20
X=92,43 X=102,14
Time
=1,13 =2,27
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The Bolt Marking System
Manufacturer

First figure = 1/100 of min


tensile stress (N/mm2)
100* 8 = 800 N/mm2

Second figure = relation


between tensile stress
and yield 0,8 = 80%

Multiply the two figures to


get the yield stress
800* 0,8 = 640 N/mm2
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Tensile Stress / Yield
Stress
Stress
Tensile stress
100* 8=800 N/mm2
Yield
Yield stress
800*0,8=640 N/mm2 Failure
75%

Angular displacement

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Thread types

M Metric
UNF Unified fine threads
UNC Unified coarse threads

Torque recommendation (short example)


See table page 9 in the catalouge
Bolt grade
Thread 5.8 8.8 10.9 M6 = 6mm
M3 0,77Nm 1,20Nm 1,70Nm
M6 6,10Nm 9,80Nm 14,0Nm
M10 29,0Nm 47,0Nm 65,0Nm

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