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MP # 231M124

Downhole Hydraulics

Course Outline

Quick Review

– Hydrostatic

– Applied pressure

– Differential pressure

Buoyancy

Hook load and buoyancy factor

Free Point

Changes in tubing length

– Due to temperature

– Due to stress

– Due to ballooning/reverse ballooning

2 Downhole Hydraulics

Quick Review

Force

Pressure Force = Pressure x Area

Area

Hydrostatic pressure:

– The pressure caused by a column of fluid.

Phyd (psi) = Density (ppg) x Length (ft) x 0.052

Applied pressure

– Usually associated with a pump, or pressure from

the formation

Differential pressure

– The difference between pressures acting on

different sides of a body (a pipe, a piston, etc.).

3 Downhole Hydraulics

Example

Calculate the differential pressure acting on the

tubing just above the packer:

3,000 psi

Brine 9 PPG

Applied Pressure

Brine 9 PPG

16 PPG 6,000 ft

CMT

10,000 ft

4 Downhole Hydraulics

Example

PTBG = PHYD (Brine) TBG + PHYD (CMT) + 3000 psi

5 Downhole Hydraulics

Buoyancy

When a body is immersed in a fluid, the

hydrostatic pressure of the fluid applies a force

trying to push the body upwards. This force is

called buoyant force.

F = PHYD x area

6 Downhole Hydraulics

Hook Load

string is in the well. It combines the weight of the

pipe with buoyancy due to fluid hydrostatic

pressure

7 Downhole Hydraulics

Hook Load

ex: Calculate the hook load

5 1/2” 17 #/ft

10 PPG MUD

A x 5.5 A 23.76 in 2

2

4

5000’

Buoyant Force = 2600 psi x 23.76 in2 B.F. = 61776#

Weight in Air = 5000’ x 17#/ft WAIR = 85000#

Hook Load = 85000# - 61776#

Hook Load = 23224#

8 Downhole Hydraulics

Hook Load

ex: 1000’ of casing 30” with 5/8” wall thickness (196#/ft) using a float

shoe are cemented with a slurry 15.8#/gal. and displaced with

sea water 8.5#/gal down to 950 ft. What is the hook load at the

end of the job?

950’

1000’

9 Downhole Hydraulics

Hook Load

O. A x 30 O. A 706.85 in 2

2

4

I. A x ( 28.75) 2 I . A 649.18 in 2

4

I.P = (950’ x 8.5#/gal. x 0.052) + (50’ x 15.8#/gal x 0.052) I.P = 461 psi

HYD FORCE (Inside) = 461 psi x 649.18 in2 HYD FORCE = 299272#

10 Downhole Hydraulics

Open Ended Pipe

Calculate the Hook Load

5 1/2” 17#/ft.

10#/GAL MUD

5000’

11 Downhole Hydraulics

Open Ended Pipe

1"

OD 5

2

ID 4.892"

A

4

OD 2 ID 2

A

4

. 2 4.892 2 A 4.962

55 IN 2

Weight in air = 5000’ x 17#/ft Weight in Air = 85000#

Hook Load = 85000# - 12901#

Hook Load = 72099#

12 Downhole Hydraulics

Buoyancy Factor

Buoyance Factor 1

231 x Density of Pipe lb / cu in

13 Downhole Hydraulics

Buoyance Factor

Applying on Previous Example:

Mud 10 ppg B.F. = 1 - [0.01528 X 10]

B.F. = 0.8472

Pipe Weight = 17#/ft

Pipe effective weight = pipe weight x B.F.

Pipe effective weight = 17#/ft x 0.8472 Pipe eff. weight = 14.4#/ft

Hook load = 5000’ x 14.4#/ft Hook Load = 72000#

Note #1: The buoyancy factor for different mud weights can be

found in the handbook, page 300.037.

Note #2: The buoyancy factor can only be applied when pipe is full

with the same fluid in the annular and there is no

differential pressure between annulus and

14 Downhole Hydraulics

tubing.

String with Two Sizes of Pipe

I.D. 79.4 #/ft DC

12 ppg Mud

15 Downhole Hydraulics

String with Two Sizes of Pipe

DP Weight in Fluid = 16.6 x 0.8166 = 13.556 #/ft

DC Weight in Fluid = 79.4 x 0.8166 = 64.838 #/ft

Total DP Weight in Fluid = 5000’ x 13.556 #/ft = 67780#

Total DC Weight in Fluid = 600’ x 64.838 #/ft = 38903#

Hook Load = 67780# + 38903#

Hook Load = 106683#

16 Downhole Hydraulics

String with Two Sides of Pipe

HYD. Pressure at 5000’

I.D. 79.4 #/ft DC

12 ppg Mud

17 Downhole Hydraulics

String with Two Sides of Pipe

HYD Press. on top of DC = 12 x 0.052 x 5000 = 3120 psi

DP O. D. Area x 4.52 15.90 in 2

4

DP I . D. Area x 38262

. 1150

. in 2

4

DC O. D. Area x 62 28.27 in 2

4

DC I . D. Area x 2.52 4.91 in 2

4

18 Downhole Hydraulics

String with Two Sides of Pipe

Area on outside top of DC = 28.27 - 15.90 = 12.37

in2

Area on inside top of DC = 11.50 - 4.91 = 6.59 in2

Total area on top of DC = 12.37 + 6.59 = 18.96 in2

Area on bottom of DC = 28.27 - 4.91 = 23.36 in2

59155#

Force on bottom of DC = 3494 psi x 23.36 in2 =

81620#

DP weight = 5000’ x 16.6#/ft = 83000#

DC weight = 600’ x 79.4 #/ft = 47640#

19 Downhole Hydraulics

Changes While Displacing

Surface pressure acts on I.D. area, decreasing the

Hook Load.

20 Downhole Hydraulics

Changes While Displacing

8000 ft. of 4-1/2” 16.6#/ft drill pipe is run open

ended in 14.2 ppg mud, then displaced

with 8.34 ppg water.

Weight/Foot in mud = 16.6 x 0.7830 = 13 #/ft

Hook Load before displacing = 8000’ x 13 #/ft =

104000#

21 Downhole Hydraulics

Changes While Displacing

After Displacing:

Ann. Hyd. Pressure = 14.2 x 8000 x 0.052 = 5907

psi

D.P. Hyd. Pressure = 8.34 x 8000 x 0.052 = 3469

psi

D. P. I. D. Area x 3.826 11.4969 in 2

2

4

D.P. Surface Pressure = 5907 psi - 3469 psi =

2438 psi

in2

= 28029#

22 Downhole Hydraulics

Hook Load after Displacing = 104000# - 28029#

Free Point Calculations

under tension nor under

compression

23 Downhole Hydraulics

Free Point Calculations

Tubing hanging in a well

Tension

Depth

24 Downhole Hydraulics

Free Point Calculations

Packing set with 15000#

Tension

Depth

Free Point

15000#

Compression

25 Downhole Hydraulics

To Calculate the Free Point

Calculate the effective weight of the pipe(s),

including buoyancy.

Calculate the Hook Load.

Divide the Hook Load or the compression force

by the effective weight of the string.

Find the Free Point.

26 Downhole Hydraulics

To Calculate the Free Point

DP 5” 19.5#/ft

Mud 10#/gal

15000# 10000’

DP effective weight = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52#/ft

DP total weight in fluid = 10000’ x 16.52#/ft = 165200#

Hook Load = 165200# - 15000# (on packer) = 150200#

150200#

Free Point Free Point 9092 ft.

16.52#/ft

27 Downhole Hydraulics

To Calculate the Free Point

DP 5” 19.5#/ft

Mud

10#/gal DC 6” 79.4#/ft

3000’

3500’

15000#

28 Downhole Hydraulics

To Calculate the Free Point

Buoyancy Factor = 0.8472

D.P. effective weight = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52#/ft

D.C. effective weight = 79.4 x 0.8472 = 67.27#/ft

DC total weight = 500’ x 67.27#/ft = 33635#

Weight on Packer = 15000#

As the Hook Load is > than DP weight, the free point is on the drill collars:

68195# 49560#

F . P. 277 ft FP 3500

0 277

67.27#/ ft

FP 3277 ft

or

15000#

F . P. 3500' FP 3277 ft

29 Downhole Hydraulics 67.27 #/ ft

Graphic Forces Versus Depth

Tension

0’ 68195#

Depth

3000’

3277’

Free Point

3500’ 15000#

30 Downhole Hydraulics

Changes in Tubing Length

Factors than can affect tubing length:

– Temperature

– Stress

– Ballooning / reverse ballooning

31 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

Temperature increases pipe expands

Temperature decreases pipe contracts

Temperature will change:

– production

– injection

32 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

Temperature effect: L Lo x x T

where:

Lo = original length of pipe

= temperature elongation factor (0.0000069

oF-1)

will be transmitted in form of

shrink this effect

force.

F = 207 x A x

33 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

was run into a well with BHST = 150oF. The

surface temperature is 70oF. What will be

the actual length of this pipe in hole?

34 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

150 F 70 o o

o

2

110 F 70 40 F o o o

L Lo x x

1

L 1000' x 0.0000069 F o

x 40

L 2.76 ft .

35 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

Ex. 2: How much force will you have on the

packer below if after pumping in a frac job, the

string is cooled down to 70o F (worst

case)? 70o F

3-1/2” 12.8#/ft.

15000#

150o F

36 Downhole Hydraulics

Temperature

A . 2 2.764 2 A 3.62 in 2

x 35

4

150o F 70o F

Temp. average Temp. average 110o F

2

F 207 x A x

F 207 x 3.62 x 40 F 29974#.

37 Downhole Hydraulics

Stress

The stretch caused by stress can be calculated by

the Hooke’s law.

F xL

S

ExA

Where:

S = Stretch of tubing length (ft.)

F = Average force pulling on tubing (lb).

L = Length of tubing (ft.)

E = Young’s Module (30 x 106 psi)

A = Cross Section area (in2)

38 Downhole Hydraulics

Stress

Ex. 1: Calculate the change in length caused by

stress of 10000’ of 3-1/2” 12.8#/ft. tubing

hanging in a well with 10#/gal. mud.

108400#

Average Stress

39 Downhole Hydraulics

Stress

Buoyancy Factor = 0.8472

Pipe weight in mud = 12.8#/ft x 0.8472 = 10.84#/ft.

Hook Load

Average Stress = 54200#

2

A = 3.62 in2

54200# x 10000'

S = S 4.99 ft.

30 x 106 psi x 3.62 in2

40 Downhole Hydraulics

Piston Effect

After the packer is set and pressure is applied

(pumping), the following stress will act on the

A

string:

41 Downhole Hydraulics Ap

Piston Effect

F Pi x (Ai Ap) Po (Ao Ap) Psup x Ai

Where:

Pi = Change in inside pressure at packer

Po = Change in outside pressure at packer

Ai = Inside area of tubing

Ao = Outside area of tubing

Ap = Area of Packer by-pass

42 Downhole Hydraulics

Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Pressure inside the tubing tends to balloon it.

As it happens, it shortens the tubing.

Pressure in the annulus contracts the diameter

of the tubing. As it happens, it elongates the

tubing.

P1

P1

P2

P2

P2

P1

Ballooning Reverse

Ballooning

P1 > P 2 P1 < P 2

P1 = P 2

43 Downhole Hydraulics

Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Ballooning Stretch:

2L Pia R 2 Poa

L 8

10 R 2

1

Ballooning Force:

F 0.6 x Pia x Ai Poa x Ao

Where:

Pia = change in average tubing pressure

Poa = change in average annulus pressure

R = ratio of tubing OD to ID

44 Downhole Hydraulics

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