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Tsunami!
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What happened & why


2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake

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Second level earthquake
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Magnitude 9.0
(Moment
magnitude scale)

NOAA
Epicenter 150 KM west of Sumatra

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake
Occurred along the subduction
zone where the Indian dives
under the
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http://www.nps.gov/prsf/geology/images/plates.gif
Facts
The earthquake came just three
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days after a magnitude 8.1
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earthquake in an uninhabited region
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west of New Zealand
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Possible connection between these
two earthquakes
Possibility of a seismic chain
reaction across neighboring plates
has also been considered
Facts
Total energy released by a
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magnitude 9.0 earthquake exceeds
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the total Thirdamount
level of energy
consumed Fourthin the level U.S. in one month
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Massive release of energy and
shift in mass insignificantly altered
the Earth's rotation
A tsunami (pronounced soo-
NAA-mee)
Click to edit is Mastera series
text stylesof waves
(called
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generated in a body of water
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by a pulsating or abrupt
disturbance that vertically
displaces the water column.
Tsunami's are also mistakenly
referred to as tidal waves as they
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often resemble
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rising, rather
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when they reach Fifth level shore. However,
as they are not actually related to
tides the term may be misleading,
and its use is discouraged by
scientists.
Tsunamis are
created when:

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styles quickly
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Waves are
formed as the
displaced water
mass, which is
Anthony Liekens 15:30, 28 Dec 2004 (UTC) affected
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Characteristics
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Move at high
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Can travel enormous
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distances
with little Fifthenergy
level loss
Can cause damage thousands of
miles from its origin
May be several hours between
its creation and its impact on
the coast
Warning Systems
Many Click
countries
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around the
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Pacific, including
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Hawaii, have Fifth level


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warning systems
and evacuation
procedures in
the event of a
serious tsunami.
Effects of Tsunamis
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Destruction
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of human life
(100,000+)
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Destruction of property
Spread of disease
Destruction of ecosystems
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http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6770108/
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http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6770108/
What is a Tsunami?
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When mass movement, such as an
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earthquake or landslide, suddenly displaces
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a large amount
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state a disastrous wave called a tsunami can
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form.
Tsunami literally translates from Japanese
to harbor wave but are often call tidal
waves because small, distant-source
tsunamis resemble tidal surges.
Tsunami Sources
Click to (e.g.
Earthquakes edit Master
Sumatra,text styles
2004: >200,000 people
Papa
killed; Second
Newlevel Guinea, 1998: ~3,000 people
killed) Third level
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Volcanic eruptions
Fifth (e.g.
level Krakatoa, 1883: tsunamis
killed 30,000 people; Santorini, 2002).
Mass Movement (e.g. Alaska, 1958: waves up to
518 m high formed in Lituya Bay).

Extraterrestrial Impacts - large impacts have the


potential to create enormous tsunamis.
Tsunami Genesis
Tsunamis areedit
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by events that level
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drastically andlevel
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suddenly shift a large
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volume of water.

From Plummer McGeary Carlson


Tsunami Earthquakes
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Some Second
earthquakes
level
have generated very
large tsunamis
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events arecalled
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tsunami earthquakes.
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Analysis of seismograms from these events
suggest that they are the result of low-
frequency seismic energy.
These earthquakes present a problem for
tsunami warning systems
EARTHQUAKE CLASSIFICATION

MAGNITUDE CLASSIFICATION
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M 8.0 Great Earthquake
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7.0 M <8.0
Third level Major / Large Earthquake
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5.0 M < 7.0 Fifth level Moderate Earthquake
3.0 M < 5.0 Small Earthquake
1.0 M < 3.0 Microearthquake
M < 1.0 Ultra Microearthquake

Hagiwara, 1964
NATURE OF EARTHQUAKES

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1) Foreshocks
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2) Main
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shock
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3) Aftershocks

4) Earthquake Swarm

5) Normal Seismic activity


TYPES OF EARTHQUAKES

1) Tectonic Earthquake

Click2)toVolcanic Earthquake
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Second level Earthquake
3) Collapse
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4) Explosion
Fourth level Earthquake
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CLASSIFICATION DISTANCE
1) Teleseismic Earthquake > 1000 km
2) Regional Earthquake > 500 km
3) Local Earthquake < 500 km
EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE
Richter Magnitude ML (Local Magnitude)
ML = log A - log Ao ( )
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Body-wave Magnitude (mb)
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mb = log (A/T) - f (,h)
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MS = log (A/T)max + 1.66 log + 3.3

Moment Magnitude (Mw) Duration Magnitude (MD)


Mw = 2/3 log Mo - 10.7
MD = - 0.87 + 2.00 log + 0.0035
Mo = A u

Macroseismic Magnitude (Mms)


Mms = 0.5Io + log h + 0.35
Richter Magnitude Scale

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Distance SP Magnitude Amplitude


km sec ML mm
Describing Tsunamis
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Tsunami wave
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height is the height of the
wave at the
Thirdshore.
level
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Tsunami run-up height is the maximum
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height that the wave reaches on land.
Tsunami Locations
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Large subduction
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zones produce the most
tsunamis. The
Third Pacific, rimmed with
level
subduction Fourth
zones, levelhas the most tsunamis.
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Pacific ~ 80%
Atlantic ~ 10%
Elsewhere ~ 10%
Sumatra Tsunami 2004

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A emergency reaction example (thanks to Benz, USGS)