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Arc Welding Processes

by DHAMOTHARAN.V

What is welding?
 Union

of Materials caused by heat and with or without pressure. is the process of joining metals by melting the parts and then using a filler to form a joint.

 Welding

Types of Welding
 Arc

Welding  Gas Welding  Resistance Welding  Beam Welding

Arc Welding Processes


 SMAW

Shielded Metal Arc Welding  GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding  SAW Submerged Arc Welding

SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding

SMAW
 MMAW

Manual Metal Arc Welding (UK)  SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding (USA)

Definition of SMAW
 An

arc welding process in which coalescence of metals is produced by heat from an electric arc that is maintained between the tip of a flux covered electrode and the surface of the base metal in the joint being welded.

SMAW Welding Machine

SMAW Equipment Setup

Welding Parameters
 Amperage  AC

& Voltage

/ DC  Polarity  Electrode  Travel Speed

Electrode
 Consists

of solid metal core covered by flux coating

Electrode Groups
 Rutile

E 6013  Basic E 7018  Cellulosic E 6010

Weld Metal

Advantages of SMAW
 Field

or shop use  Portable Equipment  All Positional  Less Expensive  Range of Consumables

Disadvantages of SMAW
 Requires

High Skill  Arc strike, Slag Inclusions, spatters  Highly generated fumes  Low deposition rate  Electrode handling

SMAW Welding Imperfections


 Spatter  Porosity  Arc

strike  Slag Inclusions

Welding Imperfections
 Porosity

Welding Imperfections
 Slag

Inclusion

Welding Imperfections
 External

Undercut

Welding Imperfections
 Internal

Undercut

Welding Imperfections
 Lack

of fusion

Welding Imperfections
 Burn

Through

Welding Imperfections
 Tungsten

Inclusion

GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

GTAW
 TIG

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (UK)  GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (USA)

GTAW
 Non

consumable Tungsten Electrode  Filler Wire  Shielding Gas Inert (Argon, Helium)

GTAW Equipment Setup

GTAW Torch
Gas diffuser Split copper collett

Tungsten Electrode Housing Ceramic Shield

Tungsten Electrode

Welding Parameters
 Amperage

& Voltage  AC/DC & Polarity  Tungsten grade & Diameter  Gas type, purity & flow rate

GTAW Weld Metal

Advantages of GTAW
 High

quality Welds  Low inter run cleaning  All positional  Can be mechanized (Orbital TIG)

Disadvantages of GTAW
 High

skill factor required  Small range of consumable wires  Protection for site work  Purity of Shielding gas  Low productivity

GTAW Welding Imperfections


 Tungsten

Inclusions  Crater Pipes  Surface Porosity  Under cut

GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding


MIG Metal Inert Gas Welding MAG Metal Active Gas Welding FCAW Flux Cored Arc Welding

MIG Metal Inert Gas Welding

MIG Equipment setup

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Welding Torch Work piece Power source Wire feed unit Electrode unit Shielding gas Cylinder

MIG Equipment Setup


External Wire feed unit Power Source

Wire spool Power Hose assembly Power return cable & Clamp Torch head assembly Spare contact tips

Liner

Shielding Gas
 Inert

gas Argon, Helium  Active gas CO2, mixture of CO2 & Argon
 MIG

Inert gas  MAG Active gas

Welding Parameters
 Wire

Feed Speed  Open Circuit Voltage & Amperage  Gas Type & Flow rate  Wire Type & Diameter  Contact tip size & condition

MIG Weld metal

Advantages of GMAW
 High

Productivity  Easily automated  All Positional  Continuous electrode  Wide material thickness range

Disadvantages of GMAW
 Critical

machine setup  Small range of solid wires  Protection for site working

Welding Imperfection of GMAW


 Lack

of side wall fusion  Silica inclusions  Porosity  Burn through

Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW


 Filler

wire consists granulated flux in the core surrounded by metal sheath  Shielding elements are added into the flux  High levels of penetration  Good positional welding capabilities

FCAW

SAW Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding


 Submerged  SAW

Arc Welding (UK)

(USA)

Equipment setup and weld metal deposition of SAW

SAW Welding parameters


 Wire

feed speed  Voltage  Electrode stick out  Flux depth  Travel speed

Flux
  

Basic Neutral Acidic

 

Fused acidic low quality weld Agglomerated basic - high quality weld

Fused

Agglomerated

Advantages of SAW
 High

deposition rate  High quality welds  Easily mechanized  Low operator skill required  No Visible arc light

Disadvantages of SAW
 Positional

Restriction (Flat)  Prone to Shrinkage cavities  Relatively high equipment costs

Welding Imperfections in SAW


 Porosity  Centre

line cracks  Shrinkage cavities  Lack of fusion

Comparison of SMAW, GTAW, GMAW & SAW


Variables SMAW Consumable Flux covered Consumable Electrode GTAW Non Consumable Tungsten Electrode Inert gas through separate cylinder Processes GMAW Reel Wire SAW Reel Wire

Shielding

Gas produced by the flux

Inert / Active gas through separate cylinder

Gas produced by the combustion of flux

Parameters SMAW Position All Positional

GTAW All Positional

GMAW All Positional

SAW Flat

Suitability for Site

Suitable

Not Suitable for site condition

Not Suitable But used for mass production

Not Suitable for site condition

Parameters

SMAW

GTAW Crater Pipe Porosity Undercut

GMAW

SAW

Welding Arc Strike, Imperfections Spatters, Slag Inclusions, Porosity, Undercut Treatment of Electrode Baking is required for low hydrogen electrodes

Lack of fusion, Solidification Silica Inclusion Cracking

Solid Wire

Solid Wire reel

Solid Wire reel

QUERIES

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