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Downhole Hydraulics I

Kellyville Training Center


MP # 231M124
Downhole Hydraulics
Course Outline

 Quick Review
– Hydrostatic
– Applied pressure
– Differential pressure
 Buoyancy
 Hook load and buoyancy factor
 Free Point
 Changes in tubing length
– Due to temperature
– Due to stress
– Due to ballooning/reverse ballooning

2 Downhole Hydraulics
Quick Review
Force
Pressure  Force = Pressure x Area
Area

 Hydrostatic pressure:
– The pressure caused by a column of fluid.
Phyd (psi) = Density (ppg) x Length (ft) x 0.052

 Applied pressure
– Usually associated with a pump, or pressure from
the formation
 Differential pressure
– The difference between pressures acting on
different sides of a body (a pipe, a piston, etc.).
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Example
Calculate the differential pressure acting on the
tubing just above the packer:
3,000 psi

Brine 9 PPG
Applied Pressure
Brine 9 PPG

16 PPG 6,000 ft
CMT

10,000 ft

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Example
PTBG = PHYD (Brine) TBG + PHYD (CMT) + 3000 psi

PTBG = (6000’ x 9 ppg x 0.052) + (4000’ x 16 ppg x 0.052) + 3000 psi

PTBG = 2808 psi + 3328 psi + 3000 psi

PTBG = 9136 psi

PANN = hydrostatic pressure due to brine in annulus

PANN = 10,000’ x 9 ppg x 0.052

PANN = 4680 psi

PDIFFERENTIAL = PTBG - PANN PDIFF = 9136 psi - 4680 psi

PDIFF = 4456 psi

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Buoyancy
When a body is immersed in a fluid, the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid applies a force
trying to push the body upwards. This force is
called buoyant force.

F = PHYD x area
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Hook Load

The actual weight supported by the hook when a


string is in the well. It combines the weight of the
pipe with buoyancy due to fluid hydrostatic
pressure

Hook Load = Weight in Air - Buoyant Force

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Hook Load
ex: Calculate the hook load
5 1/2” 17 #/ft

10 PPG MUD

A x 5.5  A  23.76 in 2
2

4
5000’

Hyd. Pressure = 5000’ x 10 ppg x 0.052 PHYD = 2600 psi


Buoyant Force = 2600 psi x 23.76 in2  B.F. = 61776#
Weight in Air = 5000’ x 17#/ft WAIR = 85000#
Hook Load = 85000#  - 61776#
Hook Load = 23224# 
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Hook Load
ex: 1000’ of casing 30” with 5/8” wall thickness (196#/ft) using a float
shoe are cemented with a slurry 15.8#/gal. and displaced with
sea water 8.5#/gal down to 950 ft. What is the hook load at the
end of the job?

950’

1000’

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Hook Load

O. A  x  30  O. A  706.85 in 2
2

4

I. A  x ( 28.75) 2  I . A  649.18 in 2
4

O.P = 1000’ x 15.8#/gal x 0.052 O.P = 822 psi

I.P = (950’ x 8.5#/gal. x 0.052) + (50’ x 15.8#/gal x 0.052)  I.P = 461 psi

HYD FORCE (Inside)  = 461 psi x 649.18 in2 HYD FORCE = 299272#

Buoyant Force = 822 psi x 706.85 in2  Buoyant Force = 581031#

Weight in the Air  1000’ x 196#/ft  Weight in Air = 196000#

Hook Load = 196000# + 299272# - 581031#

Hook Load = -85759# The Casing will float

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Open Ended Pipe
Calculate the Hook Load

5 1/2” 17#/ft.

10#/GAL MUD

5000’

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Open Ended Pipe
1"
OD  5
2
ID  4.892"

A
4
 OD 2  ID 2 

A
4
 . 2  4.892 2   A  4.962
55 IN 2

HYD Pr essure  5000' x 10 ppg x 0.052  HYD Pr essure  2600 psi

Buoyant Force = 2600 psi x 4.962 in2 Buoyant Force = 12901#


Weight in air = 5000’ x 17#/ft Weight in Air = 85000#
Hook Load = 85000# - 12901#
Hook Load = 72099# 

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Buoyancy Factor

Mud Weight ( ppg )


Buoyance Factor  1 
231 x Density of Pipe  lb / cu in 

Density of Steel = 0.2833 lb/cu in

 Buoyance Factor = 1 - [0.01528 x Mud Weight (ppg)]

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Buoyance Factor
Applying on Previous Example:
Mud 10 ppg  B.F. = 1 - [0.01528 X 10]
B.F. = 0.8472
Pipe Weight = 17#/ft
Pipe effective weight = pipe weight x B.F.
Pipe effective weight = 17#/ft x 0.8472  Pipe eff. weight = 14.4#/ft
Hook load = 5000’ x 14.4#/ft Hook Load = 72000#

Note #1: The buoyancy factor for different mud weights can be
found in the handbook, page 300.037.
Note #2: The buoyancy factor can only be applied when pipe is full
with the same fluid in the annular and there is no
differential pressure between annulus and
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tubing.
String with Two Sizes of Pipe

EX: 5000’ of 4-1/2” DP 16.6#/ft

600’ of 6” O.D. x 2-1/2”


I.D. 79.4 #/ft DC

12 ppg Mud

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String with Two Sizes of Pipe

Buoyancy Factor Method

Buoyancy Factor = 1 - [0.01528 x 12] = 0.8166


DP Weight in Fluid = 16.6 x 0.8166 = 13.556 #/ft
DC Weight in Fluid = 79.4 x 0.8166 = 64.838 #/ft
Total DP Weight in Fluid = 5000’ x 13.556 #/ft = 67780#
Total DC Weight in Fluid = 600’ x 64.838 #/ft = 38903#
Hook Load = 67780#  + 38903# 
Hook Load = 106683# 
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String with Two Sides of Pipe

5,000’ of 4-1/2 DP 16.6 #/ft


HYD. Pressure at 5000’

600’ of 6” O.D. x 2-1/2”


I.D. 79.4 #/ft DC

HYD. Pressure at 5600’

12 ppg Mud

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String with Two Sides of Pipe
HYD Press. on top of DC = 12 x 0.052 x 5000 = 3120 psi

HYD Press. on bottom of DC = 12 x 0.052 x 5600 = 3494 psi



DP O. D. Area  x 4.52  15.90 in 2
4

DP I . D. Area  x 38262
.  1150
. in 2
4

DC O. D. Area  x 62  28.27 in 2
4

DC I . D. Area  x 2.52  4.91 in 2
4

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String with Two Sides of Pipe
Area on outside top of DC = 28.27 - 15.90 = 12.37
in2
Area on inside top of DC = 11.50 - 4.91 = 6.59 in2
Total area on top of DC = 12.37 + 6.59 = 18.96 in2
Area on bottom of DC = 28.27 - 4.91 = 23.36 in2

Force on top of DC = 3120 psi x 18.96 in2 =


59155#
Force on bottom of DC = 3494 psi x 23.36 in2 =
81620#
DP weight = 5000’ x 16.6#/ft = 83000#
DC weight = 600’ x 79.4 #/ft = 47640#
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Hook Load = 59155# - 81620# + 83000# +


Changes While Displacing
Surface pressure acts on I.D. area, decreasing the
Hook Load.

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Changes While Displacing

ex: Find Hook Load before and after displacing if


8000 ft. of 4-1/2” 16.6#/ft drill pipe is run open
ended in 14.2 ppg mud, then displaced
with 8.34 ppg water.

Buoyancy Factor = 1-[0.01528 x 14.2] = 0.7830


Weight/Foot in mud = 16.6 x 0.7830 = 13 #/ft
Hook Load before displacing = 8000’ x 13 #/ft =
104000# 

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Changes While Displacing
After Displacing:
Ann. Hyd. Pressure = 14.2 x 8000 x 0.052 = 5907
psi
D.P. Hyd. Pressure = 8.34 x 8000 x 0.052 = 3469
psi 
D. P. I. D. Area  x  3.826  11.4969 in 2
2

4
D.P. Surface Pressure = 5907 psi - 3469 psi =
2438 psi

Force from Surface Pressure = 2438 psi x 11.4969


in2
= 28029#
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Hook Load after Displacing = 104000# - 28029#
Free Point Calculations

Free Point: The point in a string which is not


under tension nor under
compression

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Free Point Calculations
Tubing hanging in a well

Tension

Depth

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Free Point Calculations
Packing set with 15000#
Tension

Depth
Free Point

15000#

Compression

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To Calculate the Free Point
 Calculate the effective weight of the pipe(s),
including buoyancy.
 Calculate the Hook Load.
 Divide the Hook Load or the compression force
by the effective weight of the string.
 Find the Free Point.

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To Calculate the Free Point
DP 5” 19.5#/ft

Mud 10#/gal

15000# 10000’

Buoyancy Factor = 1-[0.01528 x 10] = 0.8472


DP effective weight = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52#/ft
DP total weight in fluid = 10000’ x 16.52#/ft = 165200#
Hook Load = 165200# - 15000# (on packer) = 150200#
150200#
Free Point   Free Point  9092 ft.
16.52#/ft
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To Calculate the Free Point

DP 5” 19.5#/ft
Mud
10#/gal DC 6” 79.4#/ft

3000’

3500’

15000#

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To Calculate the Free Point
Buoyancy Factor = 0.8472
D.P. effective weight = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52#/ft
D.C. effective weight = 79.4 x 0.8472 = 67.27#/ft

DP total weight = 3000’ x 16.52#/ft = 49560#


DC total weight = 500’ x 67.27#/ft = 33635#
Weight on Packer = 15000#

Hook Load = 49560# + 33635# - 15000# = 68195#

As the Hook Load is > than DP weight, the free point is on the drill collars:
68195#  49560#
F . P.   277 ft  FP  3500
0  277
67.27#/ ft
FP  3277 ft

or
15000#
F . P.  3500'   FP  3277 ft
29 Downhole Hydraulics 67.27 #/ ft
Graphic Forces Versus Depth
Tension
0’ 68195#
Depth

3000’

3277’
Free Point
3500’ 15000#

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Changes in Tubing Length
 Factors than can affect tubing length:
– Temperature
– Stress
– Ballooning / reverse ballooning

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Temperature
 Temperature increases pipe expands
 Temperature decreases pipe contracts
 Temperature will change:
– production
– injection

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Temperature
Temperature effect: L  Lo x  x  T

where:
Lo = original length of pipe
 = temperature elongation factor (0.0000069

oF-1)

= change in average temperature

If the tubing is fixed and not allowed to elongate /


 will be transmitted in form of
shrink this effect
force.
F = 207 x A x
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where: A = cross section area of pipe (in2).


Temperature

Ex 1: 1000’ of 3-1/2” tubing


was run into a well with BHST = 150oF. The
surface temperature is 70oF. What will be
the actual length of this pipe in hole?

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Temperature
150 F  70 o o

Temp. average   110 F


o
2

  110 F  70  40 F o o o

L  Lo x  x 
1
L  1000' x 0.0000069 F o
x 40
L  2.76 ft .
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Temperature
Ex. 2: How much force will you have on the
packer below if after pumping in a frac job, the
string is cooled down to 70o F (worst
case)? 70o F

3-1/2” 12.8#/ft.

15000#
150o F

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Temperature

A . 2  2.764 2   A  3.62 in 2
x  35
4
150o F  70o F
Temp. average   Temp. average  110o F
2

  110o F  70o F    40o F


F  207 x A x 
F  207 x 3.62 x 40  F  29974#.

The packer will be unset and the pipe will shrink.

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Stress
The stretch caused by stress can be calculated by
the Hooke’s law.
F xL
S 
ExA

Where:
S = Stretch of tubing length (ft.)
F = Average force pulling on tubing (lb).
L = Length of tubing (ft.)
E = Young’s Module (30 x 106 psi)
A = Cross Section area (in2)
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Stress
Ex. 1: Calculate the change in length caused by
stress of 10000’ of 3-1/2” 12.8#/ft. tubing
hanging in a well with 10#/gal. mud.
108400#

Average Stress

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Stress
Buoyancy Factor = 0.8472
Pipe weight in mud = 12.8#/ft x 0.8472 = 10.84#/ft.

Hook Load = 10.84#/ft x 10000’ = 108400#

Hook Load
Average Stress =  54200#
2

A = 3.62 in2

54200# x 10000'
S =  S  4.99 ft.
30 x 106 psi x 3.62 in2

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Piston Effect
After the packer is set and pressure is applied
(pumping), the following stress will act on the
A
string:

41 Downhole Hydraulics Ap
Piston Effect
F  Pi x (Ai  Ap)   Po (Ao  Ap)  Psup x Ai 

Where:

 Psup = Change in the pressure at surface


 Pi = Change in inside pressure at packer
 Po = Change in outside pressure at packer
Ai = Inside area of tubing
Ao = Outside area of tubing
Ap = Area of Packer by-pass

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Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning
 Pressure inside the tubing tends to balloon it.
As it happens, it shortens the tubing.
 Pressure in the annulus contracts the diameter
of the tubing. As it happens, it elongates the
tubing.

P1
P1
P2
P2
P2
P1

Ballooning Reverse
Ballooning
P1 > P 2 P1 < P 2
P1 = P 2
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Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Ballooning Stretch:
2L   Pia  R 2  Poa 
L  8  
10  R 2
 1 

Ballooning Force:
F  0.6 x   Pia x Ai   Poa x Ao 

Where:
 Pia = change in average tubing pressure
 Poa = change in average annulus pressure
R = ratio of tubing OD to ID
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