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Archimedes’ Principle

Important:
 Class on Friday will be held in SUB
Ballroom B!
P2 = P1 + rgh

Patm
P1 h
Patm = 101 325 N/m2
h Patm = 101 325 Pa
P2
Patm = 101 kPa
P2 Patm = 14.7 lbs/in2
P2 = P1 + rgh P1 What is h for P2 = 2 Patm?
2Patm = Patm + rgh
h
Patm = rgh hfresh water = 10.3 m
h = Patm / rg P2 hsalt water = 10.0 m
h = (101325)/ (1000)(9.8)
h = 10.3 m = 34 ft
hmercury = 0.76 m
THE BUOYANT
FORCE
Fbuoy
HOW BIG IS THE
Fbuoy
BUOYANT FORCE?

1m

1m
1m
THE CASPER BOX
Fbuoy
= 10,000 N
- no mass
- just holds stuff
1m WATER

How big is the buoyant 1m


1m
force?
WE,W = 10,000 N
THE CASPER BOX
Fbuoy
= 10,000 N
- no mass
- just holds stuff
a
1m STEEL

How big is the buoyant 1m


1m
force?
WE,S = 78,000 N
THE CASPER BOX
Fbuoy
= 10,000 N
- no mass
- just holds stuff
a
1m STYRO-
FOAM

How big is the buoyant 1m


1m
force?
WE,S = 1,000 N
Archimedes’ Principle:
 The buoyant force acting on an object
is equal to the weight of the fluid:
 displaced by the object, or
 that would fill the “Casper Box”
 If an object has greater density than
the fluid it will sink.
 If an object has smaller density than
the fluid it will float.
How can a steel boat float?
Where will they “float?”
Object A: rA = 0.8 g/cc
oil Object B: rB = 0.95 g/cc
r = 0.9 g/cc Object C: rC = 1.1 g/cc
Object D: rD = 1.3 g/cc
fresh water
Object E: rE = 4.0 g/cc
r = 1.0 g/cc

salt water
r = 1.2 g/cc
The bouyant force is greatest on a
ten ton ship if it is floating in:
 A) fresh water

 B) salt water F(buoy)W,b


a=?

 C) mercury a=0
WE,b
 D) all the same
What does change?
THREE BLOCKS
 Which block has the greatest buoyant
force?
Which block experiences the
largest buoyant force?
Archimedes’ Fw,1 Fw,2
Principle
balsa

oak
WE,2

Newton’s WE,1
2nd Law
What should I remember?
 Archimedes’ Principle always applies,
whether an object sinks or floats.
 buoyant force is always equal to weight of
fluid displaced.

 If an object floats, the buoyant force is


also equal to the object’s weight.
(Newton’s 2nd Law with a = 0)
Problem
 A cube of wood 20 cm on each side is
placed in a tub of water and is found to
sink so that only 6 cm of the block is
above the water. What is the density of
the wood?
6 cm

20 cm
6 cm
F(buoy)W,b 20 cm
a=?
a=0 rV
WE,b =mg F(buoy)W,b = WE,b
= rb Vb g rWVCB g = rb Vb g
rWVCB = rb Vb
mW g = rWVCB g
Vb Vb
F(buoy)W,b = W(water in Casper box)
VCB
= rWVCB g
rb = rW
Vb
rb = 700 kg/m3
Hard problem:
You are floating in a boat in your very
own swimming pool (you are rich).
There are six gold bricks sitting on
the floor of the boat (you are rich).
You throw them into the pool. Does
the water level of the pool go up or
down (or stay the same)?