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UNIT 3

PETROLOGY
What is PETROLOGY !!!!??
• Branch of geology that deals with
origin,
composition,
distribution and
structure of ROCKS

NOTE:
Lithology focuses on macroscopic hand-sample /
outcrop-scale description of rocks.
Petrography is the speciality that deals with
microscopic details of rocks.
What are ROCKS?
• Naturally occurring solid massive aggregate of
minerals
Magma
Molten rock material below the earth’s surface
Lava
Magma at the surface of the earth
Pyroclasts
Pyro = fire; clastic = debris
Airborne Lava: Lava erupted directly to the air
TYPES OF ROCKS
• IGNEOUS ROCKS: From solidification of
Magma and/ or Lava

• SEDIMENTARY ROCKS:
Rock weathering,
transportation &
deposition

• METAMORPHIC ROCKS: Formed by the influence of high


pressure & temperature conditions & action of chemically
active fluids:
Resulting recrystallisation of minerals WITHOUT MELTING
IGNEOUS ROCKS
Classification based on
TEXTURE &
COMPOSITION

TEXTURE:
• It is the mutual relationship of different mineralogical
constituents in a rock

• Determined by the SIZE, SHAPE & ARRANGEMENT of


mineral constituents
TEXTURAL classification of ROCKS:

a) Fine grained => VOLCANIC ROCKS

b) Intermediate grain size => HYPABYSSAL


ROCKS

c) Coarse grained => PLUTONIC ROCKS


VOLCANIC ROCKS
• Rocks formed on the surface of the earth
• Due to FAST COOLING & crystallisation of LAVA
Lava exposed to air cools faster compared
to magma
• Hence, formation of FINE GRAINED rocks, often
MICROSCOPICALLY FINE
• E.g.: Basalt of Deccan Traps of India
PLUTONIC ROCKS
• Forms at considerable depths (7-10 km) below the
earth surface
• Due to VERY SLOW COOLING & crystallisation of
MAGMA
• COARSE grained rocks
• Found at the earth surface due to erosion of overlying
layers of the earth
• E.g.: Granites, Gabbros and Syenites
HYPABYSSAL ROCKS
• Formed at an intermediate depths
(~ 2 km) below the earth surface w. r. to volcanic
rocks
• They exhibit MIXED GRAIN characteristics
• E.g.: Porphyries of basalt and granite
FACTORS DEFINING TEXTURE
1) Based on DEGREE OF CRYSTALLISATION:

• HOLOCRYSTALLINE: When minerals / crystals visible


distinctly, also called PHANERITIC

• HOLOHYALINE: When constituents are very fine


grained and glassy; also called APHANITIC

• MEROCRYSTALLINE: Mixture of phaneritic &


aphanitic types

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2) Based on GRANULARITY
• COARSE-GRAINED: Average grain size > 5 mm;
identified with naked eyes
• MEDIUM-GRAINED: Average grain size between 1-5
mm
• FINE-GRAINED: Average grain size < 1 mm

3) Based on FABRIC
• It is the relative grain size and arrangement of
different minerals in a rock
• When all mineral components ~ same size:
EQUIGRANULAR
• Appreciable difference in different grains:
INEQUIGRANULAR

EQUIGRANULAR INEQUIGRANULAR

GRANITIC FELSITIC PORPHYRITIC POIKILITIC


(Coarse (Fine (Large crystals (Fine crystals
c
grains) grained) within fine- within coarse-
grained MATRIX) CRYSTALS)

NOTE: Conspicuously LARGE-SIZED CRYSTALS in


a rock: PHENOCRYSTS
PORPHYRITIC TEXTURE
POIKILITIC TEXTURE
If microscopic view of the crystal shape / form in
the THIN SECTION of a rock is;

Perfectly distinguishable: EUHEDRAL


Semi-perfect distinction: SUBHEDRAL
Totally Imperfect: ANHEDRAL
CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS
ROCKS
BASED ON
COMPOSITION
BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES
DISCONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS
SERIES SERIES
1400 OC
Olivine Mafic
Anorthite
(Ca-feldspar)
Augite
Crystallization

Hornblende
Temperature

Intermediate
Biotite Albite
(Na-feldspar)

Orthoclase Feldspar
Muscovite mica

800 OC Quartz Felsic


)
SHAPES / FORMS
OF
IGNEOUS ROCKS
• Igneous rocks crystallise in varieties of SHAPES /
FORMS in nature

• They depend on;


1) Structural disposition of host
rocks
2) Viscosity of magma / lava
3) Composition of magma / lava
4) Environment of magma / lava
injection
Broad classification of FORMS of
igneous rocks

CONCORDANT DISCORDANT
Sills Dykes (Dikes)
Phacoliths Volcanic necks
Lopoliths Batholiths
Laccoliths
Pyroclastics
Lava flow

Volcanic neck

Dyke

Sill

Batholith
AN IGNEOUS SILL
Concordant with surrounding rock, running parallel to
other rocks
AN IGNEOUS DIKE
Discordant with surrounding rock,
cutting across host rock
Neck
Dyke

Igneous sill
PHACOLITHS

• Small sized
intrusions
with
doubly convex
shapes
LOPOLITHS
Associated with
structural basins
LACCOLITHS
• Arched up /
dome like
structures
• With a flat /
concave base
DYKES
• Columnar IGNEOUS DISCORDANT bodies
• They cut across the bedding plane
• Dykes generally tend to occur in groups

NOTE: Group of dykes in a limited area is called DYKE


SWARM
BATHOLITHS
• Huge igneous structures showing both CONCORDANT and
DISCORDANT characteristics with host rocks
NOTE: Majority of batholiths exhibit predominantly GRANITIC
COMPOSITION
TEXTURE &
STRUCTURE
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
SHALE
(from clay minerals)
Formation of Shale

• Compaction after the slow deposition of clay sized


particles in lakes, lagoons, river deltas, on
floodplains and offshore from beach sands
USES
• Shales are good archives of fossils, animal tracks / burrows &
raindrop impact =>
Palaeoenvironmental studies

• Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite,


apatite, or various carbonate minerals

NOTE: Shale on metamorphism alter into a hard, fissile (EASILY


CLEAVABLE), metamorphic rock known as SLATE;
Increasing metamorphic grade results in PHYLLITE => SCHIST
=> GNEISS
SANDSTONE
(from quartz grains)

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USES
• Used for domestic construction and housewares since
prehistoric times

• Relatively soft, hence, carved to ornamental fountains,


statues & structures in temples, cathedrals around the
world

• Weather resistant sandstones used as a


common building and paving material

• Used in the manufacture of grindstones, for


sharpening blades and other implements
LIMESTONE
(Non-clastic sedimentary rock)

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BRECCIA
• Breccia is a sedimentary rock with ANGULAR
fragments (> 2 mm) of HETEROGENEOUS
COMPOSITION in fine MATRIX OF CLAYEY
material

NOTE: Angularity of fragments


NO transport of rock pieces
Types of Breccia:
Basal Breccia
Fault Breccia
Agglomeratic Breccia
Basal Breccia
• Formed when sea water brings in fine sediments that bind
rock fragments on shore

Fault Breccia / Crush Breccia


• Angular rock fragments formed during FAULTING / due to
crushing effect of blocks of rocks embed in clay & other
fine materials

Agglomeratic Breccia
• Volcanic origin, contains both angular & sub-angular rock-
fragments
CONGLOMERATE
Conglomerate consists ROUNDED rock fragments
of various sizes (> 2 mm) bound in clayey /
ferruginous / mixed matrix

NOTE: ROUNDED fragments


their TRANSPORTION to considerable
distances before the rock formation

• Rock fragments may / may not be heterogeneous


composition
• Cementing material may be SILICEOUS /
CALCAREOUS / MIXED TYPE
TYPES
BASED ON FRAGMENT SIZE
• Boulder-Conglomerate: > 256 mm
• Cobble-Conglomerate: 64-256 mm
• Pebble-Conglomerate: 2-64 mm

BASED ON FRAGMENT SOURCE


• Basal-Conglomerate: Sea water-shore
interaction
• Glacial-Conglomerate: Glacial origin
• Volcanic-Conglomerate: Formed on
deposition of river transported
materials of volcanic origin
BASED ON LITHOLOGY /
ROCK TYPE OF FRAGMENTS

• Oligomictic: Gravels made up of


QUARTZ, CHERT & CALCITE

• Polymictic: Gravels of
DIFFERENT ORIGIN
namely, igneous, sedimentary &
metamorphic

NOTE: FANGLOMERATE is the conglomerate formed


& found at the base of alluvial fans / cones
SIGNIFICANCE

Well defined layers of Conglomerates

SHALLOW-WATER PHASE IN THE DEPOSITIONAL


ENVIRONMENT
PRIMARY STRUCTURES
• These are large-scale features found in rocks during their
formation

CLASSIFICATION
Mechanical
Chemical &
Organic structures
Mechanical Structures
Associated with CLASTIC sedimentary rocks. They are:

•STRATIFICATION: Layered arrangement

•LAMINATION: Similar to stratification but


relatively thin layers

•CROSS BEDDING: Layers bear an inclined


relationship with each other;
This happens in shallow water
environment where direction of water
flow changes frequently
• Graded Bedding: Sorted according to the
particle sizes due to gravity settling
• Mud Cracks
• Rain Prints
• Ripple Marks
Stratification
Lamination
Cross Bedding / False Bedding / Current
Bedding
Cross Bedding
TYPES
Tabular:
Cross Bedding
Lenticular: Formation of highly irregular sediment
deposition
Cross Bedding
Wedge shaped: Parallel layers with angular
relationship
Graded Bedding
Mud Cracks
Rain Prints
(Crater like depression)
Ripple Marks
(due to wind and water action)
Symmetrical / asymmetrical wave like irregularities /
undulations in sediments
• Rocks formed by any other type of rocks (igneous
/ sedimentary / metamorphic) due to the
variation in conditions of
TEMPERATURE,
PRESSURE &
CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUIDS

AGENTS OF METAMORPHISM
FOUR KINDS OF METAMORPHISM

• THERMAL METAMORPHISM
• DYNAMIC METAMORPHISM &
• DYNAMO-THERMAL METAMORPHISM
• METASOMATISM
THERMAL METAMORPHISM
• Contact Metamorphism

• Pyro-metamorphism: On entrapped country rock

• Plutonic Metamorphism: Due to LOAD imposed


Contact Metamorphism
Plutonic Metamorphism
DYNAMIC METAMORPHISM
• Known as
CLASTIC METAMORPHISM /
MECHANICAL METAMORPHISM /
DISLOCATION METAMORPHISM
DYNAMO-THERMAL METAMORPHISM
• Known as
REGIONAL METAMORPHISM

• Due to the action of PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE & FLUIDS


METASOMATISM
• Metamorphism involving the formation of new
minerals by the chemical replacement of pre-
existing minerals by the influence of active fluids
STRUCTURES OF
METAMORPHIC ROCKS

Five common structures;


1. Cataclastic,
2. Schistose,
3. Gneissose,
4. Maculose and
5. Granulose
Cataclastic structure
• Severe crushing and shearing produce
extremely fine metamorphic rocks
Example: Slate
Schistose structure
• Characterized by parallel / sub-parallel
layers or bands of flaky, platy / rod-like
minerals that may be separated along their
direction of parallelism.
Example: Schist
Gneissose structure
• Bands / folia of platy and flaky minerals
alternate with those of equidimensional and
granular minerals
Example: Gneiss
Maculose structures
• Characterised by a spotted
appearance

• May be due to the formation of


large crystals (called as
PORPHYROBLASTS) within
fine grained rock

• Produced during contact


metamorphism due to incomplete
recrystallisation of constituent
minerals
Example: Augen Gneiss
GranuloseStructure
• Characterized by granular (like grains) form
of constituent minerals

• The grains are interlocked even if they are


arranged irregularly

Example: Granulite