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3G Mechanism Technology Analysis and Comparison

Objectives
After completing this course, you should be able to:

Have

an

overall

understanding

of

characteristics of three 3G mechanisms

Find out advantages of each mechanism by comparison

Know

key

factors

for

mechanism

selection

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 3G Mechanism Analysis Chapter 2 WCDMA and CDMA2000 Chapter 3 Key factors for mechanism selection

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Different Demands for Different Periods


Early demands
Speech quality Basic conversation capabilities

Current demands
Large capacity Low-speed rate data Privacy High speech QoS

New demands
Larger capacity Higher spectrum utilization High-speed data access Higher QoS Safer service Lower operation cost

Different Services for Different Demands

Different Technologies for Different Services


1st generation in 1980s Analog
AMPS Digital technology Analog technology TACS NMT

2nd generation in 1990s Digital


GSM
Speech service

3rd generation IMT-2000

Driven by demands

CDMA IS95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

UMTS WCDMA cdma 2000 TDSCDMA

Broadband service

Driven by demands

3G provides perfect solutions to integrated services for users and operators.

Core of 3G- CDMA Technology

WCDMA
Core network: MAP and GPRS-based network Radio transmission technology: WCDMA FDD/TDD

cdma2000
Core network: ANSI 41 and MIP

3G
mechanism

TD-SCDMA
Core network: MAP-based network Radio transmission technology: TD-SCDMA

network
Radio transmission technology:

cdma2000

CDMA technology is the core of 3G.

Cdma2000 Technology Mechanism-Network Features

1. CS domain: inherit 2G CDMA network, introducing the service platform with WIN as the basic architecture

2. PS domain: extended into the broadband packet network based on IWF

3. Radio access network: use ATM as its platform,


providing a variety of adaptation layer interfaces.

4. Air interface: be compatible with IS95

Features of cdma2000 RTT Technology

BTS synchronization mode: require GPS/GLONASS

Channel bandwidth: N*1.25Mhz Chip rate: N*1.2288 Mcps N=1,3,6,9,12

speech code:8K/13K QCELP 8K EVRC

Power control: uplink/downlink closed loop power control, and outer loop power control

CDMA 2000

Channel code: Convolutional Code and TURBO code

Transmit diversity mode: OTD and STS

Modulation mode: uplink QPSK Downlink BPSK

Demodulation mode:
pilot-assistant coherence demodulation

cdma2000 1X Technology Features


IS-95A/B

is the subset of cdma2000. Support the chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps Support spread spectrum demodulation: forward QPSK and reverse HPSK Support reverse pilot and coherence demodulation Support fast forward and reverse power control Support forward transmit diversity, including OTD and STS Add Turbo code to channel code Support changeable frame length, such as 5ms, 10ms, 20ms, 40ms and 80ms Support F-QPCH to prolong standby time of the MS Support the maximum rate of 307.2kbps Support QoS negotiation Support multimedia service Support 8K/13K QCELP 8 kbps EVRC Feature channel capacity which are two times of that in IS-95A/B

cdma2000 1X Candidate Enhancement Technologies

HDR

put forward by Qualcomm, supporting data service with the put forward by Motorola and Nokia Incorporations jointly put forward by China 1X-EV-DO version has completed for 3GPP2. 1X-EV-DV

maximum rate of 2.4Mbps


1XTREME

LAS-CDMA HDR-based

version is now being discussed based on technologies put forward by Motorola, Lucent and LAS-CDMA .

cdma2000 3X Technology Features

Chip rate: 3*1.2288 Mcps Max. access rate: 2Mbps


1 .2 5 M H z 1 .2 5 M H z

F o r w a r d L i n k

F o r w a r d L i n k

1 M

H z

H z

1 M

H z

H z

H z

H z

H z

e v e r s e L i n k

e v e r s e L i n k

1 M

H z

H z

1 M

H z

H z

H z

H z

H z

Cdma2000 Transition
cdma2000 is compatible with IS-95A/B. Add SCH to support packet services. Add cdma2000 1X BSC and cdma2000 BTS to realize smooth transition, namely, upgrading service smoothly requires adding devices.

1 IS-95A/B carrier

1 IS-95A/B carrier + 2 cdma2000 1X carrier

cdma2000 1X carrier

WCDMA Development History

n io ut l vo

d an

t en pm lo ve de

WCDMA GSM + GPRS

GSM
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

n tio lu o Ev

d an

o el ev d

t en pm

2004

2005

WCDMA Technology Mechanism-Network Features

1. The core network is based on evolution of GSM/GPRS network and keeps compatibility with GSM/GPRS network.

2. The core network can be based on TDM, ATM and IP technologies and evolve into the network with full-IP architecture.

3. The core network is logically divided into CS domain and PS domain, implementing CS services and PS services respectively.

4. Based on ATM technology, UTRAN processes speech and packet services in a unified way and evolves into IP.

5. MAP and GPRS tunnel technologies are the core of mobility management mechanism in the WCDMA system.

Basic Contents of WCDMA

BTS synchronization mode: support asynchronous and synchronous BTS running Signal bandwidth: 5MHz; chip rate: 3.84Mcps Transmit diversity mode: TSTD, STTD and FBTD

Channel code: convolutional code and Turbo code


Modulation mode: uplink: QPSK; downlink: QPSK Power control: uplink/downlink closed loop power control, and outer loop power control Demodulation mode: pilot-assistant coherence demodulation speech code: AMR

WCDMA Technology Advantages

Larger system capacity Better speech quality Higher spectrum efficiency Quicker data rate Stronger anti-fading capability Stronger anti-multipath capability Adapted to mobility speed of up to 500km/h

TD-SCDMA Development History

Integrated TD-SCDMA and WCDMA-TDD technologies

Formed TD-SCDMA resolution As one of resolutions for 3GPP, TD-SCDMA was approved in the 3GPP conference.

2000

1998
Began to research TD-SCDMA

1990

1999

TD-SCDMA Technology Mechanism-Network Features

1. The core network is based on evolution of GSM/GPRS network and keeps compatibility with GSM/GPRS network. 2. The core network can be based on TDM, ATM and IP technologies and evolve into the network with full-IP architecture. 3. The core network is logically divided into CS domain and PS domain, implementing CS services and PS services respectively. 4. Based on ATM technology, UTRAN processes speech and packet services in a unified way and evolves into IP. 5. MAP and GPRS tunnel technologies are the core of mobility management mechanism in the WCDMA system.

TD-SCDMA technology mechanism will adopt core network structure of WCDMA mechanism.

TD-SCDMA Technology Features

TD-SCDMA, put forward by CWTS, is the first Chinese communication standard accepted by ITU.
The main features of TD-SCDMA: 3S Key technologies of TD-SCDMA

Smart Antenna Synchronous CDMA Software Radio

Smart antenna+ joint detection Multi-slot CDMA+DS-CDMA Synchronous CDMA Channel coding/decoding and interleaving (the same as 3GPP) Relay handoff

Advantages of TD-SCDMA System

Be able to use spectrum efficiently because no binate band class is required. In addition, band class assignment is also simple. Whereas, the FDD technology in the WCDMA system requires binate band class.

Be more suitable for asymmetrical services because uplink and downlink resources can be flexibly allocated, including Internet, multimedia application and file transfer service. Whereas, the WCDMA system has to waste one uplink band class up to now.

Be easy to use such new technologies as smart antenna to improve performance and reduce cost due to symmetrical electric wave propagation. The reason is that uplinks and downlinks are of pertinence and work on the same frequency. Whereas, the WCDMA system do not feature pertinence because its uplinks and downlinks do not use the same frequency.

Feature low cost of TDD equipment due to corresponding channels. Therefore, receiver can be simplified. In addition, single-chip IC can be used to realize RF transceiver due to no requirements for receiving and sending isolation.

Disadvantages of TD-SCDMA System

Inter-BTS synchronization: Inter-BTS synchronization is required to reduce interference between BTSs. Interference in TDD: As a synchronization system, the TDD has high requirements for synchronization which plays a very important role in the communication system. In addition, that uplinks and downlinks are on the same band class adds interference type. Narrower coverage compared with the WCDMA system Mobility speed: TDD required by ITU-R supports a maximum rate of 120km/h, while the FDD supports a maximum rate of 500km/h. Transmit power: TD-SCDMA results in pulse power interference due to factors of TDMA, thereby requiring great transient transmit power. But FDD has not such a problem because it is transmitted on all slots.

Comparison among Three Mechanisms

WCDMA
Structure of receiver
Closed power control Cross-area handoff Demodulation mode Chip rate (Mcps)

cdma2000

TD-SCDMA RAKE Support


Relay handoff

RAKE Support

WCDMA RAKE
Support
Soft/hard handoff

Soft/hard handoff

Coherence demodulation Coherence demodulation Coherence demodulation

3.84 TSTD STTD FBTD

N*1.2288 OTD STS


Synchronization

1.28

Transmit diversity mode

None
Synchronization

Synchronization mode Asynchronization Core

GSM MAP

ANSI-41

GSM MAP

Summary

This

chapter introduces and compares technical features

of three 3G mechanisms. Engineers can have a better understanding of various 3G mechanisms by studying these features.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 3G Mechanism Analysis Chapter 2 WCDMA and CDMA2000 Chapter 3 Key Factors for Mechanism Selection

Training.huawei.com

Analysis of Key Factors


WCDMA
Channel bandwidth5MHz/3.84Mcps

cdma2 000 1.25MHz/1.2288Mcps


Fewer separated multipath than WCDMA Require as three times of RF components as WCDMA to realize the same speech and data bearer.

Chip rate

Feature as three times of resolution precision as cdma2000 Improve the capability against radio channel fading Improve capacity by 10% in the case of high-speed moving, compared with the 1.2288Mcps of chip rate

but flexible planning and application

decoding

speech coding/

AMR speech with 8 types of rate


Provide 12.2Kbps speech when

Changeable rate code: 8Kbps (EVRC) and 13Kbps (QCELP)

the system has low load. Dynamically change AMR rate until 4.75Kbps Non-network dynamic selection
to hold more users when the network has heavy load.

Usually select EVRC

Support dynamic adjustment of

network capacity and QoS by operators.

Analysis of Key Factors

WCDMA Power control1500Hz fast power control for inner loop

c dma2 000 800Hz fast power control for inner loop

Feature better anti-fading performance and provide better conversation quality Increase capacity and coverage range

Synchronization Asynchronization

or synchronization (optional)

Synchronization (GPS)

Convenient BTS networking, independent of GPS MS consumes more 13% of electricity in the asynchronization mode

Simplify handoff and search processes

Analysis of Key Factors


WCDMA Handoff
Support soft/softer/inter-frequency hard/ inter-GSMs handoff occurs during inter-frequency or inter-system measurement.

cdma2 000
Support soft/softer/inter-frequency hard/ inter-IS-95 handoff carrier and then synchronize and measure on the new carrier again.

Introduce compressed mode and no disconnection disconnect communication with the original Must

Reduce call drop rate of the system

Feature unstable speech quality to result in frequent call drop. So, require adding extra Pilot Beacon to BTS.

Transmit diversity

Support open loop transmit diversity (TSTD and STTD) and closed loop transmit diversity

Support open loop transmit diversity (OTD and STS) only Not supported by terminals now

Feature stronger capability of adapting channel environment

Supported by terminals Closed loop transmit diversity provides


higher diversity gain and increases downlink capacity and coverage capability of the system in the case of low-speed moving.

Analysis of Speech Capability


Capacity of speech service (unit: Erlang/MHz/cell)

WCDMA (12.2Kbps)
Preset conditions Simulation Indoors Test

cdma2000 ( Kbps) 8

19.6 16.4 15

18.5 15.7 14.1

17.4 16.2 13.2

Outdoor walking 3 kilo/h Vehicle mounted 120 kilo/h

WCDMA simulation and test data are obtained from Huaweis outside plant testing in Oct. 2004, while cdma2000 test data are obtained from Huaweis outside plant testing in Alug. 2001. WCDMA features different speech code rate from cdma2000.

WCDMA has equal speech capability as cdma20001x.

Analysis of Data Capability


Capacity of data service (unit: Kbps/MHz/cell)

WCDMA
Preset conditions

cdma2000 153.6 Kbps 270 210 210

384Kbps 144 Kbps 64 Kbps

Indoors

451 451 350

394 386 300

351 343 279

Outdoor walking 3 kilo/h

Vehicle mounted 120 kilo/h

WCDMA simulation and test data are obtained from Huaweis outside plant testing in Oct. 2001, while cdma2000 test data are obtained from Huaweis outside plant testing in Aug. 2001.

WCDMA features greater data service capacity than cdma2000

Radio Coverage Analysis


Results of test on core band class sensitivity of Huaweis WCDMA and cdma2000 are as follows:

WCDMA
BTS receiver sensitivity (dBm) Protocol Test

cdma2000
Protocol Test

-121
Service

-125

-119

-127.5

Results of the test on Huaweis WCDMA coverage performance are as follows:

Coverage radius

Uplink/downlink 144Kbps data service Uplink/downlink 384 Kbps data service 12.2Kbps speech service

5 kilo 3 kilo 10.5 kilo

Site: ordinary city zone in outside plant in Shanghai; time : 2001/12 ; vehicle speed: 60km/s: test conditions: dual polarization antenna, 17.15dbi of gain, 25 meters of mounted height

WCDMA has equal radio coverage capability as cdma2000 on the core band class.

Analysis of Supporting Smart Antenna


Smart antenna is one of most important enhancement technologies in 3G.

Compared with dual antenna receiving diversity, four antenna multi-beam handoff doubles the system capacity and increases coverage area by 50%. Each user can reduce cost by 27% by adopting smart antenna technology to establish mobile networks.
Key technologies to support smart antenna

WCDMA
Realized in the whole coverage area

cdma2000
Realized within local hot spot area

Multi-beam handoff technology Self-sensing antenna array technology

Define dedicated pilots in standard and can be easily realized.

Not define downlink dedicated pilots and cannot be easily realized.

WCDMA standard can better support smart antenna technology.

Development of WCDMA Standard


WCDMA standard is clearly classified and precisely made.
Support HSDPA technology and cater to requirements for future high-speed radio data service Cater to the development trend of IP technology, and introduce IP by stages to realize it in the whole network and to perfect standards Realize forward compatibility with 2001/06 and the following protocols
IP real-time multimedia HSPDA CS IP speech bearer CS Call Server/ MGW GSM/GPRS core network WCDMA FDD

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel4
Time point when functions are frozen

3GPP Rel99

2000/03

2001/03

2002/03

Development of cdma2000 Standard


Uncertain factors occur to development of cdma2000 standard.
Support 1x EV technology and cater to requirements for future high-speed radio data service Be disputable on the development of cdma2000 1x EV-DO/DV in the industry. Lag behind in terms of core network standard and technology
DO: high-speed data service DV: high-speed data service + speech service 307.2kbps Speech capacity doubled 115.2kbps 8 code channel binding

cdma20001x

cdma2000 1xEV-DO/DV

QCELP speech code 9.6kbps

IS-95B

cdma2000-3x
Time point when specifications are completed

IS-95A

1995

1998

2000

2002

Analysis of Future High-Speed Data Service Development

WCDMA and cdma2000 high-speed data services are compared as follows: WCDMA HSDPA
Standardized time Requirements for network construction Highest data rate Terminal complexity

cdma2000 1X EV-DO 2001


Support data through separate carrier

1X EV-DV ?
Smooth upgrade

2002/03
Smooth upgrade

10M
Complex

2.4M
Require two sets of RF and cost much

2.4M
Complex

Interface Openness Analysis

WCDMA specifications is precisely made and strictly organized.


All WCDMA interfaces are open based on 3GPP specifications. The pilot network of DoCoMo in Japan proved feasible to open Iub interface.

The preciseness of cdma2000 standard are to be strengthened.

It is difficult for operators to complete type selection of equipment if IS95 devices from different manufacturers cannot realize interworking.

BTSs and BSCs from different manufacturers cannot realize interworking with each other if Abis interface is not opened.

Signaling Networking and Roaming Analysis


WCDMA and cdma2000 signaling networking and roaming are compared as follows:

WCDMA
Signaling network ITU 7 signaling network Support global roaming

cdma2000
ANSI 7 signaling network in North America
Require establishing Gateway to resolve interworking

Mobile subscriber IMSI MIN identity The only to identify a mobile Refer to the last 10 digits of IMSI, excluding country number and mobile subscriber globally network number

Support global roaming

Most part of MINs are allocated to North


America and only a few numbers (IRM) are allocated internationally. efficiently

Cannot support international roaming

MCC

MNC

MSIN/MIN

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) National Mobile Subscriber Identity

Signaling Networking and Roaming Analysis (Continued)

Consider the following when processing CDMA signaling networking and roaming during actual applications in China: Require network equipment to complete the conversion from MIN to IMSI and architecture since CDMA signaling networks in China adopt ITU 7 signaling. Pay more attention to number analysis and route configuration of network equipment since MIN number segments are allocated to China discontinuously. Adopt IMSI to resolve problems during CDMA roaming by Upgrading existing CDMA network equipment Considering downward compatibility Supporting MIN and IMSI simultaneously by the network and putting forward special requirements for equipment

Cannot support international roaming efficiently.

Summary

This

chapter compares and analyzes WCDMA and

CDMA2000 from such aspects as key technologies, service capability and protocol development. Engineers will under their advantages and disadvantages by comparison.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 3G Mechanism Analysis Chapter 2 WCDMA and CDMA2000

Chapter 3 Key Factors for Mechanism Selectio

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Communication Market and Service Development Trend


GSM subscribers are about 660 million globally, accounting for 68% of mobile subscribers all over the world. CDMA subscribers are 100 million globally, accounting for 10% of mobile subscribers all over the world. They are centered in North America and East Asia. Key factors for GSM to obtain a great success in 2G mobile market are as follows: Precise and open standard, as well as global roaming Supported by many manufacturers 100 million 70000 cdma
880 million
66000

GSM

60000 50000 40000 30000


200 million

Others

20000 10000 0 GSM


10000

20000

CDMA Others

Others

GSM

CDMA

Others

GSM CDMA

Note: Data is from 3GSM conference, released in Feb. 2002.

Frequency Resources in China


Frequency classification in IMT2000 and Europe is the same as that in China. Frequency classification in North America conflicts with the core band class in China.
1850 1900
1885 MHz

1950

2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

ITU

1805 MHz

IMT 2000
1880 MHz
PCS

MSS 1980 MHz

IMT 2000
2025 MHz 2025MHz
2110 MHz

MSS

cellular (1) cellular (2)

2170 MHz

cellular (2)
FDD TDD WLL WLL
1920

GSM 1800
1865

PCS WLL
1945 1960 1980

FDD

Frequency resources 3G core band class


60M in uplink/downlink respectively

Available mechanism
WCDMA (supported widely) Cdma2000 (lack support and require changing frequency)

1920 1980/2110 2170MHz

1880-1920 MHz 2000-2015 MHz 2300-2400 MHz 1800MHz band class

TDD frequency Total 155 MHz 55MHz left

TD-SCDMA

GSM 1800

Maturity of 3G Technology
WCDMA: The technology has been mature and its products are stepping into commercial use stage.
Japanese NTT DoCoMo has been for commercial use. Commercial system equipment and terminal products began to be available on the market gradually since the next half year of 2002. WCDMA terminals are as complex as cdma2000 terminals. The cost mainly depends on market support.

cdma2000 system with 800M band class


Korean SKT has been for commercial use. cdma2000 with 800MHz band class wins wide support from equipment and terminal manufactures.

cdma2000 system with 3G core band class


There are few operators to select the mechanism with such a band class globally. Band class translation results in changes to system designs, including equipment and terminals. Compatible instruments and terminals manufacturers make a slow progress, thereby affecting R&D process of equipment manufacturers.

3G Mechanism Selection for Various Operators (Top20)


China Mobile (China) NTT DoCoMo (Japan) Verizon (USA) Italia Mobile (Italy) WCDMA Cingular (USA) D2 Vodafone (Germany) T-Mobil ( Germany) China Unicom (China) AT&T (USA) Omnitel Vodafone (Italy) KDDI (Japan) France Telecom Mobiles (France) Telefnica Moviles (Spain) WCDMA Vodafone (Britain) WCDMA SK Telecom (Korea) Amrica Mvil (Mexico) BT Cellnet (Britain) SFR (France) Sprint (USA) Orange (Britain) Own GSM networks WCDMA cdma2000 WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA Own CDMA and GSM networks WCDMA WCDMA cdma2000 WCDMA

WCDMA/cdma2000 Uncertain WCDMA WCDMA cdma2000 WCDMA

Adopting the unified band class globally, WCDMA features stronger roaming and global service expansion capability. Globally, only two operators announce to select cdma2000 with core band class but not for commercial use up to now.

Industry Support Statistics


WCDMA
System equipment

cdma2000
800M: supported by many manufacturers 3G core band class: lack support 800M: supported by many manufacturers 3G core band class: lack support Single 800M: have been mature 3G core band class: difficult to obtain support from MS, RF parts and module suppliers 800M: have been mature 3G core band class: none G Still be at initial stage and have no successful example

Supported by many manufacturers Unavailable in large scale at in 2002

Terminal product

Supported by many manufacturers Unavailable in large scale in 2002 Supported by many manufacturers

Chip

RF parts

Have mature and stable suppliers

Test instruments

Supported by various instruments

Service chain

WCDMA and iMode realized organic combination

Network Construction Cost Forecast Since GSM1800, cdma2000 and WCDMA is equipped with equal coverage capability, network construction cost mainly depends on equipment cost. Equipment cost mainly depends on industry chain
Technology Standardization Output Wide support or not Market competition

Development of WCDMA Terminals

Japan has developed WCDMA commercial terminals based on 3GPP 2001/06 protocol version in the next half of 2002. Price of a MS is determined by the size of batch rather than the absolute time.

WCDMA Terminal Price and Performance Forecast


Price forecast of low-end MSs applicable to markets in China
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 100 1000 10000
Quantity of terminals unit: ten thousand pieces

(Price upon delivery) Price $


267 200 150 113

Main performance specifications of a low-end MS are as follows: Speech Packet Communication E-mail Large screen LCD (Monochrome type) 16 harmonies Ringer Straight type

Standby time and talk time


Time 2001 2002 2003 Standby 55H 150H 300H Talk Time 90M 100M 110M

Summary

This

chapter discusses some main factors for mechanism

selection. Engineers can know how to select a suitable 3G mechanism by studying these factors.

Conclusion

Apart

from analyzing and comparing various 3G

mechanisms, this slide also introduces some factors to be considered during mechanism selection.

Thank you!